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In vitromethods for laboratory estimation of food degradation are important tools for nutritionists.These methods either measure substrate disappearance by quantifying incubation residues or record fermentation products such as microbial biomass, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) or gas volume (Blümmel et al., 1997a). Recently, the surge of interest in the efficient utilization of roughage diets has caused an increase in the use of gas methods because of the possibility of estimating the extent and rate of degradation in one sample by time series measurements of the accumulating gas volume. We combined gas measurements with residue determinations (truly degraded substrate) or microbial mass determination after fermentation to study the effects of natural plant products, in particular tannins and saponins, on the availability and partitioning of nutrients.
The separation of forages into a soluble fraction like cell contents and into an insoluble matrix like cell walls is an initial step in forage evaluation. Further analysis can be applied to study fermentation characteristics of soluble and insoluble fractions. Unfortunately, most laboratory in vitro techniques quantify incubation insoluble residues and are therefore inappropriate for the examination of food solubles. In vitro gas methods (for example Menke et al., 1979) reflect the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and are therefore free of the disadvantages associated with gravimetric methods. However, it was recently pointed out that an inverse relationship may exist between SCFA production and microbial biomass yield (for review see Blümmel et al., 1997a). These authors suggested combining in vitro gas measurements with the quantification of substrate concomitantly degraded to calculate a partitioning factor (PF). This factor reflects the substrate-dependent variation in SCFA production and microbial biomass yield; the factor (PF) was shown to be valuable in voluntary food intake (DMI) predictions (Blümmel et al., 1997b). In the work presented here, the rate and extent of fermentation of whole roughages and extracted neutral-detergent fibres (NDF) of 54 roughages were examined in an in vitro gas test. The dry-matter degradability of extracted NDF was also quantified and the partitioning factor for NDF (PFNDF) was determined. The relevance of these findings for the analysis of extracted NDF and cell solubles is discussed and their implications for the prediction of DMI of roughages by gas tests are addressed.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
The MACHO microlensing experiment's time-sampled photometry database contains blue and red lightcurves for nearly 9 million stars in the central bar region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We have identified known LMC Planetary Nebulae (PN) in the database and find one, Jacoby 5, to be variable. We additionally present data on the “parent populations” of LMC PN, and discuss the star formation history of the LMC bar.
Küstner (1921) catalogued K648 in his photographic survey of M15, but it was not recognized as a PN central star until Pease (1928) discovered the nebula, denoted Ps1. As one of very few PN known in globular clusters — it was the only known until Gillet et al. (1989) reported the discovery of a second in M22 and Jacoby et al. (this meeting) announced two new but very faint objects — K648 offers one of the better opportunities to study the post-AGB evolution of extreme Pop. II stars. Previous investigations of the nebula and star (Adams et al. 1984; Peña, Torres-Peimbert, & Ruiz 1992; Heber, Dreizler, & Werner 1993) all concluded that the stellar temperature is slightly less than 40000 K. Heber et al. also concluded the photospheric He and C abundances were 3 × and 5 × higher than solar.
Introduction: Literature suggests that up to 25% of people with HIV in North America are unaware of their status and are at risk to transmit the virus unknowingly. A high proportion of HIV patients are diagnosed when the disease is more advanced, with CD4 counts < 200. This study examined the rates of HIV testing, detection, and treatment of clients at an inner city shelter and detoxification centre after the introduction of a point of care testing (POCT) program by on-site community paramedics (CP). Methods: In 2013, in collaboration with a regional HIV program, CP received training and instituted an HIV POCT program and post-test counselling initiative. A retrospective electronic database review from October 16, 2013 to October 15, 2014 of adult patients who received testing was performed. Demographic and testing details of each patient encounter were abstracted and select variables were compared to a historic population who received POC HIV testing at an inner city emergency department (ED) in the same city. Results: 1,207 HIV POC tests were performed on 997 patients during the pilot. 57% of the patients tested were less than 40 years of age (range 18-73 years) compared to 55% in the historic ED population. A total of 9 reactive cases were identified in the study population including 3 new cases, 5 previously known cases, and 1 false reactive result. The mean age of the new cases was 47 years, vs 44 in the historical control. All 3 new cases were referred to a local HIV clinic for further care and treatment. New HIV cases represented 0.25% of total tests performed, which is less than the expected prevalence rate of 1% for this population, as well as the rate of 1.4% found in the ED population. Conclusion: Despite lower than expected reactive rates, the large scale implementation of a CP HIV POCT program in an inner city shelter and detoxification centre is feasible. All patients with new reactive tests were immediately connected to care. Future research will focus on risk factors and barriers to testing.
A review of the properties of Type II Cepheids and RV Tauri stars in the Magellanic Clouds is presented. In the behaviour of their light and colour curves, the RV Tauri stars appear to be a direct extension of the Type II Cepheids to longer periods. A single P – L – C relationship describes both the Type II Cepheids and RV Tauri stars in the LMC. The derived high intrinsic magnitudes for the RV Tauri variables supports the proposition that these objects are luminous stars evolving off the AGB. Preliminary analysis of the long time-series MACHO photometry indicates one star (MACHO*05:37:45.0–69:54:16) has an obvious ‘period-quadrupled’ periodicity, which is supporting evidence for a period-doubling bifurcation transition to chaotic pulsations.
We present the first results of the analysis of 22 Blazhko stars. We find: 1) Blazhko RRab stars that are nearly pure amplitude modulators; 2) Blazhko RRab stars that have both amplitude and phase modulation; 3) A Blazhko RRab star that has an abrupt period change; 4) Proof of the Blazhko effect in RRc stars. Our data show the character of the amplitude and phase modulations of the light curves over the Blazhko cycles far better than has been previously possible.
We present the first massive frequency analysis of the 1200 first overtone RR Lyrae stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud observed in the first 4.3 yr of the MACHO project. Besides the many new double-mode variables, we also discovered stars with closely spaced frequencies. These variables are most probably nonradial pulsators.
Estimates of the proportion of illness transmitted by food for different enteric pathogens are essential for foodborne burden-of-disease studies. Owing to insufficient scientific data, a formal synthesis of expert opinion, an expert elicitation, is commonly used to produce such estimates. Eleven experts participated in an elicitation to estimate the proportion of illnesses due to food in Australia for nine pathogens over three rounds: first, based on their own knowledge alone; second, after being provided with systematic reviews of the literature and Australian data; and finally, at a workshop where experts reflected on the evidence. Estimates changed significantly across the three rounds (P = 0·002) as measured by analysis of variance. Following the workshop in round 3, estimates showed smoother distributions with significantly less variation for several pathogens. When estimates were combined to provide combined distributions for each pathogen, the width of these combined distributions reflected experts’ perceptions of the availability of evidence, with narrower intervals for pathogens for which evidence was judged to be strongest. Our findings show that the choice of expert elicitation process can significantly influence final estimates. Our structured process – and the workshop in particular – produced robust estimates and distributions appropriate for inclusion in burden-of-disease studies.
The population structure of Staphylococcus aureus is changing globally but the situation regarding dominant clones in sub-Saharan Africa is not clear. We therefore assessed changes in the population structure of clinical S. aureus isolates obtained in 2007 (n = 75) and 2012 (n = 75) from Northeastern Nigeria. A reduction in resistance to penicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin and clindamycin was observed in 2012. A decrease of methicillin resistance rates (13·3% to 8·0%) was associated with the decline of the ST241 MRSA clone. The proportion of Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive isolates also decreased from 65·3% to 44%, and was linked with the emergence of PVL-negative ST601 clone in 2012. The significant decline in antibiotic resistance in the study area is in contrast to the worldwide trend of increasing resistance rates.
The prevalence of natural carriage and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) isolates in a Jordanian community were investigated. The MRSA nasal carriage rate in 227 healthy volunteers was 7·5% and the majority (81%) of MRSA harboured the resistance element SCCmec type IVe and were of a novel spa type t9519 (76%); other significant spa gene types were t223 (14·7%) and t044 (5·9%). All MRSA isolates were susceptible to other classes of antibiotics, and tested positive for at least three virulence factor encoding genes, but only two harboured the pvl gene. MR-CoNS carriage was 54·2% and these isolates were characterized by single, double and untypable SCCmec elements, with Staphylococcus epidermidis SCCmec type IVa predominating. Of eight subjects with nasal co-colonization of MR-CoNS + MRSA, three shared SCCmec type IV in both groups of organisms. This is the first report of methicillin-resistant staphylococci carriage in a Jordanian community and its findings are important for epidemiological study and infection control measures of these organisms.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
The structure of TiAlN and other thin films depends on the coating method, parameter variation and an eventual treatment of the coating after deposition. Concerning the coating process, reactive sputter and evaporation parameters influence structure formation as well as plasma driven chemical reaction on the substrate surface. Besides, crystal formation and agglomeration depends on energetic level and flow rates in the coating system, the kind and number of reactive partners, temperature and specific parameters of the coating plant.
Post-deposition treatments on the other hand may influence the formation of residual stresses but not the crystallization of different phases within the complete coating. Besides, mechanical treatment may change the coating's morphology which may be important depending on the application since sometimes a columnar structure is to be optimized in size, amount and location. Thus a homogeneous coating is not always the optimum solution. In the experiments presented here we investigated the wear properties of thin TiAlN films. They were post-treated by sandblasting and heating in order to reduce frictional forces between the contacting bodies or analyze the effects of elevated temperatures respectively. These wear properties were evaluated by turning of 42CrMo4V at low cutting speed.
Attempts to reduce high utilisation of mental health inpatient care by targeting the critical time of hospital discharge are rare. In this study, we test the effect of a needs-oriented discharge planning intervention on number and duration of psychiatric inpatient treatment episodes (primary), as well as on outpatient service use, needs, psychopathology, depression and quality of life (secondary).
Four hundred and ninety-one adults with a defined high utilisation of mental health care gave informed consent to participate in a multicentre RCT carried out at five psychiatric hospitals in Germany (Düsseldorf, Greifswald, Regensburg, Ravensburg and Günzburg). Subjects allocated to the intervention group were offered a manualised needs-led discharge planning and monitoring intervention with two intertwined sessions administered at hospital discharge and 3 months thereafter. Outcomes were assessed at four measurement points during a period of 18 months following discharge.
Intention-to-treat analyses showed no effect of the intervention on primary or secondary outcomes.
Process evaluation pending, the intervention cannot be recommended for implementation in routine care. Other approaches, e.g. team-based community care, might be more beneficial for people with persistent and severe mental illness.
We have developed a new cluster ion source that can generate intense beams of metal and semiconductor clusters of a very wide-size range. With the source, we have observed intense beams of carbon clusters with mean cluster sizes of up to 4000 atoms/clusters. However, we have found that for generating small fullerenes, such as C60 and C70, the recently discovered technique by Kraetschmer et al. is much more efficient. By improving the technique, we have generated gram quantities of C60 and C70 and systematically investigated their thermal desorption properties. During the heating process, we have discovered that at high temperatures the bulk fullerenes, fullerite, transformed to another form of carbon, which still evaporates at temperatures above 700 C, but does not dissolve in benzene.
We have embedded nm-size Cu clusters in optically dense, thin (∼ 150 nm) layers using standard ion implantation techniques. The size and size distribution of the clusters can be altered by varying such ion-implantation parameters as total dose and current density. The layers exhibit both a thermo-optic and an electronic nonlinear optical response, depending on the mode of laser excitation. The electronic nonlinearity has a response time no longer than 5 ps.
Poly(ρ-phenylene vinylene)s (PPVs) are very promising materials for optoelectronic applications, especially for displays based on polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs). We report here our findings concerning defect structures in this materials and the influence of the discovered irregularities on an important property of the materials, i.e. the operational life in a PLED. Recent improvements, which were deviated from this findings are presented: optimized PPVs with a lower amount of defects result in a strong increase of operational lifetime.