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Social media research during natural disasters has been presented as a tool to guide response and relief efforts in the disciplines of geography and computer sciences. This systematic review highlights the public health implications of social media use in the response phase of the emergency, assessing (1) how social media can improve the dissemination of emergency warning and response information during and after a natural disaster, and (2) how social media can help identify physical, medical, functional, and emotional needs after a natural disaster. We surveyed the literature using 3 databases and included 44 research articles. We found that analyses of social media data were performed using a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Social media platforms were identified as broadcasting tools presenting an opportunity for public health agencies to share emergency warnings. Social media was used as a tool to identify areas in need of relief operations or medical assistance by using self-reported location, with map development as a common method to visualize data. In retrospective analyses, social media analysis showed promise as an opportunity to reduce the time of response and to identify the individuals’ location. Further research for misinformation and rumor control using social media is needed.
A new generation of high power laser facilities will provide laser pulses with extremely high powers of 10 petawatt (PW) and even 100 PW, capable of reaching intensities of
in the laser focus. These ultra-high intensities are nevertheless lower than the Schwinger intensity
at which the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) predicts that a large part of the energy of the laser photons will be transformed to hard Gamma-ray photons and even to matter, via electron–positron pair production. To enable the investigation of this physics at the intensities achievable with the next generation of high power laser facilities, an approach involving the interaction of two colliding PW laser pulses is being adopted. Theoretical simulations predict strong QED effects with colliding laser pulses of
focused to intensities
Schizophrenia patients have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) than normals. We examined the relationship between IGT and clinical phenotypes or cognitive deficits in first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
A total of 175 in-patients were compared with 31 healthy controls on anthropometric measures and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. They were also compared using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Patient psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
Of the patients, 24.5% had IGT compared with none of the controls, and they also had significantly higher levels of fasting blood glucose and 2-h glucose after an oral glucose load, and were more insulin resistant. Compared with those patients with normal glucose tolerance, the IGT patients were older, had a later age of onset, higher waist or hip circumference and body mass index, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides and higher insulin resistance. Furthermore, IGT patients had higher PANSS total and negative symptom subscale scores, but no greater cognitive impairment except on the emotional intelligence index of the MCCB.
IGT occurs with greater frequency in FEDN schizophrenia, and shows association with demographic and anthropometric parameters, as well as with clinical symptoms but minimally with cognitive impairment during the early course of the disorder.
Ectropis grisescens Warren and Ectropis obliqua (Prout) are two morphologically similar sibling species with overlapping ranges. In this study, manipulative laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the possibility of reproductive interference in sympatric populations of E. grisescens and E. obliqua and the potential consequences of the mating interaction. Our results showed that the presence of males or females of different species could incur mating interference and significant reduction of F1 offspring. The reduction was not significant relevant to the initial relative abundance of E. grisescens and E. obliqua. Detailed observations of mating opportunity showed that female mating frequencies of both species were not significantly affected by the absolute species density, but the mating success of E. obliqua females with conspecific males depended on species ratio. In addition, adding males to the other species resulted in lower number of offspring suggesting that the males’ behaviour might be linked with mating interference. Males of both E. grisescens and E. obliqua could interfere the intraspecific mating of the other species, but the impact of the mating interference differed. These combined data indicated that asymmetric reproductive interference existed in E. grisescens and E. obliqua under laboratory conditions, and the offspring of the mixed species were significantly reduced. The long term outcome of this effect is yet to be determined since additional reproductive factors such as oviposition rate and progeny survival to adulthood may reduce the probability of demographic displacement of one species by the other in overlapping niches.
In endangered and local pig breeds of small population sizes, production has to focus on alternative niche markets with an emphasis on specific product and meat quality traits to achieve economic competiveness. For designing breeding strategies on meat quality, an adequate performance testing scheme focussing on phenotyped selection candidates is required. For the endangered German pig breed ‘Bunte Bentheimer’ (BB), no breeding program has been designed until now, and no performance testing scheme has been implemented. For local breeds, mainly reared in small-scale production systems, a performance test based on in vivo indicator traits might be a promising alternative in order to increase genetic gain for meat quality traits. Hence, the main objective of this study was to design and evaluate breeding strategies for the improvement of meat quality within the BB breed using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers. The in vivo indicator trait was backfat thickness measured by ultrasound (BFiv), and genetic markers were allele variants at the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) locus. In total, 1116 records of production and meat quality traits were collected, including 613 in vivo ultrasound measurements and 713 carcass and meat quality records. Additionally, 700 pigs were genotyped at the RYR1 locus. Data were used (1) to estimate genetic (co)variance components for production and meat quality traits, (2) to estimate allele substitution effects at the RYR1 locus using a selective genotyping approach and (3) to evaluate breeding strategies on meat quality by combining results from quantitative-genetic and molecular-genetic approaches. Heritability for the production trait BFiv was 0.27, and 0.48 for backfat thickness measured on carcass. Estimated heritabilities for meat quality traits ranged from 0.14 for meat brightness to 0.78 for the intramuscular fat content (IMF). Genetic correlations between BFiv and IMF were higher than estimates based on carcass backfat measurements (0.39 v. 0.25). The presence of the unfavorable n allele was associated with increased electric conductivity, paler meat and higher drip loss. The allele substitution effect on IMF was unfavorable, indicating lower IMF when the n allele is present. A breeding strategy including the phenotype (BFiv) combined with genetic marker information at the RYR1 locus from the selection candidate, resulted in a 20% increase in accuracy and selection response when compared with a breeding strategy without genetic marker information.
We present a reconstructed lithologic column compiled from a series of lacustrine outcrops along a tributary of the Nyang River, a major tributary of the Yarlung-Tsangpo in southeast Tibet. The deposits were preserved between terraces at altitudes of 2950–3100 m asl. The stratigraphic record features at least two sets of coarsening-upward sequences depicting episodic aggradation and progradation of a glacially dammed lake related delta. Recognized facies changes illustrate the evolution cycles of depositional environments from pro-delta, delta front, to delta plain. Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dates reveal an aging-downward trend in stratigraphic order and provide an approximate timeline for the formation of glacially dammed lakes in late Pleistocene. This result reflects that the Zelunglung Glacier had progressively advanced to block the Yarlung-Tsangpo river and the dam materials had stepwise stacked up to an altitude of 3095 m asl during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 4 to 2.
We have investigated BisGMA-TEGDMA dental composites with varying mass fractions of hydroxyapatite and silica filler. Commercially available dental composites with 60% silica filler were synthesized in the presence of nanometer-sized hydroxyapatite crystals. We have compared the mechanical properties of BisGMA-TEGDMA samples filled with silica only and those filled with silica and hydroxyapatite particles. We report on hardness as a function of crystalline content as determined by nanoindentation and microindentation.
We report the case of a successful cochlear implantation in a patient with severe cochlear hypoplasia.
The outcome of cochlear implantation is generally less favourable for patients with cochlear hypoplasia than for those with a normal cochlear structure. In the reported patient, part of the electrode array was inserted into the internal auditory canal. Nevertheless, the benefits following cochlear implantation seemed to outweigh the risks for this patient.
Cochlear hypoplasia is not necessarily a contraindication for cochlear implantation.
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma is a ligand-dependent transcription factor with an important role in insulin resistance and obesity. We investigated the associations between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of this receptor, obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome and hyperlipidaemia risk factors, in a Chinese cohort.
Subjects and methods:
We recruited 420 obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome patients and 190 healthy controls. Genetic analysis was conducted by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The hyperlipidaemia risk in both the study and control groups was analysed.
Comparison of genotype and allele frequencies revealed no significant differences between patients and controls (p > 0.05). In patients, there was no correlation between genotype and clinical parameters (p > 0.05), apart from a significant association between the Ala12 allele and hyperlipidaemia (odds ratio = 2.181; p = 0.017; 95 per cent confidence interval = 1.133–4.198).
In this Chinese cohort, the Pro12Ala polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma was not associated with obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome, but was associated with increased hyperlipidaemia risk.
The present study assessed the relationship between breakfast frequency and measures of obesity in Hong Kong Chinese children aged 9–18 years. A total of 11 570 children (50 % boys) underwent anthropometric measurements and completed a simple self-administered dietary behaviour questionnaire. Their parents completed a questionnaire providing demographic information. Breakfast frequency was assessed by a single question, ‘How many days over the past week did you have breakfast?’ Children were categorised into three groups: skippers (ate breakfast 0–2 times/week); semi-skippers (ate breakfast 3–4 times/week); non-skippers (ate breakfast 5–7 times/week), to assess all associated characteristics. Of the 3644 primary and 7926 secondary school students, 8 % (8·7 % of boys and 6·9 % of girls) and 14 % (14 % of boys and 15 % of girls), respectively, were breakfast skippers. The prevalence of obesity among breakfast skippers, semi-skippers and non-skippers was, respectively, 9·8, 10·6 and 3·8 % (P < 0·001) for primary school students and 3·9, 3·1 and 2·4 % (P < 0·001) for secondary school students. The 12 % of Hong Kong children aged 9–18 years who skipped breakfast had higher BMI, BMI z-scores and percentage of body fat (PBF) than their counterparts. The dose effects of breakfast frequency (unstandardised regression coefficient, P < 0·001) on BMI and PBF were, respectively, − 0·125 kg/m2 and − 0·219 % for boys and − 0·165 kg/m2 and − 0·353 % for girls, adjusting for physical activity per additional breakfast meal per week. Further study is recommended to elucidate whether regular breakfast consumption may have a role in the prevention of childhood obesity.
The electrical properties of chalcogenide thin films, both pristine Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and cerium-doped GST (Ce-GST), were investigated by in-situ AC impedance spectroscopy. In conjunction with the brick layer model, the contributions of both the grain and the grain boundary to the phase-transition behaviors of chalcogenide samples could be distinguished; the results illustrated the dominance of the grain boundary in the phase transition process. Moreover, impedance analysis applied to characterize the effects of doping on the phase-transition kinetics yielded results similar to those obtained by conventional methods. Therefore, in-situ AC impedance spectroscopy is a feasible tool for analyzing the phase transitions of chalcogenides.
Experiments demonstrate the ~77× amplification of 0.5 to 3.5-ps pulses of seed light by interaction with Langmuir waves in a low density (1.2 × 1019 cm−3) plasma produced by a 1-ns, 230-J, 1054-nm pump beam with 1.2 × 1014 W/cm2 intensity. The waves are strongly damped (kλD = 0.38, Te = 244 eV) and grow over a ~ 1 mm length, similar to what is experienced by scattered light when it interacts with crossing beams as it exits an ignition target. The amplification reduces when the seed intensity increases above ~1 × 1011 W/cm2, indicating that saturation of the plasma waves on the electron kinetic time scale (<0.5 ps) limits the scatter to ~1% of the available pump energy. The observations are in agreement with 2D PIC simulations in this case.
A 3-week-feeding study (1–21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2·55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1·0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1·0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1·0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1·0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0·05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0·05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0·05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and γ-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1·0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1.
We investigated the performance of 65nm pFETs whereby the source and drain extensions (SDE) were implanted with Carborane, (C2B10H12) a novel form of molecular species. The high atomic mass of this molecule (146 a.m.u.) and the number of boron atoms transported per ion enables the productivity at low energy required for manufacturing of ultra shallow junctions for advanced scaling. In this investigation, Carborane was implanted at 13 keV to produce a Boron profile near equivalent to that produced by the reference BF2 implant. Results of electrical measurements did not exhibit any compromise in the I-V characteristics in terms of Id-Vg and Id-Vd and Ion-Ioff. External resistance and Vt roll-off shifted slightly with respect to the reference devices. This is attributed to a deeper junction with Carborane due to slight offset in the profile matching. It will be shown that with fully matched profiles, a perfect match of the device characteristics can be achieved.
The objectives of this study were to determine true phosphorus (P) digestibility, degradability of phytate-P complex and the endogenous P outputs associated with brown rice feeding in weanling pigs by using the simple linear regression analysis technique. Six barrows with an average initial body weight of 12.5 kg were fitted with a T-cannula and fed six diets according to a 6 × 6 Latin-square design. Six maize starch-based diets, containing six levels of P at 0.80, 1.36, 1.93, 2.49, 3.04, and 3.61 g/kg per kg dry-matter (DM) intake (DMI), were formulated with brown rice. Each experimental period lasted 10 days. After a 7-day adaptation, all faecal samples were collected on days 8 and 9. Ileal digesta samples were collected for a total of 24 h on day 10. The apparent ileal and faecal P digestibility values of brown rice were affected ( P < 0.01) by the P contents in the assay diets. The apparent ileal and faecal P digestibility values increased from − 48.0 to 36.7% and from − 35.6 to 40.0%, respectively, as P content increased from 0.80 to 3.61 g/kg DMI. Linear relationships ( P < 0.05), expressed as g/kg DMI, between the apparent ileal and faecal digestible P and dietary levels of P, suggested that true P digestibility and the endogenous P outputs associated with brown rice feeding could be determined by using the simple regression analysis technique. There were no differences ( P>0.05) in true P digestibility values (57.7 ± 5.4 v. 58.2 ± 5.9%), phytate P degradability (76.4 ± 6.7 v. 79.0 ± 4.4%) and the endogenous P outputs (0.812 ± 0..096 v. 0.725 ± 0.083 g/kg DMI) between the ileal and the faecal levels. The endogenous faecal P output represented 14 and 25% of the National Research Council (1998) recommended daily total and available P requirements in the weanling pig, respectively. About 58% of the total P in brown rice could be digested and absorbed by the weanling pig. Our results suggest that the large intestine of the weanling pigs does not play a significant role in the digestion of P in brown rice. Diet formulation on the basis of total or apparent P digestibility with brown rice may lead to P overfeeding and excessive P excretion in pigs.
Los Alamos National Laboratory short pulse experiments have shown
using various target cleaning techniques such that heavy ion beams of
different charge states can be produced. Furthermore, by controlling the
thickness of light ions on the rear of the target, monoenergetic ion
pulses can be generated. The spectral shape of the accelerated particles
can be controlled to yield a range of distributions, from Maxwellian to
ones possessing a monoenergetic peak at high energy. The key lies in
understanding and utilizing target surface chemistry. Careful monitoring
and control of the surface properties and induction of reactions at
different temperatures allows well defined source layers to be formed,
which in turn lead to the desired energy spectra in the acceleration
process. Theoretical considerations provide understanding of the process
of monoenergetic ion production. In addition, numerical modeling has
identified a new acceleration mechanism, the laser break-out afterburner
that could potentially boost particle energies by up to two orders of
magnitude for the same laser parameters. This mechanism may enable
application of laser-accelerated ion beams to venues such as compact
accelerators, tumor therapy, and ion fast ignition.