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In 2017, Public Health England South East Health Protection Team (HPT) were involved in the management of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis) in a pack of working foxhounds. This paper summarises the actions taken by the team in managing the public health aspects of the outbreak, and lessons learned to improve the management of future potential outbreaks. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant publications on M. bovis. Clinical notes from the Public Health England (PHE) health protection database were reviewed and key points extracted. Animal and public health stakeholders involved in the management of the situation provided further evidence through unstructured interviews and personal communications. The PHE South East team initially provided ‘inform and advise’ letters to human contacts whilst awaiting laboratory confirmation to identify the infectious agent. Once M. bovis had been confirmed in the hounds, an in-depth risk assessment was conducted, and contacts were stratified in to risk pools. Eleven out of 20 exposed persons with the greatest risk of exposure were recommended to attend TB screening and one tested positive, but had no evidence of active TB infection. The number of human contacts working with foxhound packs can be large and varied. HPTs should undertake a comprehensive risk assessment of all potential routes of exposure, involve all other relevant stakeholders from an early stage and undertake regular risk assessments. Current guidance should be revised to account for the unique risks to human health posed by exposure to infected working dogs.
Despite differences in obesity and ill health between urban and rural areas in the UK being well documented, very little is known about differences in dietary patterns across these areas. The present study aimed to examine whether urban/rural status is associated with dietary patterns in a population-based UK cohort study of children.
Dietary patterns were obtained using principal components analysis and cluster analysis of 3 d diet records collected from children at 10 years of age. Rurality was obtained from the 2001 UK Census urban/rural indicator at the time of dietary assessment. General linear models were used to examine the relationship between rurality and dietary pattern scores from principal components analysis; multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between rurality and dietary clusters.
The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), South West England.
Children (n 5677) aged 10 years (2817 boys and 2860 girls).
After adjustment, increases in rurality were associated with increased scores on the ‘health awareness’ dietary pattern (β=0·35; 95 % CI 0·14, 0·56; P<0·001 for the most rural compared with the most urban group) and lower scores on the ‘packed lunch/snack’ dietary pattern (β=−0·39; 95 % CI −0·59, −0·19; P<0·001 for the most rural compared with the most urban group). The odds ratio for participants being in the ‘healthy’ compared with the ‘processed’ dietary cluster for the most rural areas was 1·61 (95 % CI 1·05, 2·49; P=0·02) compared with those in the most urban areas.
There is evidence to suggest that differences exist in dietary patterns between rural and urban areas. Similar results were found using two different methods of dietary pattern analysis, showing that children residing in rural households were more likely to consume healthier diets than those in urban households.
This article describes the contested and underdeveloped backdrop to ‘“whole family” approaches’, whereby families with care and protection needs are caught in a conflicting set of policy and practice expectations concerning responsibility to care whilst being positioned as families that fail. Questions are raised about how supported families are to navigate their way through these permissive and punitive policies and practices. We suggest that there is an urgent need for more ‘bottom–up’ research informed by the ethic of care to develop the kinds of policies and practices that might make it more possible for them to do so.
Self-assembly is a promising technique to overcome fundamental limitations with integrating, packaging, and generally handling individual electronic-related components with characteristic lengths significantly smaller than 1 mm. Here we briefly summarize the use of capillary and magnetic forces to realize two example microscale systems. In the first example, we use capillary forces from a low melting point solder alloy to integrate 500 μm square, 100 μm thick silicon chips with thermally and chemically sensitive metal-polymer hinge actuators, for potential medical applications. The second example demonstrates a path towards self-assembling 3-D silicon circuits formed out of 280 μm sized building blocks, utilizing both capillary forces from a low melting point solder alloy and magnetic forces from integrated, permanent magnets. In the latter example, the utilization of magnetic forces combined with capillary forces improved the assembly yield to 7.8% over 0.1% achieved previously with capillary forces alone.
The Children's Fund involved the development of partnerships in every local authority in England to prevent the social exclusion of children and young people. This article draws from the national evaluation of this initiative to consider the strategies used to implement the Fund, and reflect on their capacity to address the multiple dimensions of exclusion experienced by marginalised groups of children and young people. It discusses the contested nature of the concept of social exclusion, but argues that this is a useful framework for understanding the processes by which children may become excluded and for assessing the capacity of strategies to address this. It concludes that the Children's Fund is likely to have limited long-term impact in this respect.
The expansion of claims of extended territorial and extraterritorial criminal legislative jurisdiction and the increasing facility with which States are able to obtain custody over defendants by way of more effective extradition arrangements is leading to a new problem in transnational criminal law. The result of these developments is that more than one State may have legitimate jurisdiction to legislate for the same conduct and the courts of more than one State may be entitled to exercise judicial jurisdiction over those persons charged with crimes arising from that conduct. For prosecutors, the problem may present itself as one of prosecutorial efficiency—how may the case be proceeded with expeditiously, in particular, in which jurisdiction is a conviction most likely to be secured? Considerations such as the availability of witnesses or the admissibility of evidence may influence the prospects of conviction and prospective punishments may be a factor when deciding in which system prosecutors prefer the case to go ahead. Defendants have different perspectives. In many cases involving extradition to face a charge based on an exercise of extended jurisdiction, the defendant will be removed from the place where he lives and works to another State. There may be adverse consequences for him compared to facing a trial where he is usually located. Criminal proceedings abroad will be in an unfamiliar legal system; bail may be harder to obtain because of a perceived greater danger of flight; the impossibility to continue working during the period in which the trial is being prepared may impose financial hardship; defendants will be removed from their families and social networks for considerable periods.
During the past decade, expectations placed on child welfare services in the UK have moved away from individualised provision geared to meeting the needs of specific children at risk, to consideration of the broader context for children. The introduction of a series of national programmes aimed at addressing social exclusion and tasked with stimulating new approaches to enabling better outcomes for children formed the background for the recent legislation and guidance for local children's services. The Children's Fund was one of a raft of New Labour social policies promoting partnerships between statutory and voluntary organisations in order to address the cross-cutting issue of social exclusion. It was announced following the UK 2000 Spending Review and drew from the Policy Action Team12 (PAT12) Report, ‘Young People at Risk’ (SEU, 2000). Funding started in January 2001 and continues until 2008 with a total allocation during this period of £960 million. Like most special policy initiatives instigated following 1997, the establishment of the Children's Fund was accompanied by both national and local evaluation requirements. The National Evaluation of the Children's Fund (NECF) was undertaken by a team from the Universities of Birmingham and London and this themed section draws on selected findings from that evaluation. Overall results are reported in Edwards et al., (2006).
There is a considerable body of research that demonstrates the positive impact of involving children's families and networks in designing and developing the services children need. This paper – using empirical evidence from evaluations conducted in the UK, USA and New Zealand – suggests professionals are struggling to promote participative practice. The paper explores this apparent resistance and raises some questions about the understandings held by professionals about children and families who take up child welfare services that enable traditional exclusive forms of practice to be sustained.
Heap ordered trees are planted plane trees, labelled in such a way that the labels always increase from the root to a leaf. We study two parameters, assuming that $p$ of the $n$ nodes are selected at random: the size of the ancestor tree of these nodes and the smallest subtree generated by these nodes. We compute expectation, variance, and also the Gaussian limit distribution, the latter as an application of Hwang's quasi-power theorem.
The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in
cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Fifty-three patients with an eating disorder (34 with anorexia nervosa
and 19 with bulimia nervosa) and 35 healthy controls participated in
the study. A battery of neuropsychological tests for cognitive
flexibility was used, including Trail Making B, the Brixton Test,
Verbal Fluency, the Haptic Illusion Test, a cognitive shifting task
(CatBat) and a picture set test. Using exploratory factor analysis,
four factors were obtained: 1: Simple Alternation; 2: Mental
Flexibility; 3: Perseveration; and 4: Perceptual Shift. Patients with
anorexia nervosa had abnormal scores on Factors 1 and 4. Patients with
bulimia nervosa showed a different pattern, with significant
impairments in Factors 2 and 4. These findings suggest that
differential neuropsychological disturbance in the domain of mental
flexibility/rigidity may underlie the spectrum of eating disorders.
(JINS, 2004, 10, 513–520.)
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