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The stability of green phosphorescent OLEDs with different structures was evaluated through constant-current stressing. Through the modifications of the ITO anode by different plasma treatments and the hole transport layer (HTL) by incorporating inorganic dopants, we proved that energy level misalignment at the ITO/HTL interface leads to localized joule heating, accelerating defect generation and luminescence decay. Pulsed current stressing was then employed to suppress the joule-heating effect so as to differentiate the thermal and nonthermal factors governing the device degradation. For OLEDs with a large energy barrier at the ITO/HTL interface, the effective lifetime was markedly increased under pulsed operation, whereas in OLEDs with an appropriate interfacial energy level alignment, pulsed stressing with 10% duty cycle only improved the effective half life by ∼15% as compared to continuous-wave stressing, indicating a minor role played by joule heating.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), one of the transition-metal dichalcogenides, is a 2-dimensional semiconducting material that has a layered structure. Owing to excellent optical and electronic properties, the ultra-thin MoS2 film is expected to be used for various devices, such as transistors and flexible displays. In this study, we investigated the physical and chemical properties of sputtered-MoS2 film in the sub-10-nm region by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the results of Raman spectroscopy investigations, we observed two Raman modes, E12g and A1g, in the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. As the thickness of the MoS2 film decreased, the peak frequency difference between E12g and A1g modes increased. From the XPS investigations, we confirmed sulfur reductions from the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. Therefore, we considered that the sulfur vacancies in the MoS2 film affected the Raman peak positions. Moreover, we performed the additional sulfurization of sputtered-MoS2 films. From the XPS and Raman investigations, the quality of the sputtered-MoS2 films was improved by the additional sulfurization.
To understand the clinical epidemiology and molecular characteristics of human bocavirus (HBoV) infection in children with diarrhoea in Guangzhou, South China, we collected 1128 faecal specimens from children with diarrhoea from July 2010 to December 2012. HBoV and five other major enteric viruses were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Human rotavirus (HRV) was the most prevalent pathogen, detected in 250 (22·2%) cases, followed by enteric adenovirus (EADV) in 76 (6·7%) cases, human astrovirus (HAstV) in 38 (3·4%) cases, HBoV in 17 (1·5%) cases, sapovirus (SaV) in 14 (1·2%) cases, and norovirus (NoV) in 9 (0·8%) cases. Co-infections were identified in 3·7% of the study population and 23·5% of HBoV-positive specimens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 14 HBoV strains to be clustered into species HBoV1 with only minor variations among them. Overall, the detection of HBoV appears to partially contribute to the overall detection gap for enteric infections, single HBoV infection rarely results in severe clinical outcomes, and HBoV sequencing data appears to support conserved genomes across strains identified in this study.
We explore X-ray spectral evolution and radio–X-ray correlation simultaneously for four X-ray binaries (XRBs). We find that hard X-ray photon indices, Γ, are anti- and positively correlated to X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F3–9keV, is below and above a critical flux, FX,crit, which may be regulated by ADAF and disk-corona respectively. We find that the data points with anti-correlation of Γ-F3–9keV follow the universal radio–X-ray correlation of FR ∝ FXb (b ~ 0.5-0.7), while the data points with positive X-ray spectral evolution follow a steeper radio–X-ray correlation (b ~ 1.4, the so-called ‘outliers track’). The bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) share similar X-ray spectral evolution and radio–X-ray correlation as XRBs in ‘outliers’ track, and we present a new fundamental plane of log LR=1.59+0.28−0.22 log LX−0.22+0.19−0.20 log MBH−28.97+0.45−0.45 for these radiatively efficient BH sources.
We present the estimates of the black hole spins of five quasars. The peaks of the spectra of the accretion discs surrounding massive black holes in quasars are in the far-UV or soft X-ray band, which are usually not observed. However, in the disc corona model, the soft photons from the disc are Comptonized to high energy in the hot corona, and the hard X-ray spectra (luminosity and spectral shape) contain the information of the incident spectra from the disc. The values of black hole spin parameter a are inferred from the spectral fitting, which spread over a large range, ~ −0.94 to 0.998.
To study the activation of caspase-9 and its potential influence in conditioning, longissimus thoracis (LT), semitendinosus (STN) and psoas minor (PMi) muscles were used to analyze the ratio of pro-apoptotic bax to anti-apoptotic bcl-2 in fresh tissues and observe the changes in ATP, cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-9 activity levels during storage at 4°C. Caspase-9 activity at 5 h is higher than the activity at 0 and 24 h in the muscles (P<0.001). The ATP content decreased between 0 and 3 h, between 8 and 14 h in the PMi and LT muscles (P<0.0001), whereas between 0 and 5 h, between 8 and 14 h in the STN muscle (P<0.0001). There is 60.2%, 55.3% and 43.1% available ATP in the STN, LT and PMi muscles at 5 h, respectively. The cytosolic cytochrome c level increased during 5 and 24 h storage in the LT and PMi muscles (P<0.0001), during 5 and 96 h in the STN muscle (P<0.0001). The cytosolic cytochrome c at 24 h (P<0.001) and ratio of bax to bcl-2 (P<0.05) was higher in the PMi than in other muscles. We concluded that the increase in cytosolic cytochrome c and available intracellular ATP should be responsible for the increase in caspase-9 activity; the activation of caspase-9 could be limited by the subsequent depletion of ATP; the postmortem release level of cytochrome c could be determined by the ratio of bax to bcl-2 in fresh tissues.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
The environmental concern about diffuse pollution from nitrogen (N) fertilizers has led to increased research on the diagnosis of crop N status. The SPAD chlorophyll (Chl) meter is the most commonly used tool for rice (Oryza sativa L.) N status diagnosis, but measurements are conducted at a specific point and readings are affected by different leaf positions. Many measurements per plant must be taken in order to increase the accuracy of N status diagnosis, which limits its application. The present paper attempts to determine rice N status at the canopy level using Multiplex®, a new hand-held optical fluorescence sensor. The fluorescence emission of rice leaves under light excitation was utilized by Multiplex® to non-destructively assess rice leaf Chl and phenolic compound content. A field experiment was conducted in 2011 using a completely randomized split-plot design, with main-plot treatments being six N fertilizer application rates and subplot treatments being different plant densities. Leaf Chl and phenolic compounds were evaluated using the ratio of far-red fluorescence (FRF) to red fluorescence (RF) emission under red light excitation (simple fluorescence ratio, SFR_R) (R2 = 0·35, P < 0·01) and the ratio of decadic logarithm of red to ultra-violet (UV) fluorescence emission (R2 = 0·30, P < 0·01), respectively. Both SPAD reading and fluorescence-based indices including flavonoids (FLAV), nitrogen balance index (NBI_R) and SFR_R could be used to predict rice leaf N contents. The canopy FLAV, SFR_R and NBI_R were all highly correlated to average SPAD readings (R2 > 0·70 in most cases, P < 0·01). Therefore, Multiplex® can be used as an alternative to SPAD to determine rice N status in paddy fields.
Convergent studies provide support for abnormalities in the structure and functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala, the key components of the neural system that subserves emotional processing in major depressive disorder (MDD). We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine potential amygdala–PFC functional connectivity abnormalities in treatment-naive subjects with MDD.
Resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 28 individuals with MDD and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects. Amygdala–PFC functional connectivity was compared between the MDD and HC groups.
Decreased functional connectivity to the left ventral PFC (VPFC) from the left and right amygdala was observed in the MDD group, compared with the HC group (p < 0.05, corrected).
The treatment-naive subjects with MDD showed decreased functional connectivity from the amygdala to the VPFC, especially to the left VPFC. This suggests that these connections may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset.
We report the first observation of ultraviolet lasing in ZnO powder and ZnO polycrystalline films grown on amorphous fused silica substrates. In the absence of any fabricated mirrors, laser action occurs in the closed loops formed by multiple optical scattering of light.
This study aimed to compare ‘cool’ [working memory (WM) and response inhibition] and ‘hot’ (delay aversion) executive functions (EFs) in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
A total of 100 ADHD children (45 with family history of ADHD and 55 with no family history) and 100 healthy controls, all medication free, were tested on tasks related to the ‘hot’ (i.e. two choice-delay tasks) and ‘cool’ domains of EF (i.e. Digits backward, Corsi Block Task backward, Go/No-Go Task, Stop-Signal Task, and the Stroop).
Compared with the controls, children with ADHD were found to perform significantly worse on one or more measures of response inhibition, WM, and delay aversion after controlling for co-morbidities and estimated IQ. In addition, comparisons between ADHD children with family history of ADHD and those with no family history found significant differences on measures of response inhibition and WM but not delay aversion. These results are largely supported by results of two logistic regressions.
ADHD was found to be associated with deficits on both cool and hot EFs. There is also evidence to suggest that cool EFs impairment is related to a family history of ADHD. Findings of this study have helped to elucidate the nature and extent of EF deficits in children with ADHD.
Measuring residual-stresses at the micron scale in glassy materials imposes experimental challenges, particularly when using diffraction, or other conventional laboratory methods, e.g., optical non-contact methods, grid methods, etc. In this short paper, a technique for mapping residual-stress profiles in amorphous materials with high spatial definition is used to measure residual-stresses in a laser-peened and fatigued bulk-metallic glass - Vit-105. The method involves local deposition of nano Pt dots patterns on the mapped region of the specimen and milling of a series of micro-slots of size 15 × 2 × 0.4 μm3 using the focused ion beam of a dual beam Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope / Focused Ion Gun (FEGSEM/FIB) instrument. The deformation fields in the vicinity of slots are reconstructed by the digital image correlation analyses (DICA) of FEGSEM images recorded during milling. The residual-stresses are inferred by fitting a reference displacement field obtained from finite-element analyses (FEA) with the recorded displacement field. In this way, residual-stress distributions have been characterized as a function of the distance from the laser-peened surface to a depth of 1,200 microns with a spatial resolution of 30 μm. The influence of fatigue loading on the compressive residual-stresses spatial distribution is studied and discussed. It was found that the fatigue loading significantly changes the compressive residual-stress spatial distribution in the laser-peened layer.
This article reports on the effects of HVPE GaN substrate condition on the performance of 405 nm LEDs grown by MOCVD. Three 1 cm2 HVPE GaN substrates were received from a commercially available source and characterized for the substrate condition. AFM and optical microscope were used to characterize the surface morphology and this was found to vary from a “moonscaped” morphology to a smooth surface. The presence of nanoscale pits and substrate bowing were also found. XRD measurements showed a variation in crystalline quality of the substrates with the FWHM of the (0002) rocking curve varying from 87 arcsec to 192 arcsec with some substrates showing multiple peaks in the rocking curve. Photoluminescence was used to measure the optical quality of the substrates and both band edge luminescence and yellow luminescence were found to vary greatly within one substrate as well as from substrate to substrate. After characterization of each individual substrate a 405 nm LED structure was grown using identical growth conditions on each substrate, in separate growth runs. A GaN template was included in each growth for consistency. The surface morphology and crystalline quality of the device structures were then measured. Following this devices were fabricated and tested for electroluminescence optical output power and current-voltage characteristics. The device characteristics and performance as related to starting substrate quality will be presented with respect to substrate surface morphology and crystalline structure.
Due to constraints of natural condition, cost and of available time associated with model fabrication and for extensive wind-tunnel tests or flight tests, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was considered an alternative means of providing air vehicle icing simulation and aeromechanic performance analysis. Full-scale icing experiments and, therefore, certification and cost can be significantly reduced by developing full-numerical simulation methods to evaluate the air vehicle performance for a wide range of icing conditions. This paper summarises helicopter icing simulation methods that include the development of helicopter aerodynamics, calculation methods of helicopter icing, icing protection system performance, icing effects on the helicopter performance, and some challenges in helicopter icing simulation.
Copper-doped SrBi2Nb2O9 (SBN) thin films
have been fabricated on fused quartz substrates at room temperature by RF
magnetron sputtering technique. The chemical composition and Cu
concentration in the deposited films were characterized by X-ray
fluorescence spectrometer. XRD analysis indicated that the films have a
single phase of layered perovskite structure and Cu doping in SBN films did
not degrade their crystallinity at the dopant concentration of 9.5%. The
nonlinear optical properties of the samples were determined using a single
beam z-scan technique at a laser wavelength of 532 nm with laser duration of
25 ps. The results showed that the value of
of Cu-doped SBN films is about twice larger than that of the undoped, which is comparable
with that of some representative nonlinear optical materials, indicating
that metal-doping in dielectric is effective to enhance their nonlinear
optical properties. This suggests that Cu-doped SBN films have great
potential in designing nonlinear optical devices.
A new form of transparent condensed nanophase material of GaN was synthesized directly by ammono-thermal synthetic route. Nano-sized effects and thermal stability of that material were investigated through Raman scattering and infrared spectra. Compared with bulk GaN, we observed the Raman low-energy-shift of the phonon frequency of E2(high) and the transverse optical mode [E1(TO)], the infrared high-energy-shift of, ωT, and the variation of relative intensity IE2/E1(TO). These characteristics can be attributed to the existence of the interface effects and the vacancy of N in the GaN nanophase material. This material has a high thermal stability even at 900 °C as indicated through infrared and Raman spectral investigation of annealed samples of as-synthesized nanophase material.