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The benefits of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) administration after hepatic intervention in patients with liver diseases remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of BCAA on patients undergoing hepatectomy, trans-arterial embolisation and radiofrequency ablation. Relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT) were obtained from PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled effect size by using random-effects models. The primary outcomes were survival and tumour recurrence. The secondary outcomes were hospital stay, nutrition status, biochemistry profile, complication rate of liver treatment and adverse effect of BCAA supplementation. In total, eleven RCT involving 750 patients were included. Our meta-analysis showed no significant difference in the rates of tumour recurrence and overall survival between the BCAA and control groups. However, the pooled estimate showed that BCAA supplementation in patients undergoing hepatic intervention significantly increased serum albumin (mean difference (MD): 0·11 g/dl, 95 % CI: 0·02, 0·20; 5 RCT) at 6 months and cholinesterase level (MD: 50·00 U/L, 95 % CI: 21·08, 78·92; 1 RCT) at 12 months and reduced ascites incidence (risk ratio: 0·39, 95 % CI: 0·21, 0·71; 4 RCT) at 12 months compared with the control group. Additionally, BCAA administration significantly increased body weight at 6 months and 12 months and increased arm circumference at 12 months. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation significantly improved the liver function, reduced the incidence of ascites and increased body weight and arm circumference. Thus, BCAA supplementation may beneficial for selected patients undergoing liver intervention.
Effective perioperative hand antisepsis is crucial for the safety of patients and medical staff in surgical rooms. The antimicrobial effectiveness of different antiseptic methods, including conventional hand scrubs and waterless hand rubs, has not been well evaluated.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the 3 antiseptic methods among surgical staff of Taipei Medical University—Shuang Ho Hospital. For each method used, a group of 80 participants was enrolled.
Surgical hand cleansing with conventional 10% povidone–iodine scrub, conventional 4% chlorhexidine scrub, or waterless hand rub (1% chlorhexidine gluconate and 61% ethyl alcohol).
Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were collected using the hand imprinting method before and after disinfection and after surgery. After surgical hand disinfection, the mean CFU counts of the conventional chlorhexidine (0.5±0.2, P<0.01) and waterless hand rub groups (1.4±0.7, P<0.05) were significantly lower than that of the conventional povidone group (4.3±1.3). No significant difference was observed in the mean CFU count among the groups after surgery. Similar results were obtained when preexisting differences before disinfection were considered in the analysis of covariance. Furthermore, multivariate regression indicated that the antiseptic method (P=.0036), but not other variables, predicted the mean CFU count.
Conventional chlorhexidine scrub and waterless hand rub were superior to a conventional povidone–iodine product in bacterial inhibition. We recommend using conventional chlorhexidine scrub as a standard method for perioperative hand antisepsis. Waterless hand rub may be used if the higher cost is affordable.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:417–422
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