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Identifying the relative importance of urban and non-urban land-use types for potential denitrification derived N2O at a regional scale is critical for quantifying the impacts of human activities on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission under changing environments. In this study we used a regional dataset from China including 197 soil samples and six land-use types to evaluate the main predictors (land use, heavy metals, soil pH, soil moisture, substrate availability, functional and broad microbial abundances) of potential denitrification using multivariate and pathway analysis. Our results provide empirical evidence that soils on farms have the greatest potential denitrifying ability (PDA) (10.92±6.08ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1) followed by urban soil (6.80±5.35ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1). Our models indicate that land use (low vs. high human activity), followed by total nitrogen (TN) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) was the most important driver of PDA. In addition, our path analysis suggests that at least part of the impacts of land use on potential denitrification were mediated via microbial abundance, soil pH and substrates including TN, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate. This study identifies the main predictors of denitrification at a regional scale which is needed to quantify the impact of human activities on ecosystem functionality under changing conditions.
The current emphasis of schistosomiasis control is placed on preventive chemotherapy using praziquantel. However, reinfection may occur rapidly in the absence of complementary interventions. Recent studies from Senegal suggest that predatory prawns might feed on intermediate host snails and thus impact on schistosomiasis transmission. We designed a study with four repeated cross-sectional surveys pertaining to prawns and snails, coupled with a single cross-sectional parasitological survey among humans. We assessed for potential associations between the presence/density of prawns and snails and correlation with Schistosoma infection in a composite sample of school-aged children and adults. The study was carried out between October 2015 and December 2016 in 24 villages located near the Agnéby and Mé coastal river systems in south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire. At each site, snails and prawns were collected, and in each village, 150 individuals were subjected to stool and urine examination for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. We found peaks of relative abundance of intermediate host snails in the villages of the Agnéby River system, while predatory prawns were predominantly recorded in the Mé River system. A negative association was observed between intermediate host snail densities and riverine prawns; however, no pattern was found between this trend in the predator–prey relationship and the prevalence of human schistosomiasis.
The 2017 plague outbreak in Madagascar was unprecedented in the African region, resulting in 2417 cases (498 confirmed, 793 probable and 1126 suspected) and 209 deaths by the end of the acute urban pneumonic phase of the outbreak. The Health Emergencies Programme of the WHO Regional Office for Africa together with the WHO Country Office and WHO Headquarters assisted the Ministry of Public Health of Madagascar in the rapid implementation of plague prevention and control measures while collecting and analysing quantitative and qualitative data to inform immediate interventions. We document the key findings of the evidence available to date and actions taken as a result. Based on the four goals of operational research – effective dissemination of results, peer-reviewed publication, changes to policy and practice and improvements in programme performance and health – we evaluate the use of evidence to inform response to the outbreak and describe lessons learned for future outbreak responses in the WHO African region. This article may not be reprinted or reused in any way in order to promote any commercial products or services.
The pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in patients with the major depressive disorder (MDD) may involve neuroinflammation mediated by cytokines.
The aim of this study was to examine the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, sustained attention, and their association in patients with MDD.
Thirty patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Sustained attention was measured using the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) task in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The serum IL-6 levels of all subjects were assessed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
There were significant differences in the log10RVP total hits, log10RVP total misses, and log10RVP mean latency between patients with MDD and healthy controls (F = 6.04, p = 0.017; F = 19.77, p < 0.0001; F = 14.42, p < 0.0001, respectively). The serum levels of Log10IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in healthy controls (F = 192.27, p < 0.0001). The log10IL-6 levels were also positively correlated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (r = 0.45, p = 0.013). A further stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that the log10IL-6 levels were significantly associated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (β = 0.31, t = 2.41, p = 0.025).
Our data suggested that increased IL-6 levels were associated with the psychopathology of MDD, and that abnormal IL-6 levels were implicated in the impairment of sustained attention in patients with MDD.
We present an effective reduced-order model (ROM) technique to couple an incompressible flow with a transversely vibrating bluff body in a state-space format. The ROM of the unsteady wake flow is based on the Navier–Stokes equations and is constructed by means of an eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA). We investigate the underlying mechanism of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number via linear stability analysis. To understand the frequency lock-in mechanism and self-sustained VIV phenomenon, a systematic analysis is performed by examining the eigenvalue trajectories of the ERA-based ROM for a range of reduced oscillation frequency
, while maintaining fixed values of the Reynolds number (
) and mass ratio (
). The effects of the Reynolds number
, the mass ratio
and the rounding of a square cylinder are examined to generalize the proposed ERA-based ROM for the VIV lock-in analysis. The considered cylinder configurations are a basic square with sharp corners, a circle and three intermediate rounded squares, which are created by varying a single rounding parameter. The results show that the two frequency lock-in regimes, the so-called resonance and flutter, only exist when certain conditions are satisfied, and the regimes have a strong dependence on the shape of the bluff body, the Reynolds number and the mass ratio. In addition, the frequency lock-in during VIV of a square cylinder is found to be dominated by the resonance regime, without any coupled-mode flutter at low Reynolds number. To further discern the influence of geometry on the VIV lock-in mechanism, we consider the smooth curve geometry of an ellipse and two sharp corner geometries of forward triangle and diamond-shaped bluff bodies. While the ellipse and diamond geometries exhibit the flutter and mixed resonance–flutter regimes, the forward triangle undergoes only the flutter-induced lock-in for
$30\leqslant Re\leqslant 100$
. In the case of the forward triangle configuration, the ERA-based ROM accurately predicts the low-frequency galloping instability. We observe a kink in the amplitude response associated with 1:3 synchronization, whereby the forward triangular body oscillates at a single dominant frequency but the lift force has a frequency component at three times the body oscillation frequency. Finally, we present a stability phase diagram to summarize the VIV lock-in regimes of the five smooth-curve- and sharp-corner-based bluff bodies. These findings attempt to generalize our understanding of the VIV lock-in mechanism for bluff bodies at low Reynolds number. The proposed ERA-based ROM is found to be accurate, efficient and easy to use for the linear stability analysis of VIV, and it can have a profound impact on the development of control strategies for nonlinear vortex shedding and VIV.
We present an active feedback blowing and suction (AFBS) procedure via model reduction for unsteady wake flow and the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of circular cylinders. The reduced-order model (ROM) for the AFBS procedure is developed by the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA), which provides a low-order representation of the unsteady flow dynamics in the neighbourhood of the equilibrium steady state. The actuation is considered via vertical suction and a blowing jet at the porous surface of a circular cylinder with a body-mounted force sensor. While the optimal gain is obtained using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR), Kalman filtering is employed to estimate the approximate state vector. The feedback control system shifts the unstable eigenvalues of the wake flow and the VIV system to the left half-complex-plane, and subsequently results in suppression of the vortex street and the VIV in elastically mounted structures. The resulting controller designed by a linear low-order approximation is able to suppress the nonlinear saturated state of wake vortex shedding from the circular cylinder. A systematic linear ROM-based stability analysis is performed to understand the eigenvalue distribution for the flow past stationary and elastically mounted circular cylinders. The results from the ROM analysis are consistent with those obtained from full nonlinear fluid–structure interaction simulations, thereby confirming the validity of the proposed ROM-based AFBS procedure. A sensitivity study on the number of suction/blowing actuators, the angular arrangement of actuators and the combined versus independent control architectures has been performed for the flow past a stationary circular cylinder. Overall, the proposed control concept based on the ERA-based ROM and the LQR algorithm is found to be effective in suppressing the vortex street and the VIV for a range of reduced velocities and mass ratios.
It has been demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the control of melanogenesis and hair color in mammals. By comparing miRNA expression profiles between brown and white alpaca skin, we previously identified miR508-3p as a differentially expressed miRNA suggesting its potential role in melanogenesis and hair color formation. The present study was conducted to determine the role of miR508-3p in melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. In situ hybridization showed that miR508-3p is abundantly present in the cytoplasma of alpaca melanocytes. miR508-3p was predicted to target the gene encoding microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and a luciferase reporter assay indicated that miR508-3p regulates MITF expression by directly targeting its 3′UTR. Overexpression of miR508-3p in alpaca melanocytes down-regulated MITF expression both at the messenger RNA and protein level and resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 2. Overexpression of miR508-3p in melanocytes also resulted in decreased melanin production including total alkali-soluble melanogenesis, eumelanogenesis and pheomelanogenesis. Results support a functional role of miR508-3p in regulating melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes by directly targeting MITF.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable polygenic disorder. Recent
enrichment analyses suggest that there may be true risk variants for
bipolar disorder in the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in the
We sought to assess the impact of eQTL variants on bipolar disorder risk
by combining data from both bipolar disorder genome-wide association
studies (GWAS) and brain eQTL.
To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence
expression levels of genes associated with bipolar disorder, we jointly
analysed data from a bipolar disorder GWAS (7481 cases and 9250 controls)
and a genome-wide brain (cortical) eQTL (193 healthy controls) using a
Bayesian statistical method, with independent follow-up replications. The
identified risk SNP was then further tested for association with
hippocampal volume (n = 5775) and cognitive performance
(n = 342) among healthy individuals.
Integrative analysis revealed a significant association between a brain
eQTL rs6088662 on chromosome 20q11.22 and bipolar disorder (log Bayes
factor = 5.48; bipolar disorder P =
5.85×10–5). Follow-up studies across multiple independent
samples confirmed the association of the risk SNP (rs6088662) with gene
expression and bipolar disorder susceptibility (P =
3.54×10–8). Further exploratory analysis revealed that
rs6088662 is also associated with hippocampal volume and cognitive
performance in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that 20q11.22 is likely a risk region for bipolar
disorder; they also highlight the informative value of integrating
functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression in
advancing our understanding of the biological basis underlying complex
disorders, such as bipolar disorder.
Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are a sub-class of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with relatively low-mass black holes, accreting near the Eddington rate. A small fraction of them is radio-loud and harbors relativistic jets. As a class, these provide us with new insights into the cause(s) of radio-loudness, the blazar phenomenon at low black hole masses, and the operation of radio-mode feedback. The NLS1 galaxy RXJ2314.9+2243 is remarkable for its multi-wavelength properties. We present new radio observations taken at Effelsberg, and a summary of the recent results from our multi-wavelength study. RXJ2314.9+2243 is radio-loud, luminous in the infrared, has a flat X-ray spectrum and peculiar UV spectrum, and hosts an exceptionally broad and blueshifted [OIII]λ5007 emission line, indicating the presence of a strong outflow. RXJ2314.9+2243 likely represents an extreme case of AGN induced feedback in the local universe.
1H 0323+342 is one of the rare γ-ray detected narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s), a special subset of active galactic nuclei (AGN) owing to their hybrid behavior of both NLS1s and blazars. The rarity of such kind of sources makes their properties far from being understood. We analyze simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical monitoring observations of 1H 0323+342 performed by Swift over ~7 years. The UV/X-ray correlation and the broad band SED reveal that the X-ray band is dominated by the disk/corona emission during the observations. The large normalized excess variance of the X-ray variability detected with Suzaku suggests a relatively small black hole mass of the order of 107M⊙, consistent with the estimation based on the broad Hβ line in the optical band.
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD) share considerable overlap in clinical features, genetic risk factors and co-occurrence among relatives. The common and unique functional cerebral deficits in these disorders, and in unaffected relatives, remain to be identified.
A total of 59 healthy controls, 37 SCZ and 57 PBD probands and their unaffected first-degree relatives (38 and 28, respectively) were studied using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). Regional cerebral function was evaluated by measuring the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF). Areas with ALFF alterations were used as seeds in whole-brain functional connectivity analysis. We then tested whether abnormalities identified in probands were present in unaffected relatives.
SCZ and PBD probands both demonstrated regional hypoactivity in the orbital frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus, as well as abnormal connectivity within striatal-thalamo-cortical networks. SCZ probands showed greater and more widely distributed ALFF alterations including the thalamus and bilateral parahippocampal gyri. Increased parahippocampal ALFF was related to positive symptoms and cognitive deficit. PBD patients showed uniquely increased functional connectivity between the thalamus and bilateral insula. Only PBD relatives showed abnormal connectivity within striatal-thalamo-cortical networks seen in both proband groups.
The present findings reveal a common pattern of deficits in frontostriatal circuitry across SCZ and PBD, and unique regional and functional connectivity abnormalities that distinguish them. The abnormal network connectivity in PBD relatives that was present in both proband groups may reflect genetic susceptibility associated with risk for psychosis, but within-family associations of this measure were not high.
Natural disasters exacerbate risks of hazardous environmental exposures and adverse health consequences. The present study determined the proportion of previously identified lead industrial sites in urban locations that are at high risk for dispersal of toxic chemicals by natural disasters.
Geographic analysis from publicly available data identified former lead smelting plants that coincide with populated urban areas and with high-risk locations for natural disasters.
From a total of 229 urban smelting sites, 66 (29%) were in relatively high-risk areas for natural disasters: flood (39), earthquake (29), tornado (3), and hurricane (2). States with urban sites at relatively high risk for natural disaster included California (15); Pennsylvania (14); New York (7); Missouri (6); Illinois (5); New Jersey (4); Kentucky (3); Florida, Oregon, and Ohio (2 each); and Indiana, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, and Washington (1 each). Incomplete historical records showed at least 10 smelting site locations were affected by natural disaster.
Forgotten environmental hazards may remain hazardous in any community. Uncertainty about risks in disasters causes disruptive public anxiety that increases difficulties in community responses and recovery. Our professional and public responsibility is to seek a better understanding of the risks of latent environmental hazards. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1–7)
A novel atom probe tomography (APT) method has been developed that enables a full description of the orientation relationship between individual grains to be determined together with estimates of the extents of solute segregation for all elements over the surface of the grain boundary with 1 nm by 1 nm spatial resolution. This approach also enables variations in the solute excess for the elements with the habit plane and curvature of the grain boundary to be evaluated. The method has been applied to a mechanically-alloyed nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) after high dose heavy ion irradiation. The innovative high-resolution two-dimensional mapping of the solute segregation across the surface of grain boundaries in the NFA clearly demonstrates that the distributions of chromium and tungsten are not uniform across the grain boundaries, and the distributions correlate with changes in its local curvature and the position of the grain boundary precipitates. These features pin the grain boundary against grain growth and provide the stability for excellent creep properties.
Carbon/carbon composites (C/C composites) possess superior characteristics of low density, high strength, extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion, high fatigue resistance. In carbonization process, the high temperature pyrolysis made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and other elements, results in a lot of voids and cavities generated in the interior of C/C composites. Therefore, the C/C composites are densified to fill the void by using repeated impregnation. But densification is a time-wasting and complex process, which increases production costs in the manufacturing process.
In this study, the Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) were adopted as reinforcement material for C/C composites to reduce the existence of voids or cavities and enhance the mechanical properties of C/C composites under environment aging effects. Three different temperature with high moisture conditions are used to be tested, including high temperature (150°C/ 90%RH), room temperature (25°C/90%RH), and low temperature (-15°C/90%RH) to analyze the mechanical properties of C/C composites, such as flexural and Interlaminar Shear Strength (ILSS).
We investigated the genetic structure of 120 isolates of serotype 19F Streptococcus pneumoniae from Chinese children with acute respiratory infections collected from 1997 to 2006, and 2010. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin and levofloxacin, and only five strains were not susceptible to penicillin. The non-susceptibility rate to cephalosporins increased from 1997 to 2010. Of 119 erythromycin-resistant strains, 60 carried both ermB and mefA genes. The percentage of clonal complex 271 (CC271) increased from 14·3% in 1997–1998 to 92% in 2010, whereas that of CC983 decreased from 64·3% to 0%. CC271 had a higher non-susceptibility rate to β-lactam antibiotics than CC983 and other CCs. The increased non-susceptibility rate to β-lactam antibiotics in serotype 19F pneumococci was found to be associated with the spread of the international resistant clone CC271 presumably caused by antibiotic pressure. Long-term surveys of serotype 19F S. pneumoniae are required to monitor CC prevalence and trends in antimicrobial resistance.