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The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
To characterize the association of longitudinal changes in maternal anthropometric measures with neonatal anthropometry and to assess to what extent late-gestational changes in maternal anthropometry are associated with neonatal body composition.
In a prospective cohort of pregnant women, maternal anthropometry was measured at six study visits across pregnancy and after birth, neonates were measured and fat and lean mass calculated. We estimated maternal anthropometric trajectories and separately assessed rate of change in the second (15–28 weeks) and third trimester (28–39 weeks) in relation to neonatal anthropometry. We investigated the extent to which tertiles of third-trimester maternal anthropometry change were associated with neonatal outcomes.
Women were recruited from twelve US sites (2009–2013).
Non-obese women with singleton pregnancies (n 2334).
A higher rate of increase in gestational weight gain was associated with larger-birth-weight infants with greater lean and fat mass. In contrast, higher rates of increase in maternal anthropometry measures were not associated with infant birth weight but were associated with decreased neonatal lean mass. In the third trimester, women in the tertile of lowest change in triceps skinfold (−0·57 to −0·06 mm per week) had neonates with 35·8 g more lean mass than neonates of mothers in the middle tertile of rate of change (−0·05 to 0·06 mm per week).
The rate of change in third-trimester maternal anthropometry measures may be related to neonatal lean and fat mass yet have a negligible impact on infant birth weight, indicating that neonatal anthropometry may provide additional information over birth weight alone.
During the past two decades, it has been amply documented that neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) disproportionately account for burden of illness attributable to chronic non-communicable medical disorders globally. It is also likely that human capital costs attributable to NPDs will disproportionately increase as a consequence of population aging and beneficial risk factor modification of other common and chronic medical disorders (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Notwithstanding the availability of multiple modalities of antidepressant treatment, relatively few studies in psychiatry have primarily sought to determine whether improving cognitive function in MDD improves patient reported outcomes (PROs) and/or is cost effective. The mediational relevance of cognition in MDD potentially extrapolates to all NPDs, indicating that screening for, measuring, preventing, and treating cognitive deficits in psychiatry is not only a primary therapeutic target, but also should be conceptualized as a transdiagnostic domain to be considered regardless of patient age and/or differential diagnosis.
Field research was conducted in 2012 and 2013 in Georgia, New York, and North Carolina to evaluate the effect of trifluralin PPI on turnip root production. Treatments included trifluralin PPI at 0, 0.42, 0.56, 0.84, 1.12, 1.68, 2.24, and 3.36 kg ai ha−1. Aboveground injury to turnip varied by location and increased from 0% to 85% as trifluralin rate increased from 0.42 to 3.36 kg ha−1. Trifluralin at 0.42 to 0.84 kg ha−1 caused ≤7% injury, except at Clayton, NC, and Freeville, NY, where injury ≤32%. Trifluralin at 0.42 to 0.84 kg ha−1 reduced turnip root yield ≤11% at all locations, except Clinton, NC, where yield was reduced 29% and 43% by 0.56 and 0.84 kg ha−1, respectively. Turnip roots were not injured internally by trifluralin. Our research results suggest that up to 0.84 kg ha−1 trifluralin PPI is safe to use in turnip roots.
Both Molinism and Anselmianism attempt to preserve libertarian freedom for created agents as well as robust divine sovereignty. The two issues intersect in addressing the puzzle of Christ's freedom: If God is necessarily good, how can God Incarnate be free? Anselm answers: while human agents need options for our choices to be up to us, Christ inevitably chooses rightly with perfect freedom. I defend Anselm's answer against a general criticism and then argue that Anselm's position is preferable to the Molinist solution which has recently been championed by Thomas P. Flint.
North American studies show bipolar disorder is associated with elevated
rates of problem gambling; however, little is known about rates in the
different presentations of bipolar illness.
To determine the prevalence and distribution of problem gambling in
people with bipolar disorder in the UK.
The Problem Gambling Severity Index was used to measure gambling problems
in 635 participants with bipolar disorder.
Moderate to severe gambling problems were four times higher in people
with bipolar disorder than in the general population, and were associated
with type 2 disorder (OR = 1.74, P = 0.036), history of
suicidal ideation or attempt (OR = 3.44, P = 0.02) and
rapid cycling (OR = 2.63, P = 0.008).
Approximately 1 in 10 patients with bipolar disorder may be at moderate
to severe risk of problem gambling, possibly associated with suicidal
behaviour and a rapid cycling course. Elevated rates of gambling problems
in type 2 disorder highlight the probable significance of modest but
unstable mood disturbance in the development and maintenance of such
Metribuzin has a 60-d preharvest interval (PHI) in potato, which limits utility of metribuzin POST in potato. In certain years, the potato may not fully cover the area between the potato rows. This allows for late-season weed emergence and subsequent yield reduction through direct competition or harvest interference. Field experiments were conducted in 2011 at Castle Hayne, NC; Freeville, NY; Hasting, FL; and Plymouth, NC to determine the effect of a 30-d PHI on potato crop tolerance. The cultivars planted were ‘Superior' and ‘Yukon Gold' in Castle Hayne and Plymouth, ‘Castille' and Yukon Gold in Freeville, and ‘Atlantic' in Hastings. Treatments included metribuzin at 278 g ai ha−1 PRE, 30, and 60 d before harvest (DBH), and metribuzin at 556 g ha−1 at 30 and 60 DBH. Split application treatments included metribuzin at 556 g ha−1 at PRE followed by metribuzin at 556 g ha−1 30 or 60 DBH and metribuzin at 842 g ha−1 PRE followed by metribuzin at 278 g ha−1 at 30 or 60 DBH. Potato injury was ≤ 8% at all locations, and injury was transient. There were no differences observed between metribuzin rate or application date for individual potato grades or total yield. Reducing the PHI in potato to 30 d would have no effect on yield and would provide a longer period for controlling broadleaf weeds.
Neuroimaging studies have indicated that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with alterations in the structure of specific brain regions in children. However, the temporal and regional specificity of such changes and their behavioural consequences are less known. Here we explore the integrity of regional white matter microstructure in infants with in utero exposure to alcohol, shortly after birth.
Twenty-eight alcohol-exposed and 28 healthy unexposed infants were imaged using diffusion tensor imaging sequences to evaluate white matter integrity using validated tract-based spatial statistics analysis methods. Second, diffusion values were extracted for group comparisons by regions of interest. Differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity were compared between groups and associations with measures from the Dubowitz neonatal neurobehavioural assessment were examined.
Lower AD values (p<0.05) were observed in alcohol-exposed infants in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus compared with non-exposed infants. Altered FA and MD values in alcohol-exposed neonates in the right inferior cerebellar were associated with abnormal neonatal neurobehaviour.
These exploratory data suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with reduced white matter microstructural integrity even early in the neonatal period. The association with clinical measures reinforces the likely clinical significance of this finding. The location of the findings is remarkably consistent with previously reported studies of white matter structural deficits in older children with a diagnosis of foetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
This paper reviews the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing human brain.
A literature search was conducted through the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. Combinations of the following search terms and keywords were used to identify relevant studies: ‘alcohol’, ‘fetal alcohol spectrum disorders’, ‘fetal alcohol syndrome’, ‘FAS’, ‘FASD’, ‘MRI’, ‘DTI’, ‘MRS’, ‘neuroimaging’, ‘children’ and ‘infants’.
A total of 64 relevant articles were identified across all modalities. Overall, studies reported smaller total brain volume as well as smaller volume of both the white and grey matter in specific cortical regions. The most consistently reported structural MRI findings were alterations in the shape and volume of the corpus callosum, as well as smaller volume in the basal ganglia and hippocampi. The most consistent finding from diffusion tensor imaging studies was lower fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies are few to date, but showed altered neurometabolic profiles in the frontal and parietal cortex, thalamus and dentate nuclei. Resting-state functional MRI studies reported reduced functional connectivity between cortical and deep grey matter structures.
There is a critical gap in the literature of MRI studies in alcohol-exposed children under 5 years of age across all MRI modalities. The dynamic nature of brain maturation and appreciation of the effects of alcohol exposure on the developing trajectory of the structural and functional network argue for the prioritisation of studies that include a longitudinal approach to understanding this spectrum of effects and potential therapeutic time points.
The diagnosis of concussion is a critical step in the appropriate management of patients following minor head trauma. The authors hypothesized that wide practice variation exists among pediatric emergency medicine physicians in the application of physical and cognitive rest recommendations following an acute concussion.
The authors developed a 35-item questionnaire incorporating case vignettes to examine pediatric emergency physician knowledge of concussion diagnosis, understanding of initial management using return-to-play/school/work guidelines, use of existing concussion protocols, and perceived barriers to protocol use. Using a modified Dillman technique, the authors distributed an online survey to members of Pediatric Emergency Research Canada, a national association of pediatric emergency physicians.
Of 176 potential participants, 115 (65%) responded to the questionnaire, 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81, 0.93) of whom reported having diagnosed 20 or more concussions annually. Although 90% (95% CI: 0.83, 0.94) of respondents adequately diagnosed concussion, only 64% (95% CI: 0.54, 0.72) correctly applied graduated return-to-play guidelines. Cognitive rest recommendations were also frequently limited: 40% (95% CI: 0.31, 0.49) did not recommend school absence, 30% (95% CI: 0.22, 0.39) did not recommend schoolwork reduction, and 35% (95% CI: 0.27, 0.45) did not recommend limiting screen time. Eighty percent (95% CI: 0.72, 0.87) of respondents reported having used guidelines frequently or always to guide clinical decisions regarding concussion.
Despite a proficiency in the diagnosis of concussion, pediatric emergency physicians exhibit wide variation in recommending the graduated return to play and cognitive rest following concussion.
We present an exploration of the integrated stellar populations of early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey. We use two approaches: firstly the application of line-indices interpreted through single stellar population (SSP) models, which provide a single value of age, metallicity and abundance ratio. And secondly, by fitting a linear combination of SSP spectra to our data, smoothly weighted in the free parameters of age and metallicity, thereby inferring a star-formation history of these galaxies. Despite the significant differences in these approaches, we obtain generally consistent results, such that galaxies that are more massive appear older with enhanced abundance ratios using line indices, and have shorter star-formation histories weighted to early times. We highlight two limitations of the index-SSP approach. Firstly the SSP-equivalent ages belie the fact that ETGs are overwhelmingly composed of ancient stars. Secondly, the young stellar contributions implied in our star formation histories are required to obtain realistic UV-optical colours. We remark that, even fitting solar-abundance models, we can recover a star-formation duration that correlates with the measured alpha-enhancement, in agreement with other recent work.
In this article we respond to arguments from William Hasker and David Kyle Johnson that free will is incompatible with both divine foreknowledge and eternalism (what we refer to as isotemporalism). In particular, we sketch an Anselmian account of time and freedom, briefly defend the view against Hasker's critique, and then respond in more depth to Johnson's claim that Anselmian freedom is incompatible with free will because it entails that our actions are ‘ontologically necessary’. In defending Anselmian freedom we argue that our ordinary intuitions do not support Johnson's case and that Anselmian freedom is compatible with deliberation.
Preliminary analytical and transmission electron microscopy (AEM and TEM) results for a small suite of natural perovskites are reported in this paper and discussed in relation to previous work. We show that perovskite compositions in Synroc and tailored ceramics plot within the known fields of natural perovskite compositions. AEM analyses and electron diffraction work on selected samples indicate that they are predominantly stoichiometric variants of the cubic perovskite structure. Geochemical alteration was observed in one sample of loparite from Bratthagen, Norway. The primary result of this alteration was leaching of Na from the A-site. Although sufficient alpha-decay dose levels for complete amorphization are not realized in this suite of samples, the available data bracket the beginning of the crystalline-amorphous transformation at doses that are ∼ 2-4 times greater than those of zirconolite of similar age. These results may be due to fundamental differences in the damage annealing rates of perovskite and zirconolite.
Variable magnetic field Hall effect, photoluminescence (PL) and capacitance-voltage (CV) analysis have been used to study InN layers grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. All three techniques reveal evidence of a buried p-type layer beneath a surface electron accumulation layer in heavily Mg-doped samples. The use of lattice-matched Yttria-stablized Zirconia substrates also provides evidence of a p-type layer.
The seventh annual Teaching and Learning Conference (TLC) was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from February 5 to 7, 2010, with 224 attendees onsite. The theme for the meeting was “Advancing Excellence in Teaching Political Science.” Using the working-group model, the TLC track format encourages in-depth discussion and debate on research dealing with the scholarship of teaching and learning.
Charity has compelled the Christian community to engage in some serious metaphysics. The Christian is told to spread the Good News, and the Good News is that God has become a human being in order, by his death and resurrection, to free us from our sins and bring us to life eternal. Good News indeed! But difficult philosophically. How could the omnipotent, eternal, and immutable source of all possibly “become” a human being? And why in the world, given divine omnipotence, would God choose such a messy and complicated process for the salvation of mankind, when, presumably, he could save us by divine fiat? Christian theologians and philosophers have unanimously agreed that the Incarnation is a mystery that we cannot hope to fully grasp. Yet, for two millennia, they have struggled to meet the challenge of the unbeliever who says that the Incarnation is worse than a mystery: it is an impossibility. From the beginning of Christianity, the charge has been made that the Incarnation is, at best, demeaning to God: It is unthinkable that divinity would submit to the biological nastiness involved in Incarnation! At worst, it has been argued, the key claim of Christianity is just logically contradictory. In this chapter I defend the traditional understanding of the Incarnation. By the traditional understanding, I mean the view that was proclaimed to be the correct one, as against a legion of heresies, at the Council of Chalcedon in 451.