To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Recent meta-analyses of resting-state networks in major depressive disorder (MDD) implicate network disruptions underlying cognitive and affective features of illness. Heterogeneity of findings to date may stem from the relative lack of data parsing clinical features of MDD such as phase of illness and the burden of multiple episodes.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 17 active MDD and 34 remitted MDD patients, and 26 healthy controls (HCs) across two sites. Participants were medication-free and further subdivided into those with single v. multiple episodes to examine disease burden. Seed-based connectivity using the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed to probe the default mode network as well as the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) seeds to probe the salience network (SN) were conducted.
Young adults with remitted MDD demonstrated hyperconnectivity of the left PCC to the left inferior frontal gyrus and of the left sgACC to the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and left hippocampus compared with HCs. Episode-independent effects were observed between the left PCC and the right dorsolateral PFC, as well as between the left amygdala and right insula and caudate, whereas the burden of multiple episodes was associated with hypoconnectivity of the left PCC to multiple cognitive control regions as well as hypoconnectivity of the amygdala to large portions of the SN.
This is the first study of a homogeneous sample of unmedicated young adults with a history of adolescent-onset MDD illustrating brain-based episodic features of illness.
In this study, the properties of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters, including phase velocity and electromechanical coupling coefficient (K2) are investigated. The effective surface permittivity (ESP) method was employed to estimate the K2 of bulk materials (single layer) and multi-layer (double-layer and trilayer) structures. In the cases of bulk materials, the calculation results agree with the experimental data, and the errors are less than 7% for quartz. In the cases of double-layer materials, the phase velocity and K2 of various materials, such as ZnO/Diamond and LiNbO3/Diamond, were acquired, and the results demonstrate that LiNbO3/diamond is the optimal choice for high-frequency SAW devices. For the cases of trilayer, the structure of ZnO/PZT/diamond has relatively high K2 and phase velocity. Therefore, this structure is the optimal trilayer structure for high-frequency SAW devices. The study demonstrates that ESP method can be successfully used for estimating SAW properties in piezoelectric multi-layer structures even though the structures contain nonpiezoelectric film (diamond). The proposed numerical computation has the potential to shorten the developing time of SAW device.
The growth of the size of cache and the number of processor cores in modern CPUs is the major factor in advancing the computing performance of modern machines. The effect of CPU cache size in multicore computers on performance, however, has attracted little attention in lubrication and engineering analyses. In this study, the effect of cache size on the computational performance of two parallel iterative methods in solving two Reynolds equations is examined. Four computers, with CPU cache size from 4 to 40 MB and the number of processor cores from 4 to 16, were used. The sizes of the numerical grid were selected to simulate large gridwork (256 × 256) to small gridwork (2048 × 2048) tasks. It is found that the size of CPU cache is a major factor influencing the parallel efficiency in using the RBSOR method. On the other hand, the SPSOR method obtains much higher parallel efficiency than the RBSOR for medium-grained tasks, regardless of the size of CPU cache. The use of the SPSOR can, therefore, provide a much better parallel computing performance than the RBSOR in the cases of having a large number of grids or in a system with limited CPU cache.
To investigate and compare the performance of head mirrors and headlights during otolaryngological examination.
The illuminance and illumination field of each device were measured and compared. Visual identification and visual acuity were also measured, in 13 medical students and 10 otolaryngology specialists.
The illuminance (mean ± standard deviation) of the LumiView, Kimscope 1 W and Kimscope 3 W headlights and a standard head mirror were 352.3 ± 9, 92.3 ± 4.5, 438 ± 15.7 and 68.3 ± 1.2 lux, respectively. The illumination field of the head mirror (mean ± standard deviation) was 348 ± 29.8 grids, significantly greater than that of the Kimscope 3 W headlight (183 ± 9.2 grids) (p = 0.0017). The student group showed no statistically significant difference between visual identification with the best headlight and the head mirror (score means ± standard deviations: 56.2 ± 9 and 53.3 ± 14.1, respectively; p = 0.3). The expert group scored significantly higher for visual identification with head mirrors versus headlights (59.7 ± 3.3 vs 55.2 ± 5.8, respectively; p = 0.0035), but showed no difference for visual acuity.
Despite the advantages of headlight illumination, head mirrors provided better, shadow-free illumination. Despite no differences amongst students, head mirrors performed better than headlights in experienced hands.
This paper studies the behavior of second grade viscoelastic fluid past a cavity in a horizontal channel. The effects of Reynolds number, fluid elasticity and the aspect ratio of the cavity on the flow field are simulated numerically. The equations are converted into the vorticity and stream function equations. The solution is obtained by the finite difference method.
The behavior of viscoelastic fluids is quite different from the Newtonian fluid, due to the effects of fluid elasticity. Only one flow pattern appears when the Newtonian fluid past the cavity. However, three kinds of flow patterns appear while the viscoelastic fluids past the cavity by increasing Reynolds number from 20 to 300. The flow field is affected by the fluid elasticity as well as the aspect ratio of the cavity. The transitional flow pattern appears at lower Reynolds number as the higher elasticity fluid past the cavity with larger aspect ratio.
In this study, we present theoretical derivation of seepage flow in unsaturated and static soil using Homogenization theory. The derivation started in the microscopic scale in the soil. The representative elementary volume (REV) in the soil is set to be one order larger than the scale of characteristic length of pore. Solids in the REV are assumed to be rigid and cohesionless. The liquid velocity in the pore is slow. By no-slip boundary condition on the solid boundary in REV, we could obtain the microscopic flow conditions. Using spatial ensemble average under the microscopic scale, we obtain the relation between water content, pressure head and velocities in macroscopic scale. This macroscopic averaged equation is validated to be equal to Richards' equation.
This study demonstrates the feasibility of introducing a TaN thin film as a copper diffusion barrier for p-type (BiSb)2Te3 thermoelectric material. Compared to conventional Ni diffusion barrier, remarkably little void generation in Cu bulk or near Cu/TaN interface originated from Cu penetration is observed for TaN barrier after suffering the thermal budget of close to soldering. Diffusion behaviors of the barriers were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) to make a deep understanding in clarifying interface diffusion effects among the Cu electrode, the barrier layer, and the (BiSb)2Te3thermoelectric layer.
Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF) has been widely used to treat internal disc degeneration. However, different cage positions and their orientations may affect the initial stability leading to different fusion results. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the optimum cage position and orientation for aiding an ALIF having a transfacet pedicle screw fixation (TFPS). A three-dimensional finite element model (ALIF with TFPS) has been developed to simulate the stability of the L4/L5 fusion segment under five different loading conditions. The Taguchi method was used to evaluate the optimized placement of the cages. Three control factors and two noise factors were included in the parameter design. The control factors included the anterior-posterior position, the medio-lateral position, and the convergent-divergent angle between the two cages. The compressive preload and the strengths of the cancellous bone were set as noise factors. From the results of the FEA and the Taguchi method, we suggest that the optimal cage positioning has a wide anterior placement, and a diverging angle between the two cages. The results show that the optimum cage position simultaneously contributes to a stronger support of the anterior column and lowers the risk of TFPS loosening.
This study was performed to determine the prevalence, distribution of specimen sources, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–Acinetobacter baumannii (Acb) species complex in Singapore. One hundred and ninety-three non-replicate Acb species complex clinical isolates were collected from six hospitals over a 1-month period in 2006. Of these, 152 (78·7%) were identified as A. baumannii, 18 (9·3%) as ‘Acinetobacter pittii’ [genomic species (gen. sp.) 3], and 23 (11·9%) as ‘Acinetobacter nosocomialis’ (gen. sp. 13TU). Carbapenem resistance was highest in A. baumannii (72·4%), followed by A. pittii (38·9%), and A. nosocomialis (34·8%). Most carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and A. nosocomialis possessed the blaOXA-23-like gene whereas carbapenem-resistant A. pittii possessed the blaOXA-58-like gene. Two imipenem-resistant strains (A. baumannii and A. pittii) had the blaIMP-like gene. Representatives of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii were related to European clones I and II.
The previous monolithic active grating bender design met some basic design requirements. However, after a real grating (BM-AGM) had been fabricated and installed for testing, the results showed that the usable length is a mere 60 mm because of the higher-order term error in the surface profile. A method was thus derived to eliminate the higher-order term error by modifying the width of the bender substrate through finite-element method simulation, reducing the residual error from about 100 nm to 6 nm. Owing to the closure of the grating department of Zeiss, ruling the monolithic bender is no longer available and the design has to be modified to a composite-type bender with Si substrate. A prototype was fabricated and assembled to examine all the design situations. The surface roughness of the width-modified Si substrate is around 30 nm before assembly. The residual error after assembly and bending is less than 10 nm. It proves that the design is feasible. However, due to the manufacturing capacity of the vendor, a short-length substrate is required and the design has to be modified. The detailed design modification and testing results are presented in this paper.
Taiwan Photon Source is a new 3-GeV ring with characteristics of great brightness and small emittance, at present under construction at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) site in Taiwan and due to be commissioned in 2013. The positioning of the magnets is highly sensitive to alignment errors, and the entire building will be constructed half underground at depth 12 m relative to Taiwan Light Source (TLS) for stability reasons; for these reasons the survey and alignment work is confined and difficult. To position magnets precisely and quickly, a highly accurate auto-tuning girder system combined with a survey network was designed to accomplish the alignment tasks. The survey network includes a preliminary Global Positioning System (GPS) network and a laser-tracking network. The position data from the survey network define a basis for the system of motorized girders to auto-tune and improve the accuracy. The detailed survey and alignment design, simulation and preliminary data are described in this paper.
A precise laser positioning system had been preliminarily developed for the girder system of the Taiwan Photon Source. This laser positioning system, a part of a girder auto-alignment scheme, will be installed on the girders located at both sides of each straight section of the storage ring. The system is composed of a laser and four sets of a position sensing device (PSD). The laser, held on one girder, propagates 13 m along the girder and plays the role of a reference line of girders of the straight section. Based on the laser linear characteristics, the other girder can be adjusted and aligned by a cam mover according to PSD data. To achieve superior precision, the whole laser positioning system should be constructed stably. After making some improvements to eliminate the unstable terms, the precision of the laser positioning system can achieve 2 µm at 13 m propagating distance every 4 h.
Taiwan Photon Source is now under construction at NSRRC Taiwan. In order to maintain the Taiwan Light Source (TLS) for normal operation, a hydrostatic levelling system and precision inclination sensor (Leica Nivel 220) were installed both in the storage ring and beamlines to monitor ground deformation arising. This paper presents the monitoring system setup and the circumstances of ground deformation including vertical settlement and floor inclination during the ground breaking period to provide a criterion for TLS operation.
Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), a new 3 GeV synchrotron ring, is under construction at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). To discover problems of design, manufacture and installation, a mockup of 1/24 section (one cell) of TPS was installed at NSRRC. A modified, precise, six-axis, prototype girder system of this mockup composed of three girders was fabricated. We discuss both the installation of the girder system and its diagnostics, and present the results including measurement of the dimensions of the components of the girder system and the vibration tests.
Laparoscopy is an accepted method of treatment in gynecology, general surgery, urology, and pediatric surgery. It is generally safe, is usually well tolerated by patients, and, when compared to its open surgical counterpart, offers the advantages of less postoperative pain, reduced surgical trauma, and a shortened postoperative hospital stay. However, as with any surgical procedure, laparoscopy has technique-related complications. One of these complications is major vascular injury (MVI), of which consequences can be quite serious. Injuries to the large vessels (aorta, vena cava, iliac vessels, and mesenteric vessels) are commonly referred to as MVI and occur in a variety of laparoscopic fields (see Figure 20.1.1, Table 20.1.1). Many of these injuries occur while inserting the Veress needle and/or trocars through the abdominal wall and, as a result, do not occur in conventional procedures. While the reported incidence may be low, ranging from 0.05% to 0.14%, the mortality arising from these injuries is substantially higher and has been reported to reach up to 17% (see Table 20.1.2). Therefore, the rare occurrence of MVI carries with it the risk of a potentially catastrophic outcome.
MVI can occur in laparoscopic surgery during the early maneuvers required to enter the peritoneal cavity, or during the surgical dissection required for the specific procedure.
To determine the incidence of complications following temperature-controlled radiofrequency treatment of the soft palate, uvula and tongue base.
Settings and methods:
We included all patients who had received temperature-controlled radiofrequency treatment of the soft palate, uvula and tongue base, for sleep-disordered breathing, over a four-year period in a tertiary hospital. Patients' medical records were systematically reviewed for radiofrequency treatment parameters and complications.
Main outcome measure:
Seventy-six patients had been treated, with a total of 127 treatment sessions and 544 lesions to the palate, uvula and tongue base. The incidences of minor and moderate complications were, respectively, 2.6 per cent (14/544 lesions) and 0.4 per cent (2/544 treatment lesions), being 3.0 per cent (16/544 lesions) overall. Subdividing by anatomical region, the incidences of minor and moderate complications following palatal and uvula radiofrequency treatment were, respectively, 3.1 per cent (14/446 lesions) and 0 per cent, and those following tongue base treatment were, respectively, 0 per cent and 2.0 per cent (2/98 lesions). The incidence of minor complications following soft palate and uvula treatment, per treatment session, was 10.9 per cent. The incidence of moderate complications following tongue base treatment, per treatment session, was 4.6 per cent. There were no major complications in our study population.
In this study, the incidence of complications of temperature-controlled radiofrequency treatment of the palate, uvula and tongue base was low. Temperature-controlled radiofrequency is a safe treatment modality for patients with sleep-disordered breathing and can be performed as a day case procedure. We recommend day admission for patients undergoing radiofrequency of the tongue base, in view of the potential for severe complications and airway compromise.