In order to examine the genetic variance and heritability of temperament among Chinese infants in Taiwan, a total of 62 pairs of same-sexed twin infants given birth in four major general teaching hospitals in Taipei City were studied. Based on placentation and 12 red blood cell antigens, 44 MZ and 18 DZ pairs were identified. Temperament was assessed at the age of six months by the Chinese edition of Carey's Temperament scale. Significant genetic variance was observed for activity level, approach or withdrawal, intensity of reaction, quality of mood, and threshold of responsiveness, with a heritability of 0.64, 0.56, 0.74, 0.39, and 0.45, respectively. There was no significant intrapair difference in temperamental characteristics between monochorionic and dichorionic MZ twins.