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Sickness presenteeism among healthcare workers (HCW) risks nosocomial infection, but its prevalence among HCW with COVID-19 is unknown. Contemporaneous interviews revealed a sickness presenteeism prevalence of 49.8% among 255 HCW with symptomatic COVID-19. Presenteeism prevalence did not differ among HCW with and without specific COVID-19 symptoms or direct patient care.
Prophylaxis against spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is recommended for select patients with cirrhosis, but long-term antibiotic therapy has risks. We evaluated concordance with guideline recommendations in 179 veterans with cirrhosis; 55% received guideline-concordant management of SBP prophylaxis. Despite stable guideline recommendations since 2012, guideline adherence remains low.
Background: Patients with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) experience frequent exposure to antimicrobial regimens, leaving them at higher risk for developing antibiotic resistance. Little information on the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among patients with rUTI has been published. Although the IDSA recommends using a prior culture to guide empiric treatment, studies have not examined the predictive ability of a prior culture among patients meeting rUTI criteria. We constructed an antibiogram and evaluated test metrics, including sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of a prior culture (any organism), on predicting resistance (PPV) or susceptibility (NPV) of a future culture among patients with uncomplicated rUTI in an outpatient setting. Methods: We retrospectively extracted electronic health record data from outpatients aged ≥18 years who had an ICD-10 code for cystitis listed twice in 6 months or thrice in 12 months between November 1, 2016, and December 31, 2018. Patients sought care at either urology or primary care practices within an academic medical center in Houston, Texas. Patients with functional or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract, signs or symptoms of pyelonephritis, or pregnancy were excluded. Antibiogram data were reported for uropathogens with ≥30 isolates, and intermediate results were considered resistant. Test metrics and Bayes’ PPV and NPV were calculated using standard formulas. Results: We included 597 visits from 232 unique patients. Most were White (63%) and female (92%), and the cohort had a median age of 58 (IQR, 41–68). Among 310 rUTI episodes with a urine culture, 189 (61%) had at least 1 uropathogen isolated, and Escherichia coli (n = 130, 66%) was most common among all 196 uropathogens. E. coli isolates had >20% resistance to 10 of 18 antibiotics (Fig. 1). E. coli resistance to ciprofloxacin was 27.9%, resistance to nitrofurantoin was 5.5%, and resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 38.0%. The PPVs for predicting resistance were highest for ceftriaxone (0.86; 95% CI, 0.60–0.96), ciprofloxacin (0.84; 95% CI, 0.63–0.94), and levofloxacin (0.84; 95% CI, 0.63–0.94). NPVs of resistance were highest for gentamicin (0.97; 95% CI, 0.83–1.00), ceftriaxone (0.94; 95% CI, 0.86–0.98), and cefepime (0.94; 95% CI, 0.84–0.98), whereas NPVs for cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin were all >0.83. Conclusions: We detected considerable antibiotic resistance among patients with rUTI to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Prior urine culture susceptibility demonstrated moderate-to-high PPVs for predicting future resistance to ceftriaxone and fluoroquinolones as well as high NPVs for several cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, which could inform empiric prescribing choices.
Funding: This investigator-initiated research study was funded by Rebiotix, a Ferring Company.
We characterized antibiotic prescribing patterns and management practices among recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) patients, and we identified factors associated with lack of guideline adherence to antibiotic choice, duration of treatment, and urine cultures obtained. We hypothesized that prior resistance to nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), shorter intervals between rUTIs, and more frequent rUTIs would be associated with fluoroquinolone or β-lactam prescribing, or longer duration of therapy.
This study was a retrospective database study of adult women with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) cystitis codes meeting American Urological Association rUTI criteria at outpatient clinics within our academic medical center between 2016 and 2018. We excluded patients with ICD-10 codes indicative of complicated UTI or pyelonephritis. Generalized estimating equations were used for risk-factor analysis.
Among 214 patients with 566 visits, 61.5% of prescriptions comprised first-line agents of nitrofurantoin (39.7%) and TMP-SMX (21.5%), followed by second-line choices of fluoroquinolones (27.2%) and β-lactams (11%). Most fluoroquinolone prescriptions (86.7%), TMP-SMX prescriptions (72.2%), and nitrofurantoin prescriptions (60.2%) exceeded the guideline-recommended duration. Approximately half of visits lacked a urine culture. Receiving care through urology via telephone was associated with receiving a β-lactam (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.58–15.56) or fluoroquinolone (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.07–4.86). Having >2 rUTIs during the study period and seeking care from a urology practice (RR, 1.28, 95% CI, 1.15–1.44) were associated with longer antibiotic duration.
We found low guideline concordance for antibiotic choice, duration of therapy and cultures obtained among rUTI patients. These factors represent new targets for outpatient antibiotic stewardship interventions.
Background: Studies of antibiotic prescribing choice and duration have typically excluded women with recurrent UTI (rUTI), yet the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) UTI treatment guidelines are applicable to recurrent and sporadic cystitis. We sought to better understand prescribing practices among uncomplicated rUTI patients in terms of choice of drug, duration of therapy, and the risk factors for receiving guideline-discordant therapy. Methods: We performed a retrospective database study by extracting electronic health record data from adults seen at academic primary care, internal medicine, or urology practices between November 2016 and December 2018. Inclusion criteria included having ≥2 or ≥3 International Classification of Diseases Tenth Edition (ICD-10) cystitis codes recorded within a 6- or 12-month period, respectively. We excluded patients with ICD-10 codes indicating any structural or functional genitourinary comorbidities, interstitial cystitis, vaginosis, compromised immune systems, or pregnancy in the prior year. Patients were also excluded if they had signs or symptoms of pyelonephritis at presentation. Results: Overall, 232 patients presented for 597 outpatient visits. Most were married (52.2%), non-Hispanic white (62.9%), and female (92.2%), with a median age of 58 years (IQR, 41–68). Only 21% of visits with an antibiotic prescribed for treatment consisted of a first-line therapy agent prescribed for the recommended duration. In terms of antibiotic choice, these agents were prescribed in 58.4% of scenarios, which primarily included nitrofurantoin (37.8%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) (20.3%). Guideline-discordant choices of fluoroquinolones (28.8%), and β-lactams (11.2%) were the second and third most commonly prescribed drug categories, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression identified age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.002–1.04) or having a telephone visit (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.54–6.52) as independent risk factors for receiving a β-lactam. The duration exceeded the 3-day guideline recommendation in 87.6% of fluoroquinolones and 73% of TMP-SMX (73%) prescriptions, and 61% of nitrofurantoin prescriptions exceeded the recommended 5-day duration. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that seeking care at a urology clinic (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.59–5.17) served as an independent factor for therapy duration exceeding guideline recommendations. Conclusions: This retrospective study revealed shortcomings in prescribing practices in the type and duration of therapy for rUTI. rUTI as well as sporadic UTI are important targets for outpatient antibiotic stewardship interventions.
Funding: This investigator-initiated research study was funded by Rebiotix Inc, a Ferring Company.
To develop a fully automated algorithm using data from the Veterans’ Affairs (VA) electrical medical record (EMR) to identify deep-incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) after cardiac surgeries and total joint arthroplasties (TJAs) to be used for research studies.
Retrospective cohort study.
This study was conducted in 11 VA hospitals.
Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement between January 1, 2010, and March 31, 2018 (cardiac cohort) and patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty between January 1, 2007, and March 31, 2018 (TJA cohort).
Relevant clinical information and administrative code data were extracted from the EMR. The outcomes of interest were mediastinitis, endocarditis, or deep-incisional or organ-space SSI within 30 days after surgery. Multiple logistic regression analysis with a repeated regular bootstrap procedure was used to select variables and to assign points in the models. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values were calculated with comparison to outcomes collected by the Veterans’ Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP).
Overall, 49 (0.5%) of the 13,341 cardiac surgeries were classified as mediastinitis or endocarditis, and 83 (0.6%) of the 12,992 TJAs were classified as deep-incisional or organ-space SSIs. With at least 60% sensitivity, the PPVs of the SSI detection algorithms after cardiac surgeries and TJAs were 52.5% and 62.0%, respectively.
Considering the low prevalence rate of SSIs, our algorithms were successful in identifying a majority of patients with a true SSI while simultaneously reducing false-positive cases. As a next step, validation of these algorithms in different hospital systems with EMR will be needed.
Background: Guidelines regarding asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) have consistently recommended against screening and treatment in most circumstances. However, screening of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) is common practice and in some cases is a formal protocol at the organizational level. A previous study found that more than one-third of patients with ASB detected on routine screening cultures performed at annual visits in 2012 received antibiotics. However, the role of antibiotic stewardship has become more prominent over the last decade. We hypothesized that diagnostic and therapeutic stewardship efforts may be impacting the practice of annual urine-culture screening for SCI patients. We evaluated urine culture screening and treatment rates over a 10-year period. Methods: Patients with SCI seen in the VA Boston HCS for an annual exam in 2018 were eligible for inclusion and formed the baseline cohort for this study. Annual visits for the cohort over a 10-year period (January 1, 2009–December 31, 2018) were included in the analysis. Electronic data collection and manual chart review were utilized to capture outcomes of interest including urine culture, antibiotic prescriptions and indication within 15 days, and documentation of urinary or infectious symptoms. The main outcomes were (1) rate of urine cultures performed ±3 days of the visit, (2) rate of antibiotic treatment in asymptomatic patients, and (3) trend over time of urine culturing and treating. The χ2 test for trend was used to compare rates over time. Results: In total, 1,962 annual visits were made by the 344 unique patients over the 10-year period and were available for analysis. Among these, 639 (32.6%) visits had a urine culture performed within 3 days. The proportion of visits with a collected culture decreased from (109 of 127) 85.8% of visits in 2009 to (65 of 338) 19.2% of visits in 2018, P ≤ .001 (Fig. 1). In the treatment analysis, 39 visits were excluded for active symptoms, concern for uncontrolled infection, or prophylaxis as antibiotic indication. Among 600 remaining screening cultures, 328 had a bacterial pathogen or >100,000 mixed colonies consistent with ASB. Overall, 51 patients (17%) received antimicrobials. The rate of antibiotic treatment for ASB did not significantly decrease over time pP = 0.79 (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Over a 10-year period of annual SCI visits, the proportion of visits with a urine culture performed as routine screening significantly and consistently decreased. However, the rate of treatment for positive urine cultures remained consistent. These data support targeted diagnostic stewardship in this population to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use.
Background: Studies of interventions to decrease rates of surgical site infections (SSIs) must include thousands of patients to be statistically powered to demonstrate a significant reduction. Therefore, it is important to develop methodology to extract data available in the electronic medical record (EMR) to accurately measure SSI rates. Prior studies have created tools that optimize sensitivity to prioritize chart review for infection control purposes. However, for research studies, positive predictive value (PPV) with reasonable sensitivity is preferred to limit the impact of false-positive results on the assessment of intervention effectiveness. Using information from the prior tools, we aimed to determine whether an algorithm using data available in the Veterans Affairs (VA) EMR could accurately and efficiently identify deep incisional or organ-space SSIs found in the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) data set for cardiac and orthopedic surgery patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent cardiac surgery or total joint arthroplasty (TJA) at 11 VA hospitals between January 1, 2007, and April 30, 2017. We used EMR data that were recorded in the 30 days after surgery on inflammatory markers; microbiology; antibiotics prescribed after surgery; International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and current procedural terminology (CPT) codes for reoperation for an infection related purpose; and ICD codes for mediastinitis, prosthetic joint infection, and other SSIs. These metrics were used in an algorithm to determine whether a patient had a deep or organ-space SSI. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for accuracy of the algorithm through comparison with 30-day SSI outcomes collected by nurse chart review in the VASQIP data set. Results: Among the 11 VA hospitals, there were 18,224 cardiac surgeries and 16,592 TJA during the study period. Of these, 20,043 were evaluated by VASQIP nurses and were included in our final cohort. Of the 8,803 cardiac surgeries included, manual review identified 44 (0.50%) mediastinitis cases. Of the 11,240 TJAs, manual review identified 71 (0.63%) deep or organ-space SSIs. Our algorithm identified 32 of the mediastinitis cases (73%) and 58 of the deep or organ-space SSI cases (82%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV are shown in Table 1. Of the patients that our algorithm identified as having a deep or organ-space SSI, only 21% (PPV) actually had an SSI after cardiac surgery or TJA. Conclusions: Use of the algorithm can identify most complex SSIs (73%–82%), but other data are necessary to separate false-positive from true-positive cases and to improve the efficiency of case detection to support research questions.
To measure the association between receipt of specific infection prevention interventions and procedure-related cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections.
Retrospective cohort with manually reviewed infection status.
Setting: National, multicenter Veterans Health Administration (VA) cohort.
Sampling of procedures entered into the VA Clinical Assessment Reporting and Tracking-Electrophysiology (CART-EP) database from fiscal years 2008 through 2015.
A sample of procedures entered into the CART-EP database underwent manual review for occurrence of CIED infection and other clinical/procedural variables. The primary outcome was 6-month incidence of CIED infection. Measures of association were calculated using multivariable generalized estimating equations logistic regression.
We identified 101 procedure-related CIED infections among 2,098 procedures (4.8% of reviewed sample). Factors associated with increased odds of infections included (1) wound complications (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.16–24.20), (2) revisions including generator changes (aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.59–3.63), (3) an elevated international normalized ratio (INR) >1.5 (aOR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.12–2.18), and (4) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus colonization (aOR, 9.56; 95% CI, 1.55–27.77). Clinically effective prevention interventions included preprocedural skin cleaning with chlorhexidine versus other topical agents (aOR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22–0.76) and receipt of β-lactam antimicrobial prophylaxis versus vancomycin (aOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37–0.96). The use of mesh pockets and continuation of antimicrobial prophylaxis after skin closure were not associated with reduced infection risk.
These findings regarding the real-world clinical effectiveness of different prevention strategies can be applied to the development of evidence-based protocols and infection prevention guidelines specific to the electrophysiology laboratory.
Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major cause of child mortality and morbidity. Children treated for SAM are at risk of refeeding hypophosphataemia (HP). The study was done to find out the incidence and various predictors of moderate/severe HP in SAM among North Indian children. This prospective observational study was conducted from August 2014 to July 2015 in the inpatients’ department of Department of Paediatrics at King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, North India, a tertiary care teaching hospital. Before inclusion, ethical approval and written informed consent was obtained. Included in the study were sixty-five children aged 6–59 months of age, who were admitted to the hospital with SAM as per the WHO guidelines. SAM was defined as a mid-upper arm circumference <115 mm and/or weight-for-height/length <–3 z-scores of the WHO growth standards and/or have bilateral oedema. Serum P levels were measured on admission and for five consecutive days after starting feed. HP was defined as mild, moderate and severe with a cut-off of 1·19–0·65, 0·65–0·32 and <0·32 mmol/l, respectively. About 60 % children had HP, with 20 % having moderate/severe HP at admission. The proportion of HP increased to 83·1 %, with 38·5 % having moderate/severe HP on day 3 after feeding. It was concluded that HP is a common biochemical abnormality in SAM. Considering its impact on the health of the child, serum P levels should be monitored in patients with SAM who are treated with enteral feeding.
The rate of cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection is increasing coincident with an increase in the number of device procedures. Preprocedural antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces CIED infections; however, there is no evidence that prolonged postprocedural antimicrobials additionally reduce risk. Thus, we sought to quantify the harms associated with this approach.
To measure the association between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), acute kidney injury (AKI) and receipt of prolonged postprocedural antimicrobials.
CIED procedures entered into the VA Clinical Assessment Reporting and Tracking Electrophysiology (CART-EP) database during fiscal years 2008–2016 were included. The primary outcome was 90-day incidence of CDI and the secondary outcome was the 7-day incidence of AKI. The primary exposure measure was duration of postprocedural antimicrobial therapy. Associations were measured using Cox-proportional hazards and binomial regression.
Prolonged postprocedural antimicrobial therapy was identified following 3,331 of 6,497 CIED procedures (51.3%), and the median duration of prophylaxis was 5 days. Prolonged postprocedural antimicrobial use was associated with increased risk of CDI (hazard ratio [HR], 2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54–5.46). Of the 27 patients who developed CDI, 11 subsequently died. Postprocedural antimicrobial use with ≥2 antimicrobials was associated with an increased risk of AKI (OR, 4.16; 95% CI, 2.50–6.90). The impact was particularly significant when one of the dual agents prescribed was vancomycin (adjusted OR, 8.41; 95% CI, 5.53–12.79).
Prolonged antimicrobial prophylaxis following CIED procedures increases preventable harm; this practice should be discouraged in procedural settings such as the cardiac electrophysiology laboratory.
To directly observe healthcare workers in a nursing home setting to measure frequency and duration of resident contact and infection prevention behavior as a factor of isolation practice
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Healthcare workers in 8 VA nursing homes in Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Washington, and Texas
Over a 15-month period, trained research staff without clinical responsibilities on the units observed nursing home resident room activity for 15–30-minute intervals. Observers recorded time of entry and exit, isolation status, visitor type (staff, visitor, etc), hand hygiene, use of gloves and gowns, and activities performed in the room when visible.
A total of 999 hours of observation were conducted across 8 VA nursing homes during which 4,325 visits were observed. Residents in isolation received an average of 4.73 visits per hour of observation compared with 4.21 for nonisolation residents (P<.01), a 12.4% increase in visits for residents in isolation. Residents in isolation received an average of 3.53 resident care activities per hour of observation, compared with 2.46 for residents not in isolation (P<.01). For residents in isolation, compliance was 34% for gowns and 58% for gloves. Healthcare worker hand hygiene compliance was 45% versus 44% (P=.79) on entry and 66% versus 55% (P<.01) on exit for isolation and nonisolation rooms, respectively.
Healthcare workers visited residents in isolation more frequently, likely because they required greater assistance. Compliance with gowns and gloves for isolation was limited in the nursing home setting. Adherence to hand hygiene also was less than optimal, regardless of isolation status of residents.
Infection prevention in electrophysiology (EP) laboratories is poorly characterized; thus, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using the SHEA Research Network. We found limited uptake of basic interventions, such as surveillance and appropriate peri-procedural antimicrobial use. Further study is needed to identify ways to improve infection prevention in this setting.
Infections following cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures, including pacemaker and implantable cardioverter–defibrillators, are devastating and costly. Preimplantation prophylactic antimicrobials are effective for reducing postprocedural infections. However, routine postprocedural antimicrobials are not associated with improved outcomes, and they may be harmful. Thus, we sought to characterize antimicrobial use patterns following CIED procedures.
All patients who underwent CIED procedures from October 1, 2007 to September 30, 2013 and had procedural information entered into the VA Clinical Assessment Reporting and Tracking (CART) software program were included in this study. All antibiotic prescriptions lasting more than 24 hours following device implantation or revision were identified using pharmacy databases, and postprocedural antibiotic use lasting more than 24 hours was characterized.
In total, 3,712 CIED procedures were performed at 34 VA facilities on 3,570 patients with a mean age of 71.7 years (standard deviation [SD], 11.1 years), 98.4% of whom were male. Postprocedural antibiotics >24 hours were prescribed following 1,579 of 3,712 CIED procedures (42.5%). The median duration of therapy was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3–7 days). The most commonly prescribed antibiotic was cephalexin (1,152 of 1,579; 72.9%), followed by doxycycline (118 of 1,579; 7.47%) and ciprofloxacin (93 of 1,579; 5.9%). Vancomycin was used in 73 of 1,579 prescriptions (4.62%). Among the highest quartile of procedural volume, prescribing practices varied considerably, ranging from 3.2% to 77.6%.
Nearly 1 in 2 patients received prolonged postprocedural antimicrobial therapy following CIED procedures, and the rate of postprocedural antimicrobial therapy use varied considerably by facility. Given the lack of demonstrated benefit of routine prolonged antimicrobial therapy following CIED procedures, antimicrobial use following cardiac device interventions may be a potential target for quality improvement programs and antimicrobial stewardship.
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) poses an urgent public health risk. High rates of ABR have been noted in all regions of the globe by the World Health Organization. ABR develops when bacteria are exposed to antibiotics either during treatments in humans or animals or through environmental sources contaminated with antibiotic residues (Figure, Panel A). Spread beyond those administered antibiotics occurs through direct contact with the infected or colonized person or animal, through contact or ingestion of retail meat or agricultural products contaminated with ABR organisms, or through the environment. ABR bacteria spread from individuals to populations and across countries (Figure, Panel B).
Incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a quality benchmark. To streamline conventional detection methods, an electronic surveillance system augmented with natural language processing (NLP), which gathers data recorded in clinical notes without manual review, was implemented for real-time surveillance.
To assess the utility of this algorithm for identifying indwelling urinary catheter days and CAUTI.
Large, urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs hospital.
All patients admitted to the acute care units and the intensive care unit from March 1, 2013, through November 30, 2013, were included. Standard surveillance, which includes electronic and manual data extraction, was compared with the NLP-augmented algorithm.
The NLP-augmented algorithm identified 27% more indwelling urinary catheter days in the acute care units and 28% fewer indwelling urinary catheter days in the intensive care unit. The algorithm flagged 24 CAUTI versus 20 CAUTI by standard surveillance methods; the CAUTI identified were overlapping but not the same. The overall positive predictive value was 54.2%, and overall sensitivity was 65% (90.9% in the acute care units but 33% in the intensive care unit). Dissimilarities in the operating characteristics of the algorithm between types of unit were due to differences in documentation practice. Development and implementation of the algorithm required substantial upfront effort of clinicians and programmers to determine current language patterns.
The NLP algorithm was most useful for identifying simple clinical variables. Algorithm operating characteristics were specific to local documentation practices. The algorithm did not perform as well as standard surveillance methods.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(9):1004–1010
To determine the durability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)–free status after patients are removed from contact precautions and the association of specific clearance policy variables with survival
Retrospective cohort study from October 2007 to April 2013.
Veteran Affairs Boston Healthcare System.
Patients with a prior history of MRSA who were removed from contact precautions after deemed cleared of their MRSA status by infection prevention.
Active nasal screening results and clinical data from acute, long-term, and outpatient care facilities were evaluated to determine survival of MRSA-free status in a time-to-event analysis.
A total of 351 unique patients were followed for 107,112 patient-days. The median age was 68 years. Overall, 249 (71%) of patients remained MRSA-free, and 102 (29%) reverted to MRSA positive. The median MRSA-free survival was 880 days. Comorbidities, presence of indwelling devices, and the use of systemic antibiotics at the time of clearance screening were not associated with MRSA-free survival. More than 21,000 days of inpatient isolation days were avoided during the study period.
The majority of patients removed from contact precautions remained MRSA-free for more than 2 years. Antibiotic use at the time of clearance was not associated with reductions in MRSA-free survival. These findings can be used to simplify clearance criteria, promote clearance policies, and reduce patient isolation days.