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A new design method of an ultra-wideband circularly-polarized planar multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna is presented in this paper. The proposed MIMO antenna consists of four unit cell antennas, being comprised of a microstrip feed line and a square slotted ground plane. In the proposed unit cell design, a circular stub is protruded from the ground plane strip for achieving circular polarization. The unit cell of the MIMO antenna is optimized by adjusting design parameters. The compact four-port MIMO antenna prototype is designed on the FR4 substrate with the overall dimensions of 45 × 45 × 1.6 mm3. The proposed four-port MIMO antenna design provides an impedance bandwidth (S11 < −10 dB) of 112% (3.1–11 GHz) and a 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 36% (4.8–6.9 GHz). The performance of the fabricated MIMO antenna shows good agreement between the EM simulation and measurement results.
Spirituality is what gives people meaning and purpose in life, and it has been recognized as a critical factor in patients’ well-being, particularly at the ends of their lives. Studies have demonstrated relationships between spirituality and patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life and mental health. Although a number of studies have suggested that spiritual belief can be associated with mortality, the results are inconsistent. We aimed to determine whether spirituality was related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea.
For this multicenter study, we recruited adult advanced cancer inpatients who had been admitted to seven palliative care units with estimated survival of <3 months. We measured spirituality at admission using the Korean version of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-sp), which comprises two subscales: meaning/peace and faith. We calculated a Kaplan-Meier curve for spirituality, dichotomized at the predefined cutoffs and medians for the total scale and each of the two subscales, and performed univariate regression with a Cox proportional hazard model.
We enrolled a total of 204 adults (mean age: 64.5 ± 13.0; 48.5% female) in the study. The most common primary cancer diagnoses were lung (21.6%), colorectal (18.6%), and liver/biliary tract (13.0%). Median survival was 19.5 days (95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 23.5, 30.6). Total FACIT-sp score was not related to survival time (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.981, CI95% = 0.957, 1.007), and neither were the scores for its two subscales, meaning/peace (HR = 0.969, CI95% = 0.932, 1.008) and faith (HR = 0.981, CI95% = 0.938, 1.026).
Significance of results
Spirituality was not related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea. Plausible mechanisms merit further investigation.
The effects of polymer substrates on the interfacial structure and the thermal stability of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films were investigated. The GZO thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering at room temperature, and thermal stability tests of the GZO thin films on the polymer substrates were performed at 150°C up to 8 h in air. Electrical and structural characterizations of the GZO thin films on the PET and the PEN substrates were carried out, and the origins of the stable interfacial structure and the improved thermal stability of the GZO thin film on the PEN substrate were discussed.
A Mn3O4/graphene hybrid material is fabricated using a facile and simple in-situ reduction process and shown to be a promising anode for lithium rechargeable batteries. The hybrid material retains a high capacity with a good cycle life of up to 990 mAh g−1 after 30 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributable to the unique nanostructure of the hybrid material. Highly crystalline Mn3O4 particles (20–30 nm) are uniformly dispersed on graphene whose high electronic conductivity and high surface area provide a conductive percolating network throughout the electrode in the hybrid material. The conductive graphene networks enhance an electron transfer in the electrode and promote the electrochemical activity of the crystalline Mn3O4.
We investigated the pressure dependence of the inductive coupled plasma (ICP) oxidation on the electrical characteristics of the thin oxide films. Activation energies and electron temperatures with different pressures were estimated. To demonstrate the pressure effect on the plasma oxide quality, simple N type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) transistors were fabricated and investigated in a few electrical properties. At higher pressure than 200mTorr, plasma oxide has a slightly higher on-current and a lower interfacial trap density. The on-current gain seems to be related to the field mobility increase and the lower defective interface to the electron temperature during oxidation.
The highly strained interfacial structure and reaction of Co on Si(111) in the initial growth stage was studied by in-situ surface x-ray scattering. Co was deposited on Si(111) – (7×7) reconstruction by electron beam evaporation in ultra high vacuum. Our study reveals that the interfacial layer, formed by the reaction of Co with Si in the initial growth stage at room temperature, is a silicide layer with stoichiometry of Co2Si. The interfacial silicide layer is a commensurate phase of pseudohexagonal Co2Si, which shows a significant local atomic displacements imposed by Si substrate. The intensity oscillations at the anti-Bragg position with Co coverage show that a layer-by-layer consumption of silicon substrate occurs for the first 15 monolayers (ML) of Co deposited.
We synthesized novel cross-linkable fluorinated copoly(arylene ether sulfide)s for optical waveguide applications, which have high thermal stability, high optical transparency in the infrared communication region, and much smaller birefringence than other thermally stable fluorinated polyimides. The refractive index of the material can be easily controlled from 1.515 to 1.587 by changing the copolymer composition in the materials. The birefringence of the cured polymers were 0.0031∼0.0039 at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. This is much lower than those of fluorinated polyimides for optical waveguides. The refractive index of fluorinated poly(arylene ether sulfide) (FPAESI) after being stored at 100 °C for 1000 hr remains almost constant demonstrating the thermal stability. The propagation loss of the channel waveguides fabricated using reactive ion etching was less than 0.4 dB/cm at the wavelength of 1.55 μm.
GaN nanorods were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy HVPE) through a self-assemble process. The nanorods were grown at high growth rate, with the c-axis maintained perpendicular to the substrate surface. The dependence of rod diameter and density on growth conditions was systematically investigated. The average diameter was minimized to 80-120 nm and the density of the GaN nanorods was 100×1012 rods/m2.
To maintain pulmonary valvar function subsequent to repair of tetralogy of Fallot, we have inserted a homograft monocusp when a transjunctional patch was required. In this study, we have evaluated the mid- to long-term outcomes, aiming to determine the durability of the homograft.
Among 218 repairs performed for tetralogy of Fallot between July, 1996, and June, 2005, we inserted homograft monocusps in 54 patients, 4 of whom had associated absent pulmonary valve syndrome, 3 had pulmonary valvar atresia, and 1 had an atrioventricular septal defect with common atrioventricular junction. The median body weight at surgery was 7.8 kilograms, with a range from 3.9 to 42 kilograms. The function of the monocusp valve was assessed by regular echocardiography, using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox regression model for statistical analyses.
There were 2 early deaths (3.7%), associated with respiratory infection. No late deaths were observed during the follow-up, which ranged from 0.3 to 120 months, with a median of 64.3 months. Freedom from valvar dysfunction was 67.2 ± 6.7% at 1 year, 37.1 ± 7.3% at 3 years, 23.8 ± 6.7% at 5 years, and 21.2 ± 6.4% at 7 years. We needed to replace the valve in 1 patient during follow-up. We found that ABO blood group incompatibility, stenosis of the pulmonary arteries, and associated absent pulmonary valve syndrome all adversely affected the function of the monocusp.
Our experiences show that insertion of a homograft monocusp can prevent pulmonary regurgitation in the early period after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, but the effects are limited in duration as degeneration progressed. We still need to determine whether this finding can improve the longer-term function of the right ventricle.
The morphological definition of atrial chambers, and the determination of atrial laterality, are based on analysis of the structure of the atrial appendages. The systemic and pulmonary venous connections to the heart, nonetheless, are important in the management of patients having isomeric appendages. In this study, therefore, we analysed the morphology of the postero-superior walls of the atrial chambers so as to provide evidence concerning the morphogenetic background of those hearts, and to improve operative management.
We reviewed 15 autopsied specimens with isomeric right appendages, and 10 with isomeric left appendages, paying particular attention to the morphology of the systemic and pulmonary venous connections. The postero-superior walls of the atrial chambers can be made up of the atrial body, the systemic venous components, or the pulmonary venous component. We analysed the contributions made by each of these components.
The postero-superior walls of the atrial chambers were markedly variable, but could be grouped into five patterns. Bilaterally well-developed systemic venous components and absence of the pulmonary venous component within the hypoplastic atrial body were present in 9 hearts with extracardiac pulmonary venous connections in the setting of right isomerism. Bilaterally well-developed systemic venous components, and a hypoplastic pulmonary venous component within the hypoplastic atrial body, were present in 5 hearts with intracardiac pulmonary venous connections in right isomerism. Bilaterally well-developed systemic venous components, and a hypoplastic pulmonary venous component within the sizable atrial body, were present in 1 heart with an intracardiac pulmonary venous connection in right isomerism. A well-developed pulmonary venous component within the atrial body, and hypoplasia of one systemic venous component, were present in 7 hearts with left isomerism. A well-developed pulmonary venous component within the atrial body, and hypoplasia of bilateral systemic venous components, were present in 3 hearts with left isomerism.
The postero-superior walls of the atrial chambers in hearts with isomeric atrial appendages can be analysed on the basis of a compound structure made of bilateral systemic venous components, a central pulmonary venous component, and the body of the atrium. Hearts with isomeric right appendages have absence or hypoplasia of the pulmonary venous component, while hearts with isomeric left appendages have hypoplastic systemic venous components.
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