To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The therapeutic value of specific fibres is partly dependent on their fermentation characteristics. Some fibres are rapidly degraded with generation of gases that induce symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), while more slowly- or non-fermentable fibres may be more suitable. More work is needed to profile a comprehensive range of fibre to determine suitability for IBS. Using a rapid in vitro fermentation model, gas production and metabolite profiles of a range of established and novel fibres were compared. Fibre substrates (n=15) were added to faecal slurries from 3 healthy donors for 4 hours with gas production measured using real-time headspace sampling. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia were analysed using gas chromatography and enzymatic assay respectively. Gas production followed 3 patterns: rapid (≥60 mL/g over 4 hours) for fructans, carrot fibre and corn-derived xylo-oligosaccharide; mild (30-60 mL/g) for partially hydrolysed guar gum, almond shell-derived xylo-oligosaccharide and one type of high-amylose resistant starch 2 (RS2); and minimal (no differences with blank controls) for methylcellulose, another high-amylose RS2, acetylated or butyrylated RS2, RS4, acacia gum and sugarcane bagasse. Gas production correlated positively with total SCFA (r=0.80, p<0.001) and negatively with ammonia concentrations (r=-0.68, p<0.001). Proportions of specific SCFA varied: fermentation of carrot fibre, xylo-oligosaccharides and acetylated RS2 favoured acetate while fructans favoured butyrate. Gas production and metabolite profiles differed between fibre types and within fibre classes over a physiologically relevant 4-hour time-course. Several fibres resisted rapid fermentation and may be candidates for clinical trials in IBS patients.
Electronic skins are critical for many applications in human-machine-environment interactions. Tactile sensitivity over large areas can be especially applied to prosthetics. Moreover, the potential for wearables, interactive surfaces, and human robotics have propelled research in this area. In this Element, we provide an account and directional atlas of the progress in materials and devices for electronic skins, in the context of sensing principles and skin-like features. Additionally, we give an overview of essential electronic circuits and systems used in large-area tactile sensor arrays. Finally, we present the challenges and provide perspectives on future developments.
This paper presents a computational study on the free forward flight and sideslip manoeuvre of an insect-like flapping-wing flyer modelled after the hummingbird hawkmoth (Macroglossum stellatarum), with Reynolds number
. The numerical model integrated a Navier–Stokes fluid solver with the Newtonian free-body dynamics of the flyer. A generic proportional–integral–derivative (PID)-based wing kinematics controller was used to achieve stable controlled flight. State-equation analyses of flight dynamics were helpful in identifying the roles of kinematic wing actions and for establishing control coefficients for stable flight. Forward flights up to a speed of
were simulated, which show that the wingbeat frequency decreased below the hovering frequency for cruising flight in the low- and medium-speed range, and higher frequency was only needed for high-speed flight. Similarly, the aerodynamic power consumption was also lower than that for hovering flight over the simulated speed range, due to the contribution of wing drag to overall lift. In addition, flight with higher speed tends to be more efficient in terms of energy consumption for the same distance travelled. In a complete sideslip manoeuvre, the model hawkmoth took approximately 20 wing cycles to translate laterally 4.5 wing lengths to its right and another 30 wing cycles to stabilize hovering at the new location. Slightly higher wingbeat frequency and power were required during the sideslipping phase to adjust for drop in lift due to body roll. The evolution of the vortical wakes reflects quite well the major mechanisms of force generation that were at play at key stages in these flights.
We investigate the phased evolution and variation of the South Asian monsoon and resulting weathering intensity and physical erosion in the Himalaya–Karakoram Mountains since late Pliocene time (c. 3.4 Ma) using a comprehensive approach. Neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions and single-grain zircon U–Pb age spectra reveal the sources of the deposits in the east Arabian Sea, and show a combination of sources from the Himalaya and the Karakoram–Kohistan–Ladakh Mountains, with sediments from the Indian Peninsula such as the Deccan Traps or Craton. We interpret shifts in the sediment sources to have been forced by sea-level changes that correlate with South Asian monsoon rainfall variation since late Pliocene time. We collected 908 samples from the International Ocean Discovery Program Hole U1456A, which was drilled in the east Arabian Sea. Time series of hematite content and grain size of the sediments were examined downcore. We found South Asian monsoon precipitation and weathering intensity experienced three phases from late Pliocene time. Lower monsoon precipitation, with a lower variability and strong weathering intensity, occurred during 3.4–2.4 Ma; an increased and more variable South Asian monsoon rainfall, along with strengthened but fluctuating weathering intensity, occurred at 1.8–1.1 Ma; and a reduced rainfall with lower South Asian monsoon precipitation variability and moderate weathering intensity marked the period 1.1–0.1 Ma. Maximum entropy spectral analysis and wavelet transform show that there were orbital-dominated cycles of periods c. 100 and c. 41 ka in these proxy-based time series. We propose that the monsoon, sea level, global temperature and insolation together forced the weathering and erosion in SW Asia.
The diet of most adults is low in fish and, therefore, provides limited quantities of the long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FAs), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA, DHA). Since these compounds serve important roles in the brain, we sought to determine if healthy adults with low-LCn-3FA consumption would exhibit improvements in neuropsychological performance and parallel changes in brain morphology following repletion through fish oil supplementation.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 271 mid-life adults (30–54 years of age, 118 men, 153 women) consuming ⩽300 mg/day of LCn-3FAs received 18 weeks of supplementation with fish oil capsules (1400 mg/day of EPA and DHA) or matching placebo. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery examining four cognitive domains: psychomotor speed, executive function, learning/episodic memory, and fluid intelligence. A subset of 122 underwent neuroimaging before and after supplementation to measure whole-brain and subcortical tissue volumes.
Capsule adherence was over 95%, participant blinding was verified, and red blood cell EPA and DHA levels increased as expected. Supplementation did not affect performance in any of the four cognitive domains. Exploratory analyses revealed that, compared to placebo, fish oil supplementation improved executive function in participants with low-baseline DHA levels. No changes were observed in any indicator of brain morphology.
In healthy mid-life adults reporting low-dietary intake, supplementation with LCn-3FAs in moderate dose for moderate duration did not affect neuropsychological performance or brain morphology. Whether salutary effects occur in individuals with particularly low-DHA exposure requires further study.
The current emphasis of schistosomiasis control is placed on preventive chemotherapy using praziquantel. However, reinfection may occur rapidly in the absence of complementary interventions. Recent studies from Senegal suggest that predatory prawns might feed on intermediate host snails and thus impact on schistosomiasis transmission. We designed a study with four repeated cross-sectional surveys pertaining to prawns and snails, coupled with a single cross-sectional parasitological survey among humans. We assessed for potential associations between the presence/density of prawns and snails and correlation with Schistosoma infection in a composite sample of school-aged children and adults. The study was carried out between October 2015 and December 2016 in 24 villages located near the Agnéby and Mé coastal river systems in south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire. At each site, snails and prawns were collected, and in each village, 150 individuals were subjected to stool and urine examination for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. We found peaks of relative abundance of intermediate host snails in the villages of the Agnéby River system, while predatory prawns were predominantly recorded in the Mé River system. A negative association was observed between intermediate host snail densities and riverine prawns; however, no pattern was found between this trend in the predator–prey relationship and the prevalence of human schistosomiasis.
Identifying the relative importance of urban and non-urban land-use types for potential denitrification derived N2O at a regional scale is critical for quantifying the impacts of human activities on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission under changing environments. In this study we used a regional dataset from China including 197 soil samples and six land-use types to evaluate the main predictors (land use, heavy metals, soil pH, soil moisture, substrate availability, functional and broad microbial abundances) of potential denitrification using multivariate and pathway analysis. Our results provide empirical evidence that soils on farms have the greatest potential denitrifying ability (PDA) (10.92±6.08ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1) followed by urban soil (6.80±5.35ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1). Our models indicate that land use (low vs. high human activity), followed by total nitrogen (TN) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) was the most important driver of PDA. In addition, our path analysis suggests that at least part of the impacts of land use on potential denitrification were mediated via microbial abundance, soil pH and substrates including TN, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate. This study identifies the main predictors of denitrification at a regional scale which is needed to quantify the impact of human activities on ecosystem functionality under changing conditions.
Our ALMA observations of HCO+ and HCN show such redshifted absorption toward an isolated core, BHR 71. Both lines show a similar redshifted absorption profile. We also found emissions of complex organic molecules (COMs) around 345 GHz from a compact region centered on the continuum source, which is barely resolved with a beam of 0″27, corresponding to ∼50 AU.
The 2017 plague outbreak in Madagascar was unprecedented in the African region, resulting in 2417 cases (498 confirmed, 793 probable and 1126 suspected) and 209 deaths by the end of the acute urban pneumonic phase of the outbreak. The Health Emergencies Programme of the WHO Regional Office for Africa together with the WHO Country Office and WHO Headquarters assisted the Ministry of Public Health of Madagascar in the rapid implementation of plague prevention and control measures while collecting and analysing quantitative and qualitative data to inform immediate interventions. We document the key findings of the evidence available to date and actions taken as a result. Based on the four goals of operational research – effective dissemination of results, peer-reviewed publication, changes to policy and practice and improvements in programme performance and health – we evaluate the use of evidence to inform response to the outbreak and describe lessons learned for future outbreak responses in the WHO African region. This article may not be reprinted or reused in any way in order to promote any commercial products or services.
The pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in patients with the major depressive disorder (MDD) may involve neuroinflammation mediated by cytokines.
The aim of this study was to examine the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, sustained attention, and their association in patients with MDD.
Thirty patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Sustained attention was measured using the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) task in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The serum IL-6 levels of all subjects were assessed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
There were significant differences in the log10RVP total hits, log10RVP total misses, and log10RVP mean latency between patients with MDD and healthy controls (F = 6.04, p = 0.017; F = 19.77, p < 0.0001; F = 14.42, p < 0.0001, respectively). The serum levels of Log10IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in healthy controls (F = 192.27, p < 0.0001). The log10IL-6 levels were also positively correlated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (r = 0.45, p = 0.013). A further stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that the log10IL-6 levels were significantly associated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (β = 0.31, t = 2.41, p = 0.025).
Our data suggested that increased IL-6 levels were associated with the psychopathology of MDD, and that abnormal IL-6 levels were implicated in the impairment of sustained attention in patients with MDD.
We present an effective reduced-order model (ROM) technique to couple an incompressible flow with a transversely vibrating bluff body in a state-space format. The ROM of the unsteady wake flow is based on the Navier–Stokes equations and is constructed by means of an eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA). We investigate the underlying mechanism of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds number via linear stability analysis. To understand the frequency lock-in mechanism and self-sustained VIV phenomenon, a systematic analysis is performed by examining the eigenvalue trajectories of the ERA-based ROM for a range of reduced oscillation frequency
, while maintaining fixed values of the Reynolds number (
) and mass ratio (
). The effects of the Reynolds number
, the mass ratio
and the rounding of a square cylinder are examined to generalize the proposed ERA-based ROM for the VIV lock-in analysis. The considered cylinder configurations are a basic square with sharp corners, a circle and three intermediate rounded squares, which are created by varying a single rounding parameter. The results show that the two frequency lock-in regimes, the so-called resonance and flutter, only exist when certain conditions are satisfied, and the regimes have a strong dependence on the shape of the bluff body, the Reynolds number and the mass ratio. In addition, the frequency lock-in during VIV of a square cylinder is found to be dominated by the resonance regime, without any coupled-mode flutter at low Reynolds number. To further discern the influence of geometry on the VIV lock-in mechanism, we consider the smooth curve geometry of an ellipse and two sharp corner geometries of forward triangle and diamond-shaped bluff bodies. While the ellipse and diamond geometries exhibit the flutter and mixed resonance–flutter regimes, the forward triangle undergoes only the flutter-induced lock-in for
$30\leqslant Re\leqslant 100$
. In the case of the forward triangle configuration, the ERA-based ROM accurately predicts the low-frequency galloping instability. We observe a kink in the amplitude response associated with 1:3 synchronization, whereby the forward triangular body oscillates at a single dominant frequency but the lift force has a frequency component at three times the body oscillation frequency. Finally, we present a stability phase diagram to summarize the VIV lock-in regimes of the five smooth-curve- and sharp-corner-based bluff bodies. These findings attempt to generalize our understanding of the VIV lock-in mechanism for bluff bodies at low Reynolds number. The proposed ERA-based ROM is found to be accurate, efficient and easy to use for the linear stability analysis of VIV, and it can have a profound impact on the development of control strategies for nonlinear vortex shedding and VIV.
We present an active feedback blowing and suction (AFBS) procedure via model reduction for unsteady wake flow and the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of circular cylinders. The reduced-order model (ROM) for the AFBS procedure is developed by the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA), which provides a low-order representation of the unsteady flow dynamics in the neighbourhood of the equilibrium steady state. The actuation is considered via vertical suction and a blowing jet at the porous surface of a circular cylinder with a body-mounted force sensor. While the optimal gain is obtained using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR), Kalman filtering is employed to estimate the approximate state vector. The feedback control system shifts the unstable eigenvalues of the wake flow and the VIV system to the left half-complex-plane, and subsequently results in suppression of the vortex street and the VIV in elastically mounted structures. The resulting controller designed by a linear low-order approximation is able to suppress the nonlinear saturated state of wake vortex shedding from the circular cylinder. A systematic linear ROM-based stability analysis is performed to understand the eigenvalue distribution for the flow past stationary and elastically mounted circular cylinders. The results from the ROM analysis are consistent with those obtained from full nonlinear fluid–structure interaction simulations, thereby confirming the validity of the proposed ROM-based AFBS procedure. A sensitivity study on the number of suction/blowing actuators, the angular arrangement of actuators and the combined versus independent control architectures has been performed for the flow past a stationary circular cylinder. Overall, the proposed control concept based on the ERA-based ROM and the LQR algorithm is found to be effective in suppressing the vortex street and the VIV for a range of reduced velocities and mass ratios.
It has been demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the control of melanogenesis and hair color in mammals. By comparing miRNA expression profiles between brown and white alpaca skin, we previously identified miR508-3p as a differentially expressed miRNA suggesting its potential role in melanogenesis and hair color formation. The present study was conducted to determine the role of miR508-3p in melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. In situ hybridization showed that miR508-3p is abundantly present in the cytoplasma of alpaca melanocytes. miR508-3p was predicted to target the gene encoding microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and a luciferase reporter assay indicated that miR508-3p regulates MITF expression by directly targeting its 3′UTR. Overexpression of miR508-3p in alpaca melanocytes down-regulated MITF expression both at the messenger RNA and protein level and resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 2. Overexpression of miR508-3p in melanocytes also resulted in decreased melanin production including total alkali-soluble melanogenesis, eumelanogenesis and pheomelanogenesis. Results support a functional role of miR508-3p in regulating melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes by directly targeting MITF.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable polygenic disorder. Recent
enrichment analyses suggest that there may be true risk variants for
bipolar disorder in the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in the
We sought to assess the impact of eQTL variants on bipolar disorder risk
by combining data from both bipolar disorder genome-wide association
studies (GWAS) and brain eQTL.
To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence
expression levels of genes associated with bipolar disorder, we jointly
analysed data from a bipolar disorder GWAS (7481 cases and 9250 controls)
and a genome-wide brain (cortical) eQTL (193 healthy controls) using a
Bayesian statistical method, with independent follow-up replications. The
identified risk SNP was then further tested for association with
hippocampal volume (n = 5775) and cognitive performance
(n = 342) among healthy individuals.
Integrative analysis revealed a significant association between a brain
eQTL rs6088662 on chromosome 20q11.22 and bipolar disorder (log Bayes
factor = 5.48; bipolar disorder P =
5.85×10–5). Follow-up studies across multiple independent
samples confirmed the association of the risk SNP (rs6088662) with gene
expression and bipolar disorder susceptibility (P =
3.54×10–8). Further exploratory analysis revealed that
rs6088662 is also associated with hippocampal volume and cognitive
performance in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that 20q11.22 is likely a risk region for bipolar
disorder; they also highlight the informative value of integrating
functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression in
advancing our understanding of the biological basis underlying complex
disorders, such as bipolar disorder.
1H 0323+342 is one of the rare γ-ray detected narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s), a special subset of active galactic nuclei (AGN) owing to their hybrid behavior of both NLS1s and blazars. The rarity of such kind of sources makes their properties far from being understood. We analyze simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical monitoring observations of 1H 0323+342 performed by Swift over ~7 years. The UV/X-ray correlation and the broad band SED reveal that the X-ray band is dominated by the disk/corona emission during the observations. The large normalized excess variance of the X-ray variability detected with Suzaku suggests a relatively small black hole mass of the order of 107M⊙, consistent with the estimation based on the broad Hβ line in the optical band.
Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are a sub-class of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with relatively low-mass black holes, accreting near the Eddington rate. A small fraction of them is radio-loud and harbors relativistic jets. As a class, these provide us with new insights into the cause(s) of radio-loudness, the blazar phenomenon at low black hole masses, and the operation of radio-mode feedback. The NLS1 galaxy RXJ2314.9+2243 is remarkable for its multi-wavelength properties. We present new radio observations taken at Effelsberg, and a summary of the recent results from our multi-wavelength study. RXJ2314.9+2243 is radio-loud, luminous in the infrared, has a flat X-ray spectrum and peculiar UV spectrum, and hosts an exceptionally broad and blueshifted [OIII]λ5007 emission line, indicating the presence of a strong outflow. RXJ2314.9+2243 likely represents an extreme case of AGN induced feedback in the local universe.