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The ablation and acceleration of diamond-like high-density carbon foils irradiated by thermal X-ray radiations are investigated with radiation hydrodynamics simulations. The time-dependent front of the ablation wave is given numerically for radiation temperatures in the range of 100–300 eV. The mass ablation rates and ablation pressures can be derived or implied from the coordinates of ablation fronts, which agree well with reported experiment results of high-density carbon with radiation temperatures Trad in the range of 160–260 eV. It is also found that the
scaling law for ablation rates does not apply to Trad above 260 eV. The trajectories of targets and hydrodynamic efficiencies for different target thicknesses can be derived from the coordinates of ablation fronts using a rocket model and the results agree well with simulations. The peak hydrodynamic efficiencies of the acceleration process are investigated for different foil thicknesses and radiation temperatures. Higher radiation temperatures and target thicknesses result in higher hydrodynamic efficiencies. The simulation results are useful for the design of fusion capsules.
We perform direct numerical simulations of flows over unswept finite-aspect-ratio NACA 0015 wings at
over a range of angles of attack (from
) and (semi) aspect ratios (from 1 to 6) to characterize the tip effects on separation and wake dynamics. This study focuses on the development of three-dimensional separated flow over the wing. We discuss the flow structures formed on the wing surface as well as in the far-field wake. Vorticity is introduced from the wing surface into the flow in a predominantly two-dimensional manner. The vortex sheet from the wing tip rolls up around the free end to form the tip vortex. At its inception, the tip vortex is weak and its effect is spatially confined. As the flow around the tip separates, the tip effects extend farther in the spanwise direction, generating noticeable three dimensionality in the wake. For low-aspect-ratio wings (
), the wake remains stable due to the strong tip-vortex induced downwash over the entire span. Increasing the aspect ratio allows unsteady vortical flow to emerge away from the tip at sufficiently high angles of attack. These unsteady vortices shed and form closed vortical loops. For higher-aspect-ratio wings (
), the tip effects retard the near-tip shedding process, which desynchronizes from the two-dimensional shedding over the midspan region, yielding vortex dislocation. At high angles of attack, the tip vortex exhibits noticeable undulations due to the strong interaction with the unsteady shedding vortices. The spanwise distribution of force coefficients is found to be related to the three-dimensional wake dynamics and the tip effects. Vortical elements in the wake that are responsible for the generation of lift and drag forces are identified through the force element analysis. We note that at high angles of attack, a stationary vortical structure forms at the leading edge near the tip, giving rise to locally high lift and drag forces. The analysis performed in this paper reveals how the vortical flow around the tip influences the separation physics, the global wake dynamics, and the spanwise force distributions.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of Scutellaria baicalensis extracts (SBE) on intestinal health in terms of morphology, barrier integrity and immune responses in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli K88. A total of seventy-two weaned piglets were assigned into two groups to receive a basal diet without including antibiotic additives or the basal diet supplemented 1000 mg SBE/kg diet for 14 d. On day 15, twelve healthy piglets from each group were selected to expose to oral administration of either 10 ml 1 × 109 colony-forming units of E. coli K88 or the vehicle control. After 48 h of E.coli K88 challenge, blood was sampled, and then all piglets were killed humanely for harvesting jejunal and ileal samples. Dietary supplementation of SBE significantly decreased diarrhoea frequency and improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0·05). SBE supplementation to E.coli K88-challenged piglets improved villous height and villous height/crypt depth (P < 0·05), recovered the protein expression of occludin and zonula occludens-2 in both the jejunum and ileum (P < 0·05), and mitigated the increases in plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IgA and IgG (P < 0·05). Meanwhile, dietary SBE effectively inhibited the stimulation of NF-κB, P38 and TNF-α as well as IL-1β in the small intestine of piglets challenged by E. coli K88 and prevented the activation of NF-κB/P38 signalling pathways (P < 0·05). Collectively, SBE supplementation can potently attenuate diarrhoea in weaning piglets and decrease inflammatory cytokine expressions through inhibiting the NF-κB and P38 signalling pathways.
Training students has been proven to be the optimal way to deliver cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills. However, it is somehow unknown whether or not the current recommendations appropriate for Caucasian students are also suitable for East Asian students. The purpose of this study is to explore the best age for East Asian students to receive CPR training.
Students were recruited from six schools. Students participated in a standard CPR training program provided by tutors. Each student attended a 60-minute training session with a manikin. After being trained, within one hour, the student’s compression quality was assessed.
A total of 360 students who constituted 12 continuous grades were recruited for this study. Adequate compression depth and satisfactory compression rate with correct hand position could be achieved since the age of 12. However, successful compression rate and complete release could be achieved since the younger age of six.
Current recommendations for Caucasian students to cultivate a full-capacity CPR rescuer at the age of 12 are also appropriate for East Asian students. However, the optimal age for students to receive CPR training should be decided based on evidence and importance assessment of CPR.
He D, Huang K, Yang Y, Jiang W, Yang N, Yang H. What is the optimal age for students to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation training? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(4):394–398.
In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to characterize and analyze the precipitation/dissolution kinetics of second phase particles during the cooling/reheating process in a vanadium microalloyed steel. The results indicated that three obvious exothermic peaks were detected on the cooling DSC curve. Furthermore, three corresponding endothermic peaks were also detected on the heating DSC curve. Combined with thermodynamic calculation and transmission electron microscopy analysis, these three exothermic peaks along cooling DSC curve were defined as the precipitation reaction of V(CN), the reaction of austenite transformation into ferrite and the precipitation reaction of VC, respectively. Meanwhile, three corresponding reverse reactions for cooling were also defined along the reheating DSC curve. The linear regression result revealed that the precipitation activation energies for V(CN) and VC were identified as 311.2 kJ/mol and 167.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The dissolution activation energies for VC and V(CN) were identified as 255.4 kJ/mol and 592.6 kJ/mol, respectively.
It is important for maritime authorities to effectively classify and identify unknown types of ships in historical trajectory data. This paper uses a logistic regression model to construct a ship classifier by utilising the features extracted from ship trajectories. First of all, three basic movement patterns are proposed according to ship sailing characteristics, with related sub-trajectory partitioning algorithms. Subsequently, three categories of trajectory features with their extraction methods are presented. Finally, a case study on building a model for classifying fishing boats and cargo ships based on real Automatic Identification System (AIS) data is given. Experimental results indicate that the proposed classification method can meet the needs of recognising uncertain types of targets in historical trajectory data, laying a foundation for further research on camouflaged ship identification, behaviour pattern mining, outlier behaviour detection and other applications.
This paper presents comprehensive studies on two closely related problems of high speed collisionless gaseous jet from a circular exit and impinging on an inclined rectangular flat plate, where the plate surface can be diffuse or specular reflective. Gaskinetic theories are adopted to study the problems, and several crucial geometry-location and velocity-direction relations are used. The final complete results include flowfield properties such as density, velocity components, temperature and pressure, and impingement surface properties such as coefficients of pressure, shear stress and heat flux. Also included are the averaged coefficients for pressure, friction, heat flux, moment over the whole plate, and the averaged distance from the moment center to the plate center. The final results include complex but accurate integrations involving the geometry and specific speed ratios, inclination angle, and the temperature ratio. Several numerical simulations with the direct simulation Monte Carlo method validate these analytical results, and the results are essentially identical. Exponential, trigonometric, and error functions are embedded in the solutions. The results illustrate that the past simple cosine function approach is rather crude, and should be used cautiously. The gaskinetic method and processes are heuristic and can be used to investigate other external high Knudsen number impingement flow problems, including the flowfield and surface properties for high Knudsen number jet from an exit and flat plate of arbitrary shapes. The results are expected to find many engineering applications.
CVD remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with abnormal lipid metabolism as a major risk factor. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between spicy food consumption and serum lipids in Chinese adults. Data were extracted from the 2009 phase of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, consisting of 6774 apparently healthy Chinese adults aged 18–65 years. The frequency of consumption and degree of pungency of spicy food were self-reported, and regular spicy food consumption was assessed using three consecutive 24-h recalls. Total cholesterol, TAG, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in fasting serum were measured. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate associations between spicy food consumption and serum lipid profiles. The results showed that the frequency and the average amount of spicy food intake were both inversely associated with LDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (all Pfor trend<0·05) after adjustment for potential confounders and cluster effects. HDL-cholesterol in participants who usually consumed spicy food (≥5 times/week) and who consumed spicy food perceived as moderate in pungency were significantly higher than those who did not (both P<0·01). The frequency and the average amount of spicy food intake and the degree of pungency in spicy food were positively associated with TAG (all Pfor trend<0·05). Spicy food consumption was inversely associated with serum cholesterol and positively associated with serum TAG, and additional studies are needed to confirm the findings as well as to elucidate the potential roles of spicy food consumption in lipid metabolism.
We report a novel approach to the instantaneous photoinitiated synthesis of mixed anatase-rutile nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films with a three-dimensional nanostructure through pulsed white light irradiation of photosensitive Ti-organic precursor films. Pulsed photoinitiated pyrolysis accompanied by instantaneous self-assembly and crystallization occurred to form graphitic oxides-coated TiO2 nanograins. Subsequent pulsed light irradiation working as in situ pulsed photothermal treatment improved the crystalline quality of TiO2 film despite its low attenuation of light. The non-radiative recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO2 nanograins, coupled with inefficient heat dissipation due to low thermal conductivity, produces enough heat to provide the thermodynamic driving force for improving the crystalline quality. The graphitic oxides were reduced by pulsed photothermal treatment and can be completely removed by oxygen plasma cleaning. This photoinitiated nanofabrication technology opens a promising way for the low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing of nanostructured metal oxides as well as TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films.
We analyze in this paper the pressure splitting scheme of a partitioned semi-implicit coupling algorithm for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation. The semi-implicit coupling algorithm is developed on the ground of the artificial compressibility characteristic-based split (AC-CBS) scheme that serves not only for the fluid subsystem but also for the global FSI system. As the dual-time stepping procedure recommended for quasi-incompressible flows is incorporated into the implicit coupling stage, the fluctuating pressure may be unusually susceptible to the AC coefficient. Moreover, it is not trivial to devise an optimal AC formulation for pressure estimation. Instead, we consider a stabilized second-order pressure splitting scheme in the AC-CBS-based partitioned semi-implicit coupling algorithm. Computer simulation of a benchmark FSI experiment demonstrates that good agreement is exposed between the available and present data.
The Be-based materials with many particular properties lead to an important research subject. The investigation progresses in the fabrication technologies are introduced here, including main three kinds of Be-based materials, such as Be–Cu capsule,
ablator and high-purity Be material. Compared with the pioneer workgroup on Be-based materials, the differences in Be–Cu target fabrication were described, and a grain refinement technique by an active hydrogen reaction for Be coating was proposed uniquely.
coatings were first prepared by the DC reactive magnetron sputtering with a high deposition rate
. Pure polycrystalline
films with uniform microstructures, smooth surface, high density
and good optical transparency were fabricated. In addition, the high-purity Be materials with metal impurities in a ppm magnitude were fabricated by the pyrolysis of organometallic Be.