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Many components in diet have regulated oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and even balance estrogen levels. Because these factors are closely associated with depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women, it is considered that dietary factors are able to prevent and control depressive symptoms. On the other hand, dietary pattern that considers the correlations and synergies between foods and nutrients, is expected to have a greater impact on disease risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese postmenopausal women.
A cross-sectional study of 2051 postmenopausal women (mean age: 58.8±7.4 years) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Dietary consumption was assessed by a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns: “healthy”, “sweets” and “Traditional Tianjin” from 88 food items. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and cut-off point of 48 indicating serious depressive symptoms. The associations between quartile of dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were assessed by using multiple logistic regression analysis.
The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of having depressive symptoms for increasing quartile of dietary patterns were as follows: “healthy”, 1.00, 0.79(0.49–1.28), 0.62(0.37–1.04), and 0.57(0.33–0.97); “sweets”,1.00, 0.75(0.42–1.3), 1.08(0.64–1.81) and 1.66(1.03–2.71); “Traditional Tianjin”, 1.00, 1.02(0.58–1.79), 0.96 (0.54–1.71) and 2.53(1.58–4.16), respectively.
The present study demonstrated that a healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. On the contrary, greater adherence to sweets and Traditional Tianjin dietary patterns were associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms.
We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
Cryoconite is a dark-coloured granular sediment that contains biological and mineralogical components, and it plays a pivotal role in geochemistry, carbon cycling and glacier mass balance. In this work, we collected cryoconite samples from Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (LHG) on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau during the summer of 2015 and measured the spectral albedo. To explore the impacts of this sediment on surface ablation, the ice melting differences between the cryoconite-free (removed) ice and the intact layers were compared. The results showed that the mean concentrations of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and total iron (Fe) in the LHG cryoconite were 1.28, 11.18 and 39.94 mg g−1, respectively. BC was found to play a stronger role in solar light adsorption than OC and free Fe. In addition, ice covered by cryoconite exhibited the lowest mean reflectance (i.e., <0.1). Compared with the cryoconite-free ice surface, cryoconite effectively absorbed solar energy and enhanced glacial melting at a rate of 2.27–3.28 cm d−1, and free Fe, BC and OC were estimated to contribute 1.01, 0.99 and 0.76 cm d−1, respectively. This study provides important insights for understanding the role of cryoconite in the glacier mass balance of the northern Tibetan Plateau.
Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is reported to be associated with cancer development. To investigate the roles ANXA2 plays during the development of cancer, the RNAi method was used to inhibit the ANXA2 expression in caco2 (human colorectal cancer cell line) and SMMC7721 (human hepatocarcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that when the expression of ANXA2 was efficiently inhibited, the growth and motility of both cell lines were significantly decreased, and the development of the motility relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia, filopodia, and the polymerization of microfilaments and microtubules were obviously inhibited. The cancer cell apoptosis was enhanced without obvious significance. The possible regulating pathway in the process was also predicted and discussed. Our results suggested that ANXA2 plays important roles in maintaining the malignancy of colorectal and hepatic cancer by enhancing the cell proliferation, motility, and development of the motility associated microstructures of cancer cells based on a possible complicated signal pathway.
Fe therapy can be effective in heart failure patients both with and without anaemia. However, the role of Fe therapy in such patients is still uncertain. In this review, the aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Fe therapy in adult patients with heart failure who have reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Multiple databases (PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Clinical Trials) were searched up to December 2017 and the reference lists of relevant articles obtained from the search were reviewed. Data extracted from randomised control trials (RCT) selected for the review were pooled using a fixed effects model or a random effects model, according to heterogeneity between trials. Nine RCT were included in this meta-analysis which included a total of 789 patients who received Fe therapy and who in turn were compared with 585 controls. There was significant improvement in the 6-min walk test (19·05 m, 95 % CI 10·48, 27·62) and peak VO2/kg (0·93 ml/kg per min, 95 % CI 0·16, 1·69) in the Fe supplementation arm. With Fe therapy, fewer patients were hospitalised for heart failure (OR: 0·42, 95 % CI 0·27, 0·65), but no relationship was found for total re-hospitalisation (OR: 0·70, 95 % CI 0·32, 1·51) or mortality (OR: 0·70, 95 % CI 0·38, 1·28). Fe therapy has the potential to improve exercise tolerance, reduce re-hospitalisations for patients with HFrEF having Fe deficiency. In addition, Fe supplementation was found to be safe, with no increased rate of adverse events.
Seed reserves play vital roles in seed germination and seedling growth and their variation may be related to various environment factors, plant traits and phylogenetic history. Here, the evolutionary correlation associated with seed mass and altitude and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) allocation of seeds among 253 alpine herbaceous plants was tested. In this study, phylogeny had strong limitations on nutrient allocation of seeds across species, and species from younger phylogenetic groups tended to have higher N and P contents, which might be considered as the evolutionary selection of seed plants. Higher seed N and P content would help seedlings to gain more survival chance and stronger competitive capacity, and their progeny would be more likely to be preserved. When phylogeny was considered, altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content, but the negative effects on seed mass were all expressed. The independent effects of altitude and seed mass suggest that the nutrient allocation of seeds might be affected by both environment and plant traits. In addition, altitude and seed mass displayed partial overlapping effects on nutrient allocation of seeds. The negative effects of seed mass were affected slightly by altitude, whereas altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content when seed mass was controlled. Above all, seed P content showed obvious and general correlations with seed mass, altitude and age of clade, which indicated that higher seed P content might be an adaptive selection of species associated with growth and survival of progeny.
The analysis of punctuation in philology is mainly carried out with a view to better understand the meaning of the literature concerned. Punctuation is generally believed to play the role of ‘assisting the written language in indicating those elements of speech that cannot be conveniently set down on paper: chiefly the pause, pitch and stress in speech’ (Markwardt, 1942: 156). Most of us often ignore the importance of punctuation in writing systems and tend to believe that punctuation only depends on tradition and the personal styles of writers. In fact, punctuation marks may contribute significantly to the clarity of expression. Many linguists associate punctuation with intonation, but the truth is more complex than that – punctuation marks may affect orthography, morphology, syntactic relations, semantic information, and can even influence textual structure.
Globally, the prevalence of childhood obesity has substantially increased at an alarming rate. This study investigated associations between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity in 3- to 6-year-old children. Recruited children were from four prefecture-level cities in Eastern China. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined according to WHO Child Growth Standards. Individual dietary patterns were assessed by a comprehensive self-administered FFQ using thirty-five food items. Using factor analysis two dietary patterns were derived: the traditional Chinese pattern was characterised by high consumption of cereals, vegetables and fresh juices while the modern pattern was characterised by high consumption of Western fast food, Chinese fast food, sweets/sugary foods and carbonated beverages. The associations of dietary patterns with overweight/obesity were evaluated by logistic regression models. Data of 8900 preschool children from thirty-five kindergartens recruited from March to June 2015 were used in the final analysis. Adherence to the modern dietary pattern was positively associated with children's age while adherence to the traditional dietary pattern was positively associated with maternal education; these associations were statistically significant. After adjustment, we found that being in the highest tertile of any identified dietary patterns was not significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Dietary patterns are not associated with overweight/obesity in Chinese preschool children. Prospective studies are needed to establish a causal link between dietary patterns and childhood obesity.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silicon carbide nanoparticle (nano-SiCp)-reinforced magnesium (Mg) matrix hybrid composites were prepared through a three-step melt spinning process (ball milling, mechanical stirring, and ultrasonic vibration processing). The hybrid nanoreinforcements showed high strengthening efficiency by which the yield and tensile strength of the hybrid composites experienced 46.7 and 15.2% increment, respectively, compared with the matrix alloy. Obviously, the mixed ball-milling process of SiC nanoparticles and CNTs promoted the dispersion of each other, and both the uniformly distributed SiC nanoparticles and CNTs contributed to the enhanced mechanical performance of the hybrid composites. Besides, the addition of the hybrid nanoreinforcements induced the precipitation of nanosized rod-like MgZn2 phases in the as-extruded composites which also made a contribution to the enhanced performance of the composites. Investigations on the strengthening mechanisms of the hybrid composites show that it originates from grain refinement, load transfer, precipitation enhancement, and Orowan reinforcing. More importantly, the contribution made by each part was analyzed in detail.
Previous studies have indicated that some food items and nutrients are associated with uric acid metabolism in humans. However, little is known about the role of dietary patterns in hyperuricaemia. We designed this case–control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in Chinese adults. A total of 1422 cases and 1422 controls were generated from 14 538 participants using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Hyperuricaemia was defined as concentrations of serum uric acid higher than 7 mg/dl (416·5 μmol/l) for men and 6 mg/dl (357 μmol/l) for women. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis: sweet pattern; vegetable pattern; animal foods pattern. The animal foods pattern characterised by higher intake of an animal organ, seafood and processed meat products was associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia (Pfor trend<0·01) after adjustment. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile of the animal foods pattern, the OR of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in the highest quartile was 1·50 (95 % CI 1·20, 1·87). The other two dietary patterns were not associated with the prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia after adjustment. In conclusion, a diet rich in animal organ, seafood and processed meat products is associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in a Chinese population. Further cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are required to clarify these findings.
To obtain a fine-grained Mg matrix, the (submicron + micron) bimodal size SiC particle reinforced AZ91 (SiCp/AZ91) composite was subjected to forging followed by the extrusion process first. Then, the fine-grained bimodal size SiCp/AZ91 composite was compressed at 270–370 °C with 0.1–0.001 s−1. The result indicated that the refinement of the Mg matrix contributed to its deteriorated strength at high temperature. However, the grain size is not the only factor influencing flow stress but the SiCp also plays an important role. The effect of SiCp on the fine grained Mg matrix depends on grain size and dislocation density, both of which strongly depend on temperature and strain rate. As compared with the fine grained Mg matrix reinforced by single size SiCp, the one with bimodal size SiCp unusually exhibit lower flow stress during hot compression. The calculated activation energy of the bimodal size SiCp/AZ91 composite is higher than the micron SiCp/AZ91 composite; however, nearly the same as the submicron SiCp/AZ91 composite, and the deformation of which was thought to be controlled by ∼1 vol% submicron SiCp.
With the use of temporal derivative of flux function, a two-stage temporal discretization has been recently proposed in the design of fourth-order schemes based on the generalized Riemann problem (GRP)  and gas-kinetic scheme (GKS) . In this paper, the fourth-order gas-kinetic scheme will be extended to solve the compressible multicomponent flow equations, where the two-stage temporal discretization and fifth-order WENO reconstruction will be used in the construction of the scheme. Based on the simplified two-species BGK model , the coupled Euler equations for individual species will be solved. Each component has its individual gas distribution function and the equilibrium states for each component are coupled by the physical requirements of total momentum and energy conservation in particle collisions. The second-order flux function is used to achieve the fourth-order temporal accuracy, and the robustness is as good as the second-order schemes. At the same time, the source terms, such as the gravitational force and the chemical reaction, will be explicitly included in the two-stage temporal discretization through their temporal derivatives. Many numerical tests from the shock-bubble interaction to ZND detonative waves are presented to validate the current approach.
Blue-ice areas (BIAs) and their geographical distribution in Antarctica were mapped using Landsat-7 ETM+ images with 15 m spatial resolution obtained during the 1999–2003 austral summers and covering the area north of 82.5° S, and a snow grain-size image of the MODIS-based Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) dataset with 125 m grid spacing acquired during the 2003/04 austral summer from 82.5°S to the South Pole. A map of BIAs was created with algorithms of thresholds based on band ratio and reflectance for ETM+ data and thresholds based on snow grain size for the MOA dataset. The underlying principle is that blue ice can be separated from snow or rock by their spectral discrepancies and by different grain sizes of snow and ice. We estimate the total area of BIAs in Antarctica during the data acquisition period is 234 549 km2, or 1.67% of the area of the continent. Blue ice is scattered widely over the continent but is generally located in coastal or mountainous regions. The BIA dataset presented in this study is the first map covering the entire Antarctic continent sourced solely from ETM+ and MODIS data. This dataset can potentially benefit other studies in glaciology, meteorology, climatology and paleoclimate, meteorite collection and airstrip site selection.
Cavitation bubbles are nucleated at a high repetition rate in water by delivering a pulsed laser through a fibre optic. Continuous high-frequency cavitation drives a stream away from the fibre tip. Using high-speed photography and particle image velocimetry, the stream is characterised as a synthetic jet, generated by trains of vortices induced by non-spherical bubble collapse. At low laser power, the bubbles collapse before the arrival of a subsequent laser pulse. Yet, by increasing the laser power, a system of bubbles is formed which leads to complex bubble–bubble interactions. The synthetic jet is observed regardless of the bubble formation regime, demonstrating the stability of the phenomenon. Synthetic jet generation by repetitive bubble collapse extends the well-studied acoustic streaming from small-amplitude bubble oscillations.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
SiC nanoparticles reinforced magnesium matrix composite was fabricated by ultrasonic vibration assisted squeeze casting. Since ultrasonic device could meet the use requirements according to theoretic calculation, uniform dispersion of SiC nanoparticles was expected to achieve. The grains of the composite were refined compared with the AZ91 alloy, which was related to the increase of nucleation sites during solidification and Zenner pinning effect caused by SiC nanoparticles. With increasing the ultrasonic power, grain size of the composite changed no obviously while the morphology of β-Mg17Al12 phase was significantly affected. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation to fracture of the composites fabricated under different ultrasonic powers were simultaneously improved compared with the AZ91 alloy. The increase of yield strength could be attributed to Hall–Petch strengthening and Orowan strengthening for the present composites. Theoretical value of the yield strength obtained by the square root method was close to the experimental value.