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Abnormal effort-based decision-making represents a potential mechanism underlying motivational deficits (amotivation) in psychotic disorders. Previous research identified effort allocation impairment in chronic schizophrenia and focused mostly on physical effort modality. No study has investigated cognitive effort allocation in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
Cognitive effort allocation was examined in 40 FEP patients and 44 demographically-matched healthy controls, using Cognitive Effort-Discounting (COGED) paradigm which quantified participants’ willingness to expend cognitive effort in terms of explicit, continuous discounting of monetary rewards based on parametrically-varied cognitive demands (levels N of N-back task). Relationship between reward-discounting and amotivation was investigated. Group differences in reward-magnitude and effort-cost sensitivity, and differential associations of these sensitivity indices with amotivation were explored.
Patients displayed significantly greater reward-discounting than controls. In particular, such discounting was most pronounced in patients with high levels of amotivation even when N-back performance and reward base amount were taken into consideration. Moreover, patients exhibited reduced reward-benefit sensitivity and effort-cost sensitivity relative to controls, and that decreased sensitivity to reward-benefit but not effort-cost was correlated with diminished motivation. Reward-discounting and sensitivity indices were generally unrelated to other symptom dimensions, antipsychotic dose and cognitive deficits.
This study provides the first evidence of cognitive effort-based decision-making impairment in FEP, and indicates that decreased effort expenditure is associated with amotivation. Our findings further suggest that abnormal effort allocation and amotivation might primarily be related to blunted reward valuation. Prospective research is required to clarify the utility of effort-based measures in predicting amotivation and functional outcome in FEP.
In our attempt to investigate the basic active galactic nucleus (AGN) paradigm requiring a centrally located supermassive black hole (SMBH), a close to Keplerian accretion disk and a jet perpendicular to its plane, we have searched for radio continuum in galaxies with H2O megamasers in their disks. We observed 18 such galaxies with the Very Large Baseline Array in C band (5 GHz, ~2 mas resolution) and we detected 5 galaxies at 8 σ or higher levels. For those sources for which the maser data is available, the positions of masers and those of the 5 GHz radio continuum sources coincide within the uncertainties, and the radio continuum is perpendicular to the maser disk’s orientation within the position angle uncertainties.
Many accretion disks surrounding supermassive black holes in nearby AGN are observed to host 22 GHz water maser activity. We have analyzed single-dish 22 GHz spectra taken with the GBT to identify 32 such “Keplerian disk systems,” which we used to investigate maser excitation and explore the possibility of disk reverberation. Our results do not support a spiral shock model for population inversion in these disks, and we find that any reverberating signal propagating radially outwards from the AGN must constitute <10% of the total observed maser variability. Additionally, we have used ALMA to begin exploring the variety of sub-mm water megamasers that are also predicted, and in the case of the 321 GHz transition found, to be present in these accretion disks. By observing multiple masing transitions within a single system, we can better constrain the physical conditions (e.g., gas temperature and density) in the accretion disk.
7″-resolution CO (1-0) observations of M82 with the Owens Valley millimeter-wave interferometer have resolved 2 components of molecular gas in the central 1.5 arcmin of the galaxy: (1) a high plane of M82, and (2) shell-like or filamentary structures of molecular gas, with size-scale as large as 400 pc, extending most likely out of the plane of the galaxy.
Observations of star formation sites in a number of molecular clouds, including NGC 7538, NGC 2071, Cepheus A and K3-50A, have been made using the Owens Valley millimeter wave interferometer. The measurements of 12CO, 13CO, CS and continuum emission are at resolutions of order 7″. Continuum emission at 2.7 mm is detected from all the cloud cores and, in general, the 12CO interferometer maps reveal the presence of high velocity, bipolar outflows within 10″ of these continuum sources. Thus, the origins of the outflows are readily identifiable; the flows themselves appear to remain collimated on scales of less than 1017 cm. The orientations of the flows are similar to those seen at lower resolution, except in Cepheus A, where the interferometer is capable of distinguishing between two outflows which are confused in single telescope maps.
Maffei 2 is a highly obscured galaxy, probably of type Sbc, at a distance of 5 Mpc (Allen and Raimond 1972; Spinrad et al. 1973). Since it lies close to the Galactic plane, there is considerable confusion in infrared and 21-cm HI observations due to Galactic emission, but investigations of its structure can be carried out at millimeter wavelengths where the Galaxy contribution is confined to a limited velocity range. The high resolution (30″) of our CO J=2–1 observations permits both a detailed examination of Maffei 2 and a study of the nature of the gas in its nucleus, through comparison with the CO J=1–0 observations.
The center of our Galaxy contains an extremely compact nonthermal radio source. For the first time, elongation in the source structure has been detected. The long axis is nearly aligned with the minor axis of the Galaxy. Recent high resolution observations of the ionized gas within the central 3 parsecs suggest that matter may be falling in towards the center. This has interesting implications on the processes within our Galactic nucleus.
We summarize the results and interpretation of a four station transcontinental VLBI experiment of the luminous water masers in the nearby galaxy NGC 4258. At a distance of 5 Mpc, the longest baseline of the experiment provides spatial resolution of less than 1016 cm. The strongest maser emission was detected on all baselines, and was found to consist of at least two features separated by about 0.1 mas (1016 cm). Weaker features are possibly spread over a region up to 1 mas in size. These results provide evidence that supports the scenario described by Claussen and Lo (1986) which suggests that the very luminous water masers reside in molecular gas that immediately surrounds the central, active nucleus.
VLA data of the Galactic center at 6 cm from the A, B, and C configurations have been combined to produce a high quality image at 0.76″ × 0.41″ resolution with a dynamic range of ≈ 5000. The new combined array image enables a clear definition of the diffuse and filamentary structures in Sgr A West. The bulk of the image processing was carried out with the National Center for Supercomputing Applications' Cray XMP-48 at Urbana-Champaign.
We review the current observational status of Sgr A∗, the compact nonthermal radio source at the galactic center. Sgr A∗ is a unique radio source at a unique location of the Galaxy. It is unlike any compact radio source associated with known stellar objects, but it is similar to extragalactic nuclear compact radio sources. The positional offset between Sgr A∗ and IRS16 places little constraint on the nature of the underlying energy source, since IRS16 need not be the core of the central star cluster. Sgr A∗ is still the best candidate for marking the location of a massive collapsed object.
We investigate the long-term flux density variations of the compact radio source Sgr A∗ at the galactic center by combining recent VLA observations with previous Green Bank interferometer data. We present radio flux density light-curves for Sgr A∗ at 20, 11, 6 and 3.7 cm from 1974 to 1987. Long-term variability with a timescale of at least 5 years is seen at 20 cm and there is evidence for more rapid variations at the shorter wavelengths. The variability timescales at 20, 11 and 6 cm fit the λ2 scaling predicted by the theory of refractive scintillation suggesting that the variability could be due to this cause. However, the timescales are relatively short, implying an unusually high velocity in the scattering screen. The modulation index of the variability is large and relatively independent of wavelength.
Mid and far IR measurements of polarized dust continuum emission from within the central 5 pc of the Galaxy have been cited as evidence for magnetic alignment of dust grains. Indirect arguments have been used to infer a B-field strength of ~ 10 mG. The presence of such high B-field would play a significant role in the hydrodynamics of the ionized and neutral gas within the region. To obtain a direct measurement of the line-of-sight B-field strength, we conducted VLA observations to try and detect the Zeeman splitting in the 1667 MHz OH absorption line against the SgrA radio source. We observed with A/B configuration, 256 1.1 km s−1 channels, and 3 arcsec resolution. In addition, both left and right circular polarizations were acquired simultaneously. We used the maximum likelihood statistical analysis technique for low signal-to-noise ratio Zeeman data discussed by Sault, Killeen, Loushin, and Zmuidzinas (1989). Analysis of the resulting absorption line spectra is complicated by the many foreground clouds. Excluding the foreground clouds by judicious selection of spectral windows, the strongest absorption by the molecular material closest (in projection) to SgrA∗ is in what Güsten et al. (1987) refer to as the redshifted cloud (it does not appear to be partaking in the general rotation of the circum-nuclear disk but is thought to be in the local vicinity of SgrA∗). Preliminary analysis reveals no detections, and 3-σ upper limits to the line-of-sight magnetic field throughout the red-shifted cloud of approximately 4 mG. By careful simulation of the lines (Gaussians are quite good approximations to these broad [40 km s−1] lines) in select spatial regions of the redshifted cloud, we find that a line-of-sight field as strong as 10 mG should be clearly detectable at about the 10-σ level if it is present. Our data do not show fields at this level.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
As part of a 4-year Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (CosPA) Research Excellence Initiative in Taiwan, AMiBA - a 19-element dual-channel 85-105 GHz interferometer array is being specifically built to search for high redshift clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE). In addition, AMiBA will have full polarization capabilities, in order to probe the polarization properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background. AMiBA, to be sited on Mauna Kea in Hawaii or in Chile, will reach a sensitivity of ˜ 1 mJy or 7μK in 1 hour. The project involves extensive international scientific and technical collaborations. The construction of AMiBA is scheduled to starting operating in early 2004.
M82 (NGC 3034) is a nearby (D = 3.3 Mpc) “prototypical” starburst galaxy which emits most of its luminosity in the infrared (LIR = 3×1010L⊙, see Rieke et al. 1980). M82 is also a strong radio source 3C 231, with numerous compact knots which are thought to be young SNR's (Kronberg et al., 1981; Muxlow et al., 1994). Its strong 1.4 GHz radio continuum is extended over the entire 500 pc nuclear starburst region, and the HI absorption is easily mapped at 2″ (30 pc) resolution using the VLA. The resulting velocity integrated optical depth (τΔV) map can be converted to HI column density map if HI spin temperature (Tsp) is known.
Sgr A∗, the enigmatic compact nonthermal radio source located at the center of the Galaxy for many years has been considered as the signpost of a massive black hole (Rees 1982; Lo 1986; Falcke et al. 1997). Its properties are unique in the Galaxy, but it resembles other nuclear radio sources (Lo 1993). Efforts to delineate the source structure of Sgr A∗, in order to constraint the nature of the underlying energy source, have been ongoing since 1975 (Lo et al. 1975).
Observations of the 12.8 μm [NeII] line emission, the OH absorption against Sgr A and the HCN emission were compared to determine the relationship between the ionized and neutral gas in the central 10 pc of the Galaxy. The distribution of the neutral gas is too asymmetric to be a ring or disk. Along the western arc, the ionized gas velocity is very different from that of the neutral gas, suggesting it may not be the ionized inner edge of the circum-nuclear neutral gas.
Hα + [NII] and red continuum CCD images as well as high resolution aperture synthesis CO maps were obtained in order to study the optical jet of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 4258. The CO observations show two clouds near the center of the galaxy; these clouds outline a channel and the Hα jet follows this channel. The observations are consistent with the jet being in or making a small angle with the galaxy plane. It is concluded that the interstellar medium may play an important role in making jets detectable optically and in shaping their forms.
Recent CO studies of spiral galaxy NGC 4258 have revealed a close relationship between the molecular gas and the anomalous arms, recently interpreted as jets (Cecil et al. 1992, Martin et al. 1990). An IRAM single dish study by Krause et al. (1991) showed the CO to be concentrated around the Hα arms. Interferometrie imaging of the inner 1’ by Martin et al. (1990) showed the molecular gas confining the arms; they suggested that the jet had initially plowed a tunnel through the disk gas, producing a free path for subsequent ejections. This data also shows strong evidence for a jet-cloud collision along the N W arm (Piante et al. 1991).
To learn more about the jets, we are motivated to exploit the jet-gas relationship with multi-field imaging of the CO along the anomalous arms using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. We present preliminary results from our first 60” field, centered on the SE Hα arm, 43.5” from the nucleus. Observations in the two most compact configurations (C and D) produced a 4” x 6” beam.