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Bendamustine hydrochloride monohydrate (marketed as Treanda®) is a nitrogen mustard purine analog alkylator used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Commercial bendamustine hydrochloride monohydrate crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c (14), with a = 4.71348(4) Å, b = 47.5325(3) Å, c = 8.97458 (5) Å, β = 96.6515(8)°, V = 1997.161(23) Å3, and Z = 4. A reduced cell search in the Cambridge Structural Database yielded a previously reported crystal structure (Allen, 2002), which did not include hydrogens (Reck, 2006). In this work, the sample was ordered from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, and analyzed as received. The room-temperature crystal structure was refined using synchrotron (λ = 0.413896 Å) powder diffraction data, density functional theory (DFT), and Rietveld refinement techniques. Hydrogen positions were included as part of the structure, and recalculated during the refinement. The diffraction data were collected on beamline BM-11 at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Figure 1 shows the powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the compound. The pattern is included in the Powder Diffraction File as entry 00-064-1508.
The pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in patients with the major depressive disorder (MDD) may involve neuroinflammation mediated by cytokines.
The aim of this study was to examine the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, sustained attention, and their association in patients with MDD.
Thirty patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Sustained attention was measured using the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) task in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The serum IL-6 levels of all subjects were assessed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
There were significant differences in the log10RVP total hits, log10RVP total misses, and log10RVP mean latency between patients with MDD and healthy controls (F = 6.04, p = 0.017; F = 19.77, p < 0.0001; F = 14.42, p < 0.0001, respectively). The serum levels of Log10IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in healthy controls (F = 192.27, p < 0.0001). The log10IL-6 levels were also positively correlated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (r = 0.45, p = 0.013). A further stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that the log10IL-6 levels were significantly associated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (β = 0.31, t = 2.41, p = 0.025).
Our data suggested that increased IL-6 levels were associated with the psychopathology of MDD, and that abnormal IL-6 levels were implicated in the impairment of sustained attention in patients with MDD.
Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.
The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.
Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.
Population decline among Asian horseshoe crabs in Asia is increasingly reported, but knowledge of their population and ecological status in China is limited. We conducted community interviews in 30 fishing villages around Beibu Gulf in Guangxi, China, to collect distribution information about the potential spawning/nursery grounds of Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, and any imminent threats to their populations. Based on the results from 400 respondents we identified 45 potential spawning/nursery grounds distributed widely along the shores of Beibu Gulf. We visited 10 of these sites and verified the presence of juvenile horseshoe crabs by field surveys. Nearly all respondents reported an overall depletion in horseshoe crab populations from these 45 sites, which they attributed mainly to unsustainable fishing practices. Respondents who reported having seen horseshoe crab mating pairs on shores were mostly older people, which may suggest a considerable reduction in horseshoe crabs coming to the shores to spawn in recent years. The mean daily harvest of adult T. tridentatus offshore, as indicated by fishers, has declined from c. 50–1,000 in the 1990s to 0–30 individuals during 2011–2016. Our Wisdom of Crowds approach, supported by confirmatory field surveys, is a cost-effective method for assessing the population status of horseshoe crabs, and the level of threat they face. Similar approaches with other species are likely to be particularly valuable in the Asia–Pacific region, where well-structured population monitoring is largely unaffordable.
Rural-to-urban migrant workers are a large marginalised population in urban China. Prevalence estimates of common mental health problems (CMHPs) in previous studies varied widely and very few studies have investigated migration-related factors of CMHPs in migrant workers. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of CMHPs among Chinese migrant workers.
A random sample of 3031 migrant workers of ten manufacturing factories in Shenzhen, China, completed a standardised questionnaire containing socio-demographic and migration-related variables and the Chinese 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A GHQ-12 score of three or higher was used to denote the presence of CMHPs.
The prevalence of CMHPs was 34.4% in Chinese migrant workers. In multiple logistic regression, risk factors for CMHPs included being 16–25 years old (odd ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28, 2.12), being 26–35 years old (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.75), low monthly income (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04, 1.92), poor living condition (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.54), physical illness in the past 2 weeks (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.43, 2.05), having worked in many cities (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03, 1.74), infrequently visiting hometown (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.22, 1.99), poor Mandarin proficiency (OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13, 2.01), a low level of perceived benefits of migration (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14, 1.55) and working more than 8 h/day (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.14, 1.70).
CMHPs are very prevalent among Chinese migrant workers. Given the large number of Chinese migrant workers, there is an urgent need to address the mental health burden of China's migrant worker population.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
Glacier change has been recognized as an important climate variable due to its sensitive response to climate change. Although there are a large number of glaciers distributed over the southeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, the region is poorly represented in glacier databases due to seasonal snow cover and frequent cloud cover. Here, we present an improved glacier inventory for this region by combining Landsat observations acquired over 2011–13 (Landsat 8/OLI and Landsat TM/ETM+), coherence images from Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar images and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM. We present a semi-automated scheme for integrating observations from multi-temporal Landsat scenes to mitigate cloud obscuration. Further, the clean-ice observations, together with coherence information, slope constraints, vegetation cover and water classification information extracted from the Landsat scenes, are integrated to determine the debris-covered glacier area. After manual editing, we derive a new glacier inventory containing 6892 glaciers >0.02 km2, covering a total area of 6566 ± 197 km2. This new glacier inventory indicates gross overestimation in glacier area (over 30%) in previously published glacier inventories, and reveals various spatial characteristics of glaciers in the region. Our inventory can be used as a baseline dataset for future studies including glacier change assessment.
Geometric model of a lobed mixing exhaust system is created and its flow field is simulated by using the steady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations under the condition of different core flow inlet swirl angles. According to the numerical simulation results, due to the guidance effect of the lobe parallel side wall, the structure and vorticity of streamwise vortices change little near the lobe exit with inlet swirl angle, and it is the same with the thermal mixing efficiency. As the flow develops, although the inlet swirl angle has limited influence on the streamwise vorticity, it greatly affects the structure of streamwise vortices. It causes the thermal mixing efficiency to increase with the swirl angle. As for the total pressure recovery coefficient, it falls slightly when the inlet swirl strengthens. At the nozzle exit, the total pressure recovery coefficient of CFISA = 30° model is 0.5% lower than CFISA = 0° model. Moreover, as the inlet swirl strengthens, the thrust fall of lobed mixing exhaust system gradually accelerates, especially when the inlet swirl angle is over 15°.
There has been increasing interest in so-called phononic materials, which can support surface modes known as surface phonon polaritons, consisting of electromagnetic waves coupled to lattice vibrations at the surface of a polar material. While such excitations have a variety of desirable features, they are limited to the spectral range between a material's longitudinal and transverse optical phonon frequencies. In this work, we demonstrate that for materials whose free-carrier concentrations can be controlled, hybrid plasmonic/phononic modes can be supported across a range of frequencies including those generally forbidden by purely phononic materials.
The room-temperature crystal structure of levothyroxine sodium pentahydrate has been refined using synchrotron powder diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in space group P1 (#1) with a = 8.2489(4), b = 9.4868(5), c = 15.8298(6) Å, α = 84.1387(4), β = 83.1560(3), γ = 85.0482(3) deg, V = 1220.071(9) Å3, and Z = 2. Hydrogen atoms (missing from the previously-reported structure) were included.
In this survey, we review different text mining techniques to discover various textual patterns from the social networking sites. Social network applications create opportunities to establish interaction among people leading to mutual learning and sharing of valuable knowledge, such as chat, comments, and discussion boards. Data in social networking websites is inherently unstructured and fuzzy in nature. In everyday life conversations, people do not care about the spellings and accurate grammatical construction of a sentence that may lead to different types of ambiguities, such as lexical, syntactic, and semantic. Therefore, analyzing and extracting information patterns from such data sets are more complex. Several surveys have been conducted to analyze different methods for the information extraction. Most of the surveys emphasized on the application of different text mining techniques for unstructured data sets reside in the form of text documents, but do not specifically target the data sets in social networking website. This survey attempts to provide a thorough understanding of different text mining techniques as well as the application of these techniques in the social networking websites. This survey investigates the recent advancement in the field of text analysis and covers two basic approaches of text mining, such as classification and clustering that are widely used for the exploration of the unstructured text available on the Web.
In current transparent Si based photovoltaic (PV) module fabrication, green or infrared laser is the most common used band frequency to wipe off the silicon and back contact layer in perpendicular direction of cells. However, this method would result in more power loss than calculation value due to the side effects during the process such as constructional damage of module and shunt effect. A new method is presented here which focus on wiping off more silicon layer by employing green pulsed laser(532 nm wavelength) along the parallel direction of Pattern2, and it shows higher efficiency and more attractive appearance.
Tidal Disruption (TD) of stars by supermassive central black holes from dense rotating star clusters is modeled by high-accuracy direct N-body simulation. We study the time evolution of the stellar tidal disruption rate and the origin of tidally disrupted stars. Compared with that in spherical systems, we found a higher TD rate in axisymmetric systems. The enhancement can be explained by an enlarged loss-cone in phase space which is raised from the fact that total angular momentum J is not conserved. As in the case of spherical systems, the distribution of the last apocenter distance of tidally accreted stars peaks at the classical critical radius. However, the angular distribution of the origin of the accreted stars reveals bimodal features. We show that the bimodal structure can be explained by the presence of two families of regular orbits, namely short axis tube and saucer orbits.
Within the framework of linear piezoelectricity, the problem of two collinear electrically dielectric cracks in a piezoelectric layer is investigated under inplane electro-mechanical loadings. The energetically consistent crack-face boundary conditions are utilized to address the effects of a dielectric inside the cracks on the crack growth. The Fourier transform technique is applied to solve the boundary-value problem. Under the consideration of two-case electromechanical loadings, the electroelastic fields near the inner and outer crack tips are obtained through the Lobatto-Chebyshev collocation method. The special case of two collinear energetically consistent cracks in an infinite piezoelectric solid is analyzed and the closed-form solutions of the crack-tip electroelastic fields are further determined. Numerical results show the variations of stress intensity factors and energy release rates near the inner and outer crack tips on the applied electric fields, the geometry of cracks and the width of the piezoelectric layer in graphics. The observations reveal that the stress intensity factors are dependent not only on the adopted crack-face boundary conditions, but also on the applied mechanical loading.