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Urothelial carcinoma (UCC) develops in both humans and dogs and tracks to regions of high industrial activity. We hypothesize that dogs with UCC may act as sentinels for human urothelial carcinogen exposures. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether healthy people and dogs in the same households share urinary exposures to potentially mutagenic chemical carcinogens.
We measured urinary concentrations of acrolein (as its metabolite 3-HPMA), arsenic species, 4-aminobiphenyl, and 4-chlorophenol (a metabolite of the phenoxyherbicide 2,4-D) in healthy dogs and their owners. We assessed possible chemical sources through questionnaires and screened for urothelial DNA damage using the micronucleus assay.
Biomarkers of urinary exposure to acrolein, arsenic, and 4-chlorophenol were found in the urine of 42 pet dogs and 42 owners, with 4-aminobiphenyl detected sporadically. Creatinine-adjusted urinary chemical concentrations were significantly higher, by 2.8- to 6.2-fold, in dogs compared to humans. Correlations were found for 3-HPMA (r = 0.32, P = 0.04) and monomethylarsonic acid (r = 0.37, P = 0.02) between people and their dogs. Voided urothelial cell yields were inadequate to quantify DNA damage, and questionnaires did not reveal significant associations with urinary chemical concentrations.
Healthy humans and pet dogs have shared urinary exposures to known mutagenic chemicals, with significantly higher levels in dogs. Higher urinary exposures to acrolein and arsenic in dogs correlate to higher exposures in their owners. Follow-up studies will assess the mutagenic potential of these levels in vitro and measure these biomarkers in owners of dogs with UCC.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a passive range of motion exercise programme for infants with CHD.
This non-randomised pilot study enrolled 20 neonates following Stage I palliation for single-ventricle physiology. Trained physical therapists administered standardised 15–20-minute passive range of motion protocol, for up to 21 days or until hospital discharge. Safety assessments included vital signs measured before, during, and after the exercise as well as adverse events recorded through the pre-Stage II follow-up. Feasibility was determined by the percent of days that >75% of the passive range of motion protocol was completed.
A total of 20 infants were enrolled (70% males) for the present study. The median age at enrolment was 8 days (with a range from 5 to 23), with a median start of intervention at postoperative day 4 (with a range from 2 to 12). The median hospital length of stay following surgery was 15 days (with a range from 9 to 131), with an average of 13.4 (with a range from 3 to 21) in-hospital days per patient. Completion of >75% of the protocol was achieved on 88% of eligible days. Of 11 adverse events reported in six patients, 10 were expected with one determined to be possibly related to the study intervention. There were no clinically significant changes in vital signs. At pre-Stage II follow-up, weight-for-age z-score (−0.84±1.20) and length-for-age z-score (−0.83±1.31) were higher compared with historical controls from two earlier trials.
A passive range of motion exercise programme is safe and feasible in infants with single-ventricle physiology. Larger studies are needed to determine the optimal duration of passive range of motion and its effect on somatic growth.
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