Excessive presynaptic glutamate release after cerebral ischaemia leads to neuronal death mainly through excessive calcium entry of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Our recent study reported that cerebroside can open large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels. The present study evaluated the effects of cerebroside-A (CS-A), a single molecule isolated from an edible mushroom, on brain injury after focal or global ischaemia in adult male mice and rats. We herein report that treatment with CS-A after 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion dose-dependently reduced the cerebral infarction with at least a 6-h efficacious time-window, which was partially blocked by the BKCa channel blocker charybdotoxin (CTX). Treatment with CS-A after 20 min global cerebral ischaemia (four-vessel occlusion) significantly attenuated the death of pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA1 area, which was also sensitive to CTX. CS-A, by opening the BKCa channel, could prevent excessive glutamate release after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). In addition, CS-A could inhibit NMDAR Ca2+ influx, which did not require the activation of the BKCa channel. Furthermore, CS-A blocked the OGD-induced NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 region. These findings indicate that treatment with CS-A after stroke exerts potent neuroprotection through prevention of excessive glutamate release and reduction of Ca2+ influx through NMDARs.