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The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study was designed to clarify the incidence of and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based Japanese population. As part of this series, a total of 5683 residents aged ⩾50 years received a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin test with VZV antigen, and 48 h later, the erythema and oedema were assessed by measuring the longest diameter. The diameters of both the erythema and oedema decreased with the increasing age of the subject. Sixty-three subjects contracted herpes zoster within a year after receiving the VZV skin test. Analysis of the herpes zoster incidence rate vs. the skin test reaction revealed that the shorter the diameter of erythema or oedema, the greater the likelihood of herpes zoster. These results demonstrated that the VZV skin test is an excellent surrogate marker for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.
II-VI compound semiconductor ZnO has a potential for high radiation hardness since large threshold displacement energy of constituent atoms can be expected due to the small unit-cell volume and large bandgap energy of 3.37 eV. In order to study the radiation hardness, singlecrystalline c-axis-oriented O-polar ZnO films with and without two-dimensional electron gas, a Zn-polar ZnO bulk crystal, and a Ga-polar GaN bulk crystal for comparison, were irradiated by an 8 MeV proton beam using a tandem-type accelerator. The radiation damage increased the electrical resistance and decreased the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of these samples with the increase of proton fluence over specific threshold values. In agreement with the expectation, ZnO samples were revealed to have superior radiation hardness; the threshold fluences for the deterioration of PL intensity were 3×1013 p/cm2 for the GaN bulk crystal, 2×1014 p/cm2 for the ZnO bulk crystal, and 5×1014 p/cm2 for the two ZnO films, in accordance with the order of the threshold fluences for the electrical resistance increase. The effect of post-irradiation annealing was also studied for these damaged bulk crystals; both electrical and optical properties of the ZnO bulk crystal were almost recovered to the pre-irradiation values, however, only the electrical properties of the GaN bulk crystal were recovered, by the annealing up to 700°C. Such a rapid recovery of the ZnO bulk crystal indicates the easy annihilation of Zn vacancy complexes acting as non-radiative centers by the recombination with interstitial Zn atoms. Since the migration barrier height energy of interstitial Zn atoms is known to be so small that it might occur even at room temperature, we ascribed the superior radiation hardness of ZnO crystals to the restoration of damage-induced defects by a self-annealing effect during irradiation.
Grain boundary character distribution-optimized (GBCD) Type 316 corresponding austenitic stainless steel and its cold-worked ones (GBCD+CW) are one of prospective nuclear materials to be considered for next generation energy systems. These steels were thermally-aged at 973 K for 1 and 100 h and were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to evaluate microstructural stability during high temperature exposure. TEM results revealed that microstructures of both specimens prior to ageing contained step-wise boundaries which is composed of coincidence site lattice (CSL) and random grain boundaries and also that the GBCD+CW specimens had dislocation cells and networks as well as deformation twins whereas as the GBCD one possessed few dislocations. After thermal ageing, the precipitates formed on not only random grain boundaries but also dislocations, contributing to prevent significant microstructural change occurring such as recrystallization and dislocation recovery.
We proposed a new concept for densification of inert matrix fuels containing minor actinides. In this concept, magnesium silicates which are both a naturally-occurring material and asbestos waste were used as a sintering additive which protects public health by safely disposing of the asbestos waste. In this study, the effects of magnesium silicate additives on the densification behaviors of MgO, Mo and CeO2 were experimentally investigated. The densities of MgO and CeO2 pellets increased with only 1 wt.% additives of MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4. The densities of Mo pellets showed little change with additives.
Commission 22 is part of Division III on Planetary System Sciences of the International Astronomical Union. Members of Commission 22 are professional scientists studying bodies in the Solar System smaller than asteroids and comets, and their interactions with planets. The main subjects of interest are meteors, meteoroids, meteoroid streams, interplanetary dust particles, and also zodiacal cloud, meteor trains, meteorites, tektites, etc.
The telescope geometry of JASMINE should be stabilized and monitored with the accuracy of about 10 to 100 pm or 10 to 100 prad of rms over about 10 hours. For this purpose, a high-precision interferometric laser metrology system is employed. Useful techniques for measuring displacements on extremely small scales are the wave-front sensing method and the heterodyne interferometrical method. Experiments for verification of measurement principles are well advanced.
The mechanical properties of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires under a unixial tension are studied using molecular-dynamics simulation. The effects of anisotropy and the fraction of the core atoms on the Young's moduli of the core-shell nanowires are examined. The values of their Young's moduli deviate from those calculated using Vegard's law. Single atom chains are formed at the final stages of elongation of the nanowires.
Dielectric properties and microstructure were investigated in BaTiO3 ceramics with various additives, Ho2O3, MgO, Ho2O3/MgO, and La2O3. The dielectric constants were increased up to ∼4000 and ∼3000 at 25°C in the 1 mol% Ho-doped and 0.5 mol% Mg-doped BaTiO3 materials, respectively. The BaTiO3 material codoped with 3 mol% Ho + 1.5 mol% Mg led to increase dielectric constant up to ∼6000 at 25°C and the dielectric constant peak around Curie temperature was suppressed at temperature range of from 25°C to 125°C. The size of BaTiO3 grains depended on the content and kind of an additive. Core-shell grains and secondary phase were also dependent on an additive. Core-shell grains were formed completely in Ho-doped BaTiO3 except for 0.5 mol%, but the structure was little observed in Mg- and La-doped BaTiO3 material. Codoped BaTiO3 also formed the core-shell grains.
The formation of highly resistive films of single-crystal ZnO as a result of irradiation with MeV Li, O, and Si ions is demonstrated. Results show that the ion doses necessary for electrical isolation close-to-inversely depend on the number of ion-beam-generated atomic displacements. Results show that an increase in the dose of 2 MeV O ions (up to ∼ 2 orders of magnitude above the threshold isolation dose) and irradiation temperature (up to 350 °C) has a relatively minor effect on the thermal stability of electrical isolation, which is limited to temperatures of ∼ 300 — 400 °C. For the case of multiple-energy implantation with keV Cr, Fe, or Ni ions, the evolution of sheet resistance with annealing temperature is consistent with defect-induced isolation, with a relatively minor effect of Cr, Fe, or Ni impurities on the thermal stability of isolation. Based on these results, the mechanism for electrical isolation in ZnO by ion bombardment is discussed.
This paper reports on characterization of the surface coverage of particles by in-situ lateral friction force measurement during chemical mechanical polishing. The lateral friction force apparatus was made to operate close to real CMP conditions. For these experiments a sapphire wafer of constant surface roughness was used. For both 2psi and 4psi down force we observed increase in lateral friction forces with increasing solid loading. The lateral friction forces have been found to be significantly dependent on the contact area at the wafer-pad-slurry interface, thus showing that in-situ dynamic friction force changes in the surface coverage of particles. From these results, we conclude that the enhancement of frictional force is due to increased contact area at the wafer-pad-slurry interfaces. The lateral friction force measurement can provide an understanding of wafer-pad-slurry interactions.
The aim of this study has been to synthesize the microporous silica spheres and to coat as-synthesized SiO2 with CeO2 for CMP applications. First, spherical microporous silica powders with a narrow size distribution have been prepared by a precipitation technique involving the hydrolysis reaction of a silicon alkoxide in ethanol. The interparticle microporosity has been created by adsorption of an organic compound (glycerol) as the porogen. The presence of glycerol during the synthesis affects considerably the precipitation mechanism and its effect on the particle size will be discussed. The synthesis of silica microporous spheres of narrow size distribution yielded the preparation, by varying particle size and porosity, of a wide range of aqueous silica slurries. The influence of particle size, particle size distribution, porosity and particle concentration will be discussed in chemical mechanical polishing applications. Although silica particles show large plastic deformation than the bulk material, very good glass polishing rates are obtained due to the plastic deformation of the silica layer during CMP. Silica particles are suitable candidates for application in CMP because silica can be directly precipitated as monodispersed spheres, their narrow size distribution being an important requirement in CMP applications. Secondly, as-synthesized silica particles were coated with the cerium dioxide particles having hexagonal shape, which were precipitated by decomposition from the cerium precursors. For this study, three coating processes were introduced to investigate the best coating parameters. Improvements in CMP of glass were also obtained by coating silica particles with cerium oxide nanoparticles.
The introduction of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) into semiconductor device processing brought a significant need for wet chemistry research and development in this industry. With the transition from aluminum to copper for advanced interconnect metallization came a tremendous amount of electrochemical research and process development towards a production worthy copper CMP process capable of meeting the stringent specifications of dual damascene integration.In addition, the dual damascene integration scheme introduced copper deposition challenges that brought significant activity in developing another wet chemistry process, electroplating. These two sequential, chemical processes have been shown to have significant interaction that has created significant challenges in process integration.
CoFe2O4/α-Fe2O3 (ferrimagnetic / antiferromagnetic) bilayered films were prepared on α-Al2O3(102) single-crystalline substrates by helicon plasma sputtering. A well-crystallized epitaxial α-Fe2O3(102) layer was formed on the substrate, while CoFe2O4 grown on α-Fe2O3(102) was a polycrystalline layer with a (100)-preferred orientation. The α-Fe2O3(102) films without CoFe2O4 layers clearly showed a spin-flip transition at about 400 K. The spins aligned perpendicular to the film plane at room temperature changed their direction within the film plane above 400 K. However the α-Fe2O3 base layers of CoFe2O4/α-Fe2O3 bilayered films did not show any spin-flip transition. The CoFe2O4 layer on α-Fe2O3 had a large in-plane magnetic anisotropy, while the spin axis of the α-Fe2O3(102) base layer was directed perpendicular to the film plane. The magnetization of ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 layers was coupled perpendicularly to the spin axis of anitiferromagnetic α-Fe2O3 layers due to the exchange coupling at the interface between CoFe2O4 and α-Fe2O3.
Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) occurs at an atomic level at the slurry/wafer interface and hence slurries and polishing pads play a critical role in the successful implementation of this process. Surface roughness, visco-elastic properties, thickness and pore size also play an important role in this process. Unfortunately the mechanical properties of polyurethane polishing pads used in CMP are poorly understood. Here we have studied the mechanical and visco-elastic properties and surface morphology of CMP pads using nano-indentation and dynamic mechanical analysis along with high resolution scanning electron microscopy. A state-of-the-art Universal Micro-Tribometer was used to measure the pad deformation behavior under load. A novel non-destructive scanning ultrasonic transmission technique was also used to characterize inhomogeneity of the visco-elastic properties of full-size CMP pads. Results obtained by different techniques were analyzed to demonstrate methods for quick and reliable evaluation of pad quality for current CMP technology.
We have developed a new method to prepare low-dislocation-density GaN by using periodically grooved substrates in a conventional MOVPE growth technique. This new approach was demonstrated for GaN grown on periodically grooved α-Al2O3(0001), 6H-SiC(0001)Si and Si(111) substrates. Dislocation densities were 2×107 cm−2 in low-dislocation-density area.