In this paper, we investigate the lower bound s
HK(p, d) of Hilbert-Kunz multiplicities for non-regular unmixed local rings of Krull dimension d containing a field of characteristic p > 0. Especially, we focus on three-dimensional local rings. In fact, as a main result, we will prove that s
HK (p, 3) = 4/3 and that a three-dimensional complete local ring of Hilbert-Kunz multiplicity 4/3 is isomorphic to the non-degenerate quadric hypersurface k[[X, Y, Z,W]]/(X
2 + Y
2 + Z
2 + W
2) under mild conditions.
Furthermore, we pose a generalization of the main theorem to the case of dim A ≥ 4 as a conjecture, and show that it is also true in case dim A = 4 using the similar method as in the proof of the main theorem.