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This chapter focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). CSA accounts for less than 15% of individuals with sleep apnea evaluated at sleep disorder centers. Though central apneas can occur in people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), diagnosis of CSA is usually made when more than 50% of the apneic events are central in nature. Nonhypercapnic central sleep apnea is the most common form of CSA. CSA due to Cheyne-Stokes breathing is seen in people with congestive heart failure (CHF), neurological disorders such as stroke, and probably renal failure. OSA commonly affects middle-aged men and women. There are many risk factors for OSA, with obesity and craniofacial features being by far the most common. The treatment for OSA is influenced by the severity of OSA, relative efficacy of various treatment options, associated comorbid conditions, and personal preference.
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