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Japanese universities are required to improve both international and Japanese students' mental health, because the number of international students increases annually. Moreover, mental health data for graduate school students in Japan are lacking. Therefore, the present study attempted to examine differences in graduate school students' mental health according to major, grade, and nationality.
A total of 587 students from a Japanese university, which only offers graduate school education, completed the Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6) as part of their regular health assessments; 542 students agreed to the use of their data for research purposes.
The K6 scores were analyzed using a 3-way (major × grade × nationality) between-subjects ANOVA, and a significant second-order interaction (F(6, 518) = 2.68, p < .05) was observed. As a subsequent 2-way (major × nationality) ANOVA, performed according to grade, only showed an interaction for first-grade master's degree students (M1; F(2, 167) = 7.88, p < .01), comparisons between Japanese and international students were made according to major. For one major, Japanese students' K6 scores tended to be higher relative to those observed in international students (t(36) = 1.98, p < .10). In contrast, international students' K6 scores for another major were significantly higher than were those of Japanese students (t(86) = 3.31, p < .01).
Japanese and international M1 students' K6 scores differed significantly. University staff should take these differences into account and examine ways to support students.
Experimental Echinococcus multilocularis infection and deworming was repeated three or five times in nine dogs at various re-infection schedules. The mean number of worms decreased more than 91% in dogs with repeated infection, compared to first infection controls (n= 6). The copro-antigen assay and the egg count in the faeces suggested that the worm burden gradually decreased each time the dogs were re-infected. To examine whether such worm exclusion was a non-specific response, five dogs were sequentially infected with the parasite four times and subsequently fed freely for 6 months. Even after the 6-month interval, the five dogs that were infected five times with the parasite were still able largely to exclude the adult worms. The results suggested that the ability of worm exclusion in dogs that developed a resistance did not become rapidly extinct. Observation of the condition of faeces and the excretion of hooks in the faeces of repeatedly infected dogs revealed that the exclusion of worms started at the first week after the re-infection, and it continued during the patent period. Serum antibodies specific to the parasite antigen increased gradually until the third infection and significantly decreased during the 6-month interval. There was little enhancement of serum antibodies after the fifth infection in most dogs, although no clear correlation was observed between the antibody response and the worm burden. These findings suggested the possibility of developing a vaccine.
We have investigated on a relation between C-related deep-level defects and turn-on recovery characteristics in bulk regions of AlGaN/GaN hetero-structures containing various C concentrations, employing their Schottky barrier diodes. With decreasing the growth temperature of the GaN buffer layer, three specific deep-level defects located at ∼2.07, ∼2.75, and ∼3.23 eV below the conduction band were significantly enhanced probably due to the C impurity incorporation into the GaN buffer layer. Among them, the ∼2.75 and ∼3.23 eV levels are considered to be strongly responsible for the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) carrier trapping in the bulk regions of the hetero-structures, from their turn-on current recovery characteristics under various optical illuminations.
We have investigated a correlation between electronic deep levels and current collapses in AlGaN/GaN hetero-structures by capacitance-voltage and photo-capacitance spectroscopy techniques, using Schottky barrier diodes. Three specific deep levels located at ~2.07, ~2.80, ~3.23eV below the conduction band were found to be significantly enhanced for the severe current collapse. These levels probably originate in Ga vacancies and residual C impurities and are probably responsible for the current collapses of the AlGaN/GaN hetero-structures.
Cortical mapping during awake surgery assesses intraoperative neurological change in response to electrical stimulation to provide direct information regarding the anatomical localization of the primary motor area (M1). The goal of the present study was to analyze the reliability of the identification of the precentral knob in the axial image of magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) for the detection of M1.
Materials and Methods:
Among patients with brain tumors within or near M1 in whom awake surgery was employed from April 2004 through March 2007, 14 cases were analyzed in which either the M1 or premotor area (PMA) was successfully detected by mapping during awake surgery.
The precentral knob was localized to the PMA in 4 cases and to M1 in 10 cases. By contrast, the gyrus activated by hand clenching in fMRI on the affected side at least partially corresponded to M1 in all cases, while those on the unaffected side corresponded to M1 in 12 of 12 cases.
These results indicate that the precentral knob corresponds to PMA as well as to M1, whereas the gyrus activated in fMRI corresponds to M1 on the affected and unaffected side.
We report here the results of deep optical spectroscopy of the very extended emission-line region (VEELR) found serendipitously around the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388 in the Virgo cluster. The Hα recession velocities of most of the filaments of the region observed are highly blue-shifted with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The velocity field is complicated, and there seem to be several streams of filaments ranging from ~ −100 km s−1 to ~ −700 km s−1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The emission-line ratios of the VEELR filaments are well explained by power-law photoionization models with solar abundances. In addition to photoionization, shock heating probably contributes to the ionization of the gas. We conclude that the VEELR was formerly the disk gas of NGC 4388, which has been stripped by ram pressure due to the interaction between the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) and the galaxy.
The survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 in marine area was carried out in the Port of Osaka, Japan in 1987–2001, and 51 V. cholerae O1 strains were isolated. All strains were identified to be of El Tor biotype, Ogawa serotype and classic Ubon Kappa-phage type, and were cholera toxin (CT)-negative and CT gene-negative. In order to clarify certain ecological aspects of V. cholerae O1 in the marine environment of the temperate zone, we performed molecular analysis of the isolated strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with NotI and SfiI restriction enzymes. We found the indistinguishable strains by DNA analysis using PFGE with strains passed for 1 year, and also found the closely related strains with that passed for 3 and 12 years. Those results indicated that V. cholerae O1 can survive over one winter at least, and that it survives in marine water for a long time by undergoing continuous mutation.
The ferroelectric phase transition of SrTi18O3 (STO8), where the quantum paraelectricity is reduced by the exchange of oxygen atoms 16O for its isotope 18O, has been studied by both Brillouin scattering and Raman scattering. The Brillouin spectra of the c44 and c66 modes in the paraelectric-tetragonal phase show anomalous behavior in the temperature region several degrees above TC accompanied by a central peak. The characteristic shape of the central peak indicates a coupling mechanism between the acoustic mode and an overdamped soft polar mode. Though the ferroelectric soft A2u mode is Raman inactive in the paraelectric phase, it has been observed in the x(yz)-x geometry indicating a local symmetry breaking above TC. Existence of the ferroelectric micro region in the temperature range far above TC is confirmed by the broad spectral component. The soft mode dynamics is concluded in the phase transition of STO18. The doublet spectrum is observed without any of considerable change by the isotope exchange.
We reported previously that in mouse testis calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (calcineurin) is localised in the nuclei of round and elongating spermatids (Cell Tissue Res. 1995; 281: 273-81). In this study, we studied the immunohistochemical localisation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase II) using antibodies against CaM kinase IIγ from chicken gizzard and specific antibodies raised against the amino acid sequence Ileu480–Ala493 of this enzyme, and compared it with the distribution of calmodulin. Indirect immunofluorescence was most concentrated in early spermatocytes and localised in the outermost layer of seminiferous tubules where the calmodulin level was relatively low. Measurements of immuno-gold particle densities on electron micrographs revealed that CaM kinase II is transiently increased in the nucleus of zygotene spermatocytes. These observations suggest the involvement of CaM kinase II in the meiotic chromosomal pairing process. An extremely high concentration of calmodulin in spermatogenic cells undergoing meiosis may not be directly related to activation of calmodulin-dependent kinases and phosphatases.
We study the total luminosity function (LF) and the type-specific LF of 7 nearby clusters of galaxies (A1060, S805, A2063, A1736, A1644, A1631, and A754) using the R-band image (1.0 × 0.5 deg2) taken with our mosaic CCD camera mounted on 1-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory.
We observed three 0.44 square degree fields centered on the Coma cluster center (Coma-1), about 1 degree SW of the Coma center (Coma-3), and on a control field in SA57 with the mosaic CCD camera at the prime focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. We detected 5628, 5020, and 4323 galaxies down to R = 22 mag in Coma-1, Coma-3, and SA57 fields, respectively. We measure the magnitude and color within the variable aperture r90 in which about 90% of the total flux is included. The histograms of (B–R) colors of galaxies are made for four magnitude bins of width ΔR = 2 mag covering 13 < R < 21 mag for each of the three fields. The mean colors and the 1σ scatters of the Coma galaxies are obtained by a histogram subtraction technique (Coma-1/3 minus SA57). We find a very shallow slope of the color-magnitude relation (CMR), Δ(B–R)/ΔR=−0.0037, which indicates nearly a constant (B–R) color over 6 magnitude in 15 < R < 21 mag (−19.5 < MR < −13.5 at Coma cluster). Dwarf galaxies are dominant in this magnitude range, and we conclude that the mean color of dwarf galaxies in the Coma clusters is nearly constant at (B–R) ∼ 1.6–1.7, which is similar to the color of the faint end of giant elliptical galaxies.
The emissions of CO2, SOx, and NOx of various steel alloys in the production stage were calculated by using the unit requirement of each subsystem of the steel-making process, in order to compare the superiority from the viewpoint of the environmental issue among various types of steel alloys. As steel production is a typical integrated system with multiproducts, allocation of emissions to each product, effect of the composition, and sharing the load by the by-product gases are considered. Calculated values of emission were arranged for fifteen kinds of finished steel products and for arbitrary contents of alloying elements.
The kinetics of serum antibody response against infection with
Echinococcus multilocularis eggs was evaluated in AKR
mice. The animals were infected by oral inoculation with 300 parasite eggs,
and necropsied at 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 16 weeks
post-infection (p.i.), respectively. The parasite formed the laminated
at 4 weeks p.i., the brood capsule with a massive
proliferation of germinal cells at 9 weeks p.i. and protoscoleces at
16 weeks p.i. Serum antibody responses of the mice to
antigen preparations from metacestodes of different stages and protoscoleces
were evaluated by ELISA, immunoblotting
and immunohistochemistry. In ELISA, the antibody responses began to
increase at 4 weeks and became more apparent
at 9 weeks p.i. and thereafter. Immunoblots using sera collected at
16 weeks p.i. showed some common bands among the
3 different antigen preparations. In addition to this, the germinal cells
and brood capsules of mature metacestodes were
stained strongly in an immunohistochemical study. From above, it is suggested
that some antigen molecules are expressed
in the parasite through these stages and stimulated host antibody responses.
At present, the photometric data for clusters at z ≲ 0.2 mainly come from photographic photometry. The lack of CCD data for such clusters is simply due to the fact that no CCD camera had been available until recently that covers the wide extension of clusters within a reasonable amount of observing time. We have developed a large mosaic CCD camera and conducted multicolor imaging observations of z ≲ 0.2 clusters using the 40-inch Swope telescope at Las Campanas Observatory.
Background. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a therapy-resistant
adverse effect of neuroleptics.
Although the exact pathophysiology of TD is unknown, oxygen radicals have
to play a role in TD based on several lines of evidence. Superoxide dismutase
(SOD) is a key
enzyme which scavenges oxygen radicals. The authors investigated the
association between erythrocyte SOD activity and TD.
Methods. Erythrocyte SOD activities were measured, blinded
to the presence or absence of
TD, in 30 patients with schizophrenia who had been on typical neuroleptics
for more than 10
years. TD severity was independently assessed, using the abnormal
involuntary movement scale (AIMS), by two raters.
Results. There was a significant decrease in erythrocyte
SOD activity in the definite TD group
(N=10) as compared with the no TD (N=8) and questionable
TD (N=12) groups.
Erythrocyte Cu,Zn-SOD activities correlated with AIMS scores.
Conclusions. Patients with TD had low SOD activities as
compared to those without TD. As a
causal link between SOD activity and TD was not established in this study,
studies are warranted to determine whether patients with low SOD activity
are susceptible to neuroleptic-induced TD.
Clear understanding of the structural and morphological transformations on the crystal surfaces can only be extracted from considerations of the dynamical properties of surface evolution. So ultra high vacuum reflection electron microscopy (UHV REM) has been applied to in situ studies of step behaviors on the silicon surfaces during various treatments. Dependence of the surface morphology on the number of parameters is reviewed with new results. Special attention is paid to influence of the electromigration phenomena and strain fields on structural evolution of the surfaces during sublimation, phase transition and epitaxial growth. The stability of the atomic step distributions is discussed in the frame of kinetical morphological transitions on silicon surfaces during DC heating of studied crystal .
The step motion during sublimation shows a strong influence of stress fields on the step configurations . The importance of surface stress is obvious because in equilibrium conditions there is a residual stress on the surface due to existence of broken bonds.
Recent developments in techniques of real space observations of surfaces are notable. In them reflection electron microscopy (REM) is a unique technique where in-situ real time observations of wide areas of surfaces are possible. In the present paper recent studies of surface dynamic processes on Si surfaces are reviewed. Observed dynamic processes are adsorption induced successive phase transitions, adsorbate induced facet formations and step rearrangements induced by a reversal of specimen heating current direction(so called current effect) and by a reversal of the sign of the surface strain(strain effects).
Figure 1 reproduces a series of REM images and RHEED patterns taken during successive phase transition induced by Au deposition on a clean Si(lll) surface at 780°C[l]. (a) shows a REM image taken before Au deposition. Line images with zigzag in shape are atomic steps on the surface. The surface steps up to the right as indicated by a step mark. The corresponding RHEED pattern in (b) shows that the surface has the 7×7 structure.