Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Pneumococcal serotype replacement is an important issue after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in children. After the introduction of 13-valent PCV, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F (Sp12F) have increased in some countries; however, an outbreak of Sp12F has not reported in the post-13-valent PCV era. We experienced a local outbreak of Sp12F during March through May 2016 in Tsuruoka city, Japan after the introduction of 13-valent PCV in 2013. The IPD patients were two children and seven adults, three of whom died with a rapid disease progress. Although the clear transmission route was not determined, eight of the nine patients (89%) had close contact with children, which suggests that transmitted colonisation of Sp12F among children and adults might be the source of transmission. Continuous monitoring of IPDs, along with the determination of pneumococcal serotypes, is warranted in the post–13-valent PCV era. New IPD control strategies may be needed if this fatal outbreak continues to occur.
The impulse radar was found to be useful in surveying the internal structures of wet snow patches in mountain regions. Radar profiles revealed that the thickness of the perennial ice was 30 m, possibly the thickest in Japan. An unconformity widely extended nearly parallel to the surface at the depth of 2 to 9 m and divided the ice into two parts.
Between May 1983 and July 1984 glaciological parties of the 24th and 25th Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions (JARE–24 and 25) carried out ice-core drilling using a thermal drill, down to 700.5 m depth at Mizuho Station (70°41'53"S, 44°19'54"E), as a part of the Glaciological Research Program in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica.
The thermal drill, 3.9 m long and capable of taking a core 1.5 m long and 130 mm in diameter, is an improved version of a drill used by JARE–15 in 1975. The most important improvement was the monitoring system during drilling, for which a micro-computer was fitted in the drill. By using this system, such accidents as heater burn-out, tank overflow and failure of water suction would immediately be brought to our attention. The drilling speed was about 1.6 m/h, when the optimum output was 3.6 kW. The core recovery rate was above 99%.
The core quality was good down to a depth of 80 m. Between 80 and 120 m, cracks were found at intervals of 0.15–0.5 m, and horizontal cracks were found continuously at intervals of 0.01 m or less.
Immediately after the core was pulled, the stratigraphy was observed and bulk density was measured. A dust band, presumably volcanic particles, was seen at only 500.2 m depth during stratigraphic observation. The following analyses were carried out at Mizuho Station within a month of recovery:
(1)Density determination by the hydrostatic method.
(2)Measurement of total gas content.
(3)Thin-section analyses, including observation of cracking around air bubbles and the crystalline texture, and ice-fabric studies.
The 700.5 m core has been brought to Japan, and the following analyses are now under way:
In order to investigate the distinguishability about the progenitors of FeCCSNe and ECSNe, we calculate the luminosities and spectra of their pre-SN neutrinos and estimate the number of events at neutrino detectors.
Little is known about the economic benefits of cognitive remediation and supported employment (CR + SE). The present study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of CR + SE compared with traditional vocational services (TVS).
Individuals with mental illness and low cognitive function were recruited at six sites in Japan. A total of 111 participants were randomly allocated to the CR + SE group or the TVS group. Clinical and vocational outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Service utilization data were collected monthly. The data on outcomes and costs were combined to examine cost-effectiveness.
The data were obtained from a total of 92 participants. The CR + SE group resulted in better vocational and clinical outcomes (employment rate, 62.2%; work tenures, 78.6 days; cognitive improvement, 0.5) than the TVS group (19.1%, 24.9 days and 0.2). There was no significant difference in mean total costs between the groups (CR + SE group: $9823, s.d. = $6372, TVS group: $11 063, s.d. = $11 263) with and without adjustment for covariates. However, mean cost for medical services in the CR + SE group was significantly lower than that in the TVS group after adjusting covariates (Β = −$3979, 95% confidence interval −$7816 to −$143, p = 0.042). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves for vocational outcomes illustrated the high probabilities (approximately 70%) of the CR + SE group being more cost-effective than TVS when society is not willing to pay additional costs.
CR + SE appears to be a cost-effective option for people with mental illness who have low cognitive functioning when compared with TVS.
We report here the results of deep optical spectroscopy of the very extended emission-line region (VEELR) found serendipitously around the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388 in the Virgo cluster. The Hα recession velocities of most of the filaments of the region observed are highly blue-shifted with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The velocity field is complicated, and there seem to be several streams of filaments ranging from ~ −100 km s−1 to ~ −700 km s−1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The emission-line ratios of the VEELR filaments are well explained by power-law photoionization models with solar abundances. In addition to photoionization, shock heating probably contributes to the ionization of the gas. We conclude that the VEELR was formerly the disk gas of NGC 4388, which has been stripped by ram pressure due to the interaction between the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) and the galaxy.
Seyfert galaxies often have extended emission line regions around their nucleus. We started an observation program of optical tridimensional spectroscopy for circumnuclear regions of nearby Seyfert galaxies to investigate the ionization source of the gas of just vicinity(typically several hundred pc) of nucleus.
Aoki et al. (1996) found outflowing gas in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7319. The velocity of the outflow comes up to 500 km s−1 and its extent is 4 kpc. This outflow is one of the largest outflowing phenomenon that have ever been found in Seyfert galaxies. The radio emission found by van der Hulst & Rots (1981) aligns the outflowing gas. It suggests the radio emission has relation to the outflow. We have made higher resolution radio imaging of NGC 7319 with VLA to study in detail relation of radio emission to outflowing gas. These radio images have been compared to Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archival broad-band WFPC2 image. The systemic velocity 6740 km s−1 (Aoki et al. 1996) gives a distance of 90 Mpc for NGC 7319 assuming a Hubble constant H0=75 km s−1 Mpc−1. Thus 1″ corresponds to 450 pc.
Since the discovery of fading X-rays from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with BeppoSAX (Piro et al. 1997, Costa et al. 1997), world-wide follow-up observations in optical band have achieved the fruitful results. The case of GRB 970228, there was an optical transient, coincides with the BeppoSAX position and faded (Paradijs et al. 1997, Sahu et al. 1997). These optical observations also confirmed the extended component, which was associated with the optical transient. The new transient are fading with a power-law function in time and the later observation of HST confirmed the extended emission is stable (Fruchter et al. 1997). This extended object seems to be a distant galaxy and strongly suggests to be the host.
We made a search of quiescent X-ray counterparts of two Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), GRB930131 and GRB940217. These GRBs were detected with BATSE, EGRET, COMPTEL on board CGRO together with the GRB detector on Ulysses spacecraft, then they were localized in small error regions. These observations showed that the bursts were remarkably bright accompanying delayed high energy gamma-rays. ASCA observations have found a single X-ray source for each GRB on the possible location determined with the above instruments.
A narrow-band imaging observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC1068 was made in the Fabry-Perot mode of the Kyoto 3D Spectrograph attached to the 188cm telescope of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. We observed at wavelengths of Hα, [S ii]λ6716, [S ii]λ6731 and adjacent continua of the respective lines with a “tunable filter”, i.e. a gap-scanning etalon with a spectral resolution of 20 Å.
In this paper we present the results of spectroscopic observations for 34 emission-line stars (ELSs) in the Orion belt region, which were detected in an extensive survery. Spectral classification and the intensities of Hα and Hβ emission have revealed that the observed ELSs are probably T-Tauri type stars.
We report on the status of the CCD cameras for the Kiso 105-cm Schmidt telescope. We have two types of cameras – single-chip and mosaic. The single-chip camera is available for common use. At present about 90 % of the telescope time is allocated to observations with CCD cameras.
Tridimensional spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 3C 120 was carried out with Spectronebulagraph (SNG). We constructed a data cube which is free from atmospheric variations during the scans. We then separated the blended lines by deconvolving the line profiles, to obtain pure narrow-line images and narrow-line intensity ratio diagram.
The Kyoto 3-D Spectrograph was commissioned successfully at the 188-cm telescope of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory in the spring of 1996. This instrument has four distinct modes (Ohtani et al. 1994): (1) narrow-band imager, which is an ordinary focal-reducer camera; (2) Spectro-NebulaGraph (long-slit spectrograph; Kosugi et al. 1995); (3) imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer, using either of two Fabry-Perot etalons from Queensgate Instruments (a tunable filter with R = 300 and another with R = 7000 for velocity-field observations. Broad-band (400–700 nm) coatings are deposited on both etalons. During observations, the etalon temperature is stabilized within 0.5°C); and (4) integral-field spectrograph of the TIGER-type (Bacon et al. 1995). In this mode, the spectra of 7 × 11 objects can be recorded simultaneously, along with 7 × 2 spectra of the sky 4′ away. The spatial resolution is 1″.3 and the field of view is 9″ × 14″.
The High Energy Transient Explorer 2 is a small scientific satellite designed to detect and localize gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The coordinates of GRBs detected by HETE-2 will be distributed to interested ground-based observers within seconds of burst detection, thereby allowing detailed observations of the initial phases of GRBs. HETE-2 was launched successfully on October 9, 2000. The GRB positions will start to be delivered after a few months of the complete testing and calibration of the spacecraft system and the science instruments.
The Collaboration of Australia and Nippon for a GAmma Ray Observatory in the Outback operates two large telescopes at Woomera (South Australia), which detect the Čerenkov light images produced in the atmosphere by electronpositron cascades initiated by very high energy (~1 TeV or 1012 eV) gamma rays. These gamma rays arise from a different mechanism than at EGRET energies: inverse Compton (IC) emission from relativistic electrons.
The spoke-like images are recorded by a multi-pixel camera which facilitates the rejection of the large numbers of oblique and ragged cosmic ray images. A field of view ~3.5° is required. The Australian team operates a triple 4 m diameter mirror telescope, BIGRAT, with a 37 photomultiplier tube camera and energy threshold 600 GeV. The Japanese operate a single, highly accurate 3.8 m diameter f/1 telescope and high resolution 256 photomultipler tube camera. In 1998 a new 7 m telescope is planned for Woomera with a design threshold ~;200GeV.
NGC 1275, the Perseus cluster cD galaxy, is a well-known Seyfert 1 galaxy and also one of the strongest extragalactic radio sources (3C84). Although many studies have been done on the extended optical emission-line region of NGC 1275, which is thought to be associated with the X-ray cooling-flow phenomenon (e.g., Heckman et al. 1989, Ferruit and Pecontal 1994), the excitation mechanism of the emission-line gas and two-dimensional gas kinematics are still unclear. We made tri-dimensional spectroscopy of NGC 1275 in order to reveal two-dimensional kinematics and- the relation between the gas motion and the excitation of the emission lines.