To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The regional heterogeneity of neuronal phenotypes is a well-known phenomenon. Whether or not glia derived from different brain regions are phenotypically and functionally distinct is less clear. Here, we show that microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, display region-specific responses for activating agents including glutamate (GLU), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). Primary microglial cultures were prepared from brainstem (Brs), cortex (Ctx), hippocampus (Hip), striatum (Str) and thalamus (Thl) of 1-day-old rats and were shown to upregulate the release of nitric oxide (NO) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a region- and activator-specific manner. With respect to ATP specifically, ATP-induced changes in microglial tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release, GLU uptake and purinergic receptor expression were also regionally different. When co-cultured with hypoxia (Hyp)-injured neurons, ATP-stimulated microglia from different regions induced different levels of neurotoxicity. These region-specific responses could be altered by pre-conditioning the microglia in a different neurochemical milieu, with taurine (TAU) being one of the key molecules involved. Together, our results demonstrate that microglia display a regional heterogeneity when activated, and this heterogeneity likely arises from differences in the environment surrounding the microglia. These findings present an additional mechanism that may help to explain the regional selectiveness of various brain pathologies.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.