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The Ethiopian government has several initiatives to expand and intensify the dairy industry; however, the risk of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) spread is a challenge. To assess the rate of expansion and risk factors for transmission of bTB within-herds, we carried out a repeated cross-sectional survey at two time points, 2016/17 and 2018, in three regional cities, namely, Gondar, Hawassa and Mekelle, representing the emerging dairy belts of Ethiopia. The total number of herds involved was 128, comprising an average of 2303 cattle in each round. The Single Intradermal Comparative Cervical Tuberculin (SICCT) test was used to identify reactor status and data on herd-level risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. In the first survey, the apparent prevalence of bTB, as measured by the SICCT test, was 4.5% (95% CI 3.7–5.4%) at the individual animal-level and 24% (95% CI 17.5–32%) at the herd-level. There was no statistically significant change in the overall apparent prevalence or regional distribution at the second survey, consistent with the infection being endemic. The incidence rate was estimated at 3.6 (95% CI 2.8–4.5) and 6.6 (95% CI 3.0–12.6) cases/100 cattle (or herd)-years at the animal- and herd-levels, respectively. Risk factors significantly associated with the within-herd transmission of bTB were age group and within-herd apparent prevalence at the start of the observation period. We noted that farmers voluntarily took steps to remove reactor cattle from their herds as a consequence of the information shared after the first survey. Removal of reactors between surveys was associated with a reduced risk of transmission within these herds. However, with no regulatory barriers to the sale of reactor animals, such actions could potentially lead to further spread between herds. We therefore advocate the importance of setting up regulations and then establishing a systematic bTB surveillance programme to monitor the impact prior to implementing any control measures in Ethiopia.
We use a sales database of farmers market vendors in the Washington, D.C., area to estimate how first half 2020 sales were impacted by the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. We use 2019 data as a counterfactual for sales that would have occurred in 2020 in the absence of COVID-19. For neighborhood weekend markets that were able to remain open during the pandemic, the change in 2020 average sales between the winter and spring is between 75% and 79% lower than in 2019. Other farmers markets, particularly weekday markets in business districts, experienced delayed openings or were closed for the entire year.
The Scaling-up Health-Arts Programme: Implementation and Effectiveness Research (SHAPER) project is the world's largest hybrid study on the impact of the arts on mental health embedded into a national healthcare system. This programme, funded by the Wellcome Trust, aims to study the impact and the scalability of the arts as an intervention for mental health. The programme will be delivered by a team of clinicians, research scientists, charities, artists, patients and healthcare professionals in the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the community, spanning academia, the NHS and the charity sector. SHAPER consists of three studies – Melodies for Mums, Dance for Parkinson's, and Stroke Odysseys – which will recruit over 800 participants, deliver the interventions and draw conclusions on their clinical impact, implementation effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. We hope that this work will inspire organisations and commissioners in the NHS and around the world to expand the remit of social prescribing to include evidence-based arts interventions.
Subanesthetic ketamine infusion therapy can produce fast-acting antidepressant effects in patients with major depression. How single and repeated ketamine treatment modulates the whole-brain functional connectome to affect clinical outcomes remains uncharacterized.
Data-driven whole brain functional connectivity (FC) analysis was used to identify the functional connections modified by ketamine treatment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). MDD patients (N = 61, mean age = 38, 19 women) completed baseline resting-state (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging and depression symptom scales. Of these patients, n = 48 and n = 51, completed the same assessments 24 h after receiving one and four 0.5 mg/kg intravenous ketamine infusions. Healthy controls (HC) (n = 40, 24 women) completed baseline assessments with no intervention. Analysis of RS FC addressed effects of diagnosis, time, and remitter status.
Significant differences (p < 0.05, corrected) in RS FC were observed between HC and MDD at baseline in the somatomotor network and between association and default mode networks. These disruptions in FC in MDD patients trended toward control patterns with ketamine treatment. Furthermore, following serial ketamine infusions, significant decreases in FC were observed between the cerebellum and salience network (SN) (p < 0.05, corrected). Patient remitters showed increased FC between the cerebellum and the striatum prior to treatment that decreased following treatment, whereas non-remitters showed the opposite pattern.
Results support that ketamine treatment leads to neurofunctional plasticity between distinct neural networks that are shown as disrupted in MDD patients. Cortico-striatal-cerebellar loops that encompass the SN could be a potential biomarker for ketamine treatment.
As the pathophysiology of Covid-19 emerges, this paper describes dysphagia as a sequela of the disease, including its diagnosis and management, hypothesised causes, symptomatology in relation to viral progression, and concurrent variables such as intubation, tracheostomy and delirium, at a tertiary UK hospital.
During the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic, 208 out of 736 patients (28.9 per cent) admitted to our institution with SARS-CoV-2 were referred for swallow assessment. Of the 208 patients, 102 were admitted to the intensive treatment unit for mechanical ventilation support, of which 82 were tracheostomised. The majority of patients regained near normal swallow function prior to discharge, regardless of intubation duration or tracheostomy status.
Dysphagia is prevalent in patients admitted either to the intensive treatment unit or the ward with Covid-19 related respiratory issues. This paper describes the crucial role of intensive swallow rehabilitation to manage dysphagia associated with this disease, including therapeutic respiratory weaning for those with a tracheostomy.
To test the functional implications of impaired white matter (WM) connectivity among patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, we examined the heritability of fractional anisotropy (FA) measured on diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, and its association with cognitive performance in a unique sample of 175 multigenerational non-psychotic relatives of 23 multiplex schizophrenia families and 240 unrelated controls (total = 438).
We examined polygenic inheritance (h2r) of FA in 24 WM tracts bilaterally, and also pleiotropy to test whether heritability of FA in multiple WM tracts is secondary to genetic correlation among tracts using the Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines. Partial correlation tests examined the correlation of FA with performance on eight cognitive domains on the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery, controlling for age, sex, site and mother's education, followed by multiple comparison corrections.
Significant total additive genetic heritability of FA was observed in all three-categories of WM tracts (association, commissural and projection fibers), in total 33/48 tracts. There were significant genetic correlations in 40% of tracts. Diagnostic group main effects were observed only in tracts with significantly heritable FA. Correlation of FA with neurocognitive impairments was observed mainly in heritable tracts.
Our data show significant heritability of all three-types of tracts among relatives of schizophrenia. Significant heritability of FA of multiple tracts was not entirely due to genetic correlations among the tracts. Diagnostic group main effect and correlation with neurocognitive performance were mainly restricted to tracts with heritable FA suggesting shared genetic effects on these traits.
We evaluated the safety and feasibility of high-intensity interval training via a novel telemedicine ergometer (MedBIKE™) in children with Fontan physiology.
The MedBIKE™ is a custom telemedicine ergometer, incorporating a video game platform and live feed of patient video/audio, electrocardiography, pulse oximetry, and power output, for remote medical supervision and modulation of work. There were three study phases: (I) exercise workload comparison between the MedBIKE™ and a standard cardiopulmonary exercise ergometer in 10 healthy adults. (II) In-hospital safety, feasibility, and user experience (via questionnaire) assessment of a MedBIKE™ high-intensity interval training protocol in children with Fontan physiology. (III) Eight-week home-based high-intensity interval trial programme in two participants with Fontan physiology.
There was good agreement in oxygen consumption during graded exercise at matched work rates between the cardiopulmonary exercise ergometer and MedBIKE™ (1.1 ± 0.5 L/minute versus 1.1 ± 0.5 L/minute, p = 0.44). Ten youth with Fontan physiology (11.5 ± 1.8 years old) completed a MedBIKE™ high-intensity interval training session with no adverse events. The participants found the MedBIKE™ to be enjoyable and easy to navigate. In two participants, the 8-week home-based protocol was tolerated well with completion of 23/24 (96%) and 24/24 (100%) of sessions, respectively, and no adverse events across the 47 sessions in total.
The MedBIKE™ resulted in similar physiological responses as compared to a cardiopulmonary exercise test ergometer and the high-intensity interval training protocol was safe, feasible, and enjoyable in youth with Fontan physiology. A randomised-controlled trial of a home-based high-intensity interval training exercise intervention using the MedBIKE™ will next be undertaken.
Prior research has shown that sipping of alcohol begins to emerge during childhood and is potentially etiologically significant for later substance use problems. Using a large, community sample of 9- and 10-year-olds (N = 11,872; 53% female), we examined individual differences in precocious alcohol use in the form of alcohol sipping. We focused explicitly on features that are robust and well-demonstrated correlates of, and antecedents to, alcohol excess and related problems later in the lifespan, including youth- and parent-reported externalizing traits (i.e., impulsivity, behavioral inhibition and activation) and psychopathology. Seventeen percent of the sample reported sipping alcohol outside of a religiously sanctioned activity by age 9 or 10. Several aspects of psychopathology and personality emerged as small but reliable correlates of sipping. Nonreligious sipping was related to youth-reported impulsigenic traits, aspects of behavioral activation, prodromal psychotic-like symptoms, and mood disorder diagnoses, as well as parent-reported externalizing disorder diagnoses. Religious sipping was unexpectedly associated with certain aspects of impulsivity. Together, our findings point to the potential importance of impulsivity and other transdiagnostic indicators of psychopathology (e.g., emotion dysregulation, novelty seeking) in the earliest forms of drinking behavior.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The detection of liver fibrotic changes at an early and reversible stage is essential to prevent its progression to end-stage cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver biopsy, which is the current gold standard for fibrosis assessment, is accompanied by several complications due to its invasive nature in addition to sampling errors and reader variability. In this study, we evaluate the use of quantitative parameters extracted from hybrid ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging to detect and monitor fibrotic changes in a DEN rat model. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Liver fibrotic changes were induced in 34 Wistar male rats by oral administration of Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for 12 weeks. 22 rats were imaged with B-mode ultrasound at 3 different time points (baseline, 10 weeks and 13 weeks) for monitoring liver texture changes. Texture features studied included tissue echointensity (liver brightness normalized to kidney brightness) and tissue heterogeneity. 12 rats were imaged with photoacoustic imaging at 4 time points (baseline, 5 wks, 10 wks, and 13 wks) to look at changes in tissue oxygenation. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2A) and hemoglobin concentration (HbT) in the right and left lobes of the liver were measured. 8 rats were used as controls. Liver tissue samples were obtained following 13 weeks from DEN start time for METAVIR histopathology staging of fibrosis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Texture features studied showed an increase with time in DEN rats. Normalized echointensity increased from 0.28 ± 0.06 at baseline to 0.46 ± 0.10 at 10 weeks (p < 0.0005) and 0.53 ± 0.15 at 13 weeks in DEN rats (p < 0.0005). In the control rats, echointensity remained at an average of 0.25 ± 0.05 (p = 0.31). Tissue heterogeneity increased over time in the DEN-exposed rats from a baseline of 208.7 ± 58.3 to 344.6 ± 52.9 at 10 weeks (p < 0.0005) and 376.8 ± 54.9 at 13 weeks (p = 0.06) however it stayed constant at 225.7 ± 37.6 in control rats (p = 0.58). The quantitative analyses of the photoacoustic signals showed that blood oxygen saturation significantly increased with time. At 5 weeks sO2AvT increased by 53.83 % (± 0.25), and HbT by 35.31 % (± 0.07). Following 10 weeks of DEN; sO2AvT by 92.04 % (± 0.29), and HbT by 55.24 % (± 0.1). All increases were significant p < 0.05. In the 13th week, however, the values of all of these parameters were lower than those in the 10th week, however, the decrease was statistically insignificant. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Quantitative features from B-mode ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging consistently increased over time corresponding to hepatic damage, inflammation and fibrosis progressed. The use of this hybrid imaging method in clinical practice can help meet the significant need for noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis.
The Second Vatican Council officially launched the Catholic Church into the ecumenical movement. A reexamination of these texts more than fifty years later suggests areas of critique as well as further possible developments that were underexplored at the time, even though the seeds for these developments were planted at the council.
Neuroticism is associated with the onset and maintenance of a number of mental health conditions, as well as a number of deleterious outcomes (e.g. physical health problems, higher divorce rates, lost productivity, and increased treatment seeking); thus, the consideration of whether this trait can be addressed in treatment is warranted. To date, outcome research has yielded mixed results regarding neuroticism's responsiveness to treatment, perhaps due to the fact that study interventions are typically designed to target disorder symptoms rather than neuroticism itself. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a course of treatment with the unified protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic intervention that was explicitly developed to target neuroticism, results in greater reductions in neuroticism compared to gold-standard, symptom focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocols and a waitlist (WL) control condition.
Patients with principal anxiety disorders (N = 223) were included in this study. They completed a validated self-report measure of neuroticism, as well as clinician-rated measures of psychological symptoms.
At week 16, participants in the UP condition exhibited significantly lower levels of neuroticism than participants in the symptom-focused CBT (t(218) = −2.17, p = 0.03, d = −0.32) and WL conditions(t(207) = −2.33, p = 0.02, d = −0.43), and these group differences remained after controlling for simultaneous fluctuations in depression and anxiety symptoms.
Treatment effects on neuroticism may be most robust when this trait is explicitly targeted.
Evidence suggests that the subjective experience of AVHs cannot be explained by any of the existing cognitive models, highlighting the obvious need to properly investigate the actual, lived experience of AVHs, and derive models/theories that fit the complexity of this.
Via phenomenological interviews and ethnographic diary methods, we aim to gain a deeper insight into the experience of AVHs.
To explore the phenomenological quality of AVHs, as they happen/reveal themselves to consciousness,   without relying on existing suppositions.
Participants with First Episode Psychosis were recruited from the Birmingham Early Intervention Service (EIS), BSMHFT. In-depth 'walking interviews' were carried out with each participant, together with standardised assessment measures of voices. Prior to interviews, participants were asked to complete a dairy and take photographs, further capturing aspects of their AVH experiences.
20 participants have completed interviews to date. Emerging themes cover the form and quality of voices (i.e. as being separate to self, imposing, compelling etc.), and participants' understanding and management of these experiences.
Authentic descriptions gleaned from participants have the potential to increase our understanding of the relationship between the phenomenology and neurobiology of AVHs and, in turn, the experience as a whole.
Longitudinal comorbidity models posit some association between constructs over time. Although this association is often operationalized as cross-lagged autoregressive processes, associations between constructs are often expressed as stable interindividual associations between the constructs across measurement occasions. Although such general associations are often modeled as parallel state-trait models or as parallel (often polynomial) growth curves, such an approach risks overlooking the possibility of identification of developmentally limited traits and the implicit measurement model associated with the construct. Such models often present difficulties in terms of poor fit or improper solutions which are remedied ad hoc. In order to identify better fitting alternative, a “right-sizing” approach to development of comorbidity models is proposed wherein the dimensionality, patterning, and mean level of an observed series is first considered in order to identify the model that best represents prospective change over time. Cormorbidity of problem behaviors or psychopathology can then be expressed via covariation between the latent variables and growth models identified. The approach is illustrated with a prospective study of the cormorbidity of psychological distress and alcohol use in college students. Assumption checking procedures for the resulting model are also illustrated.
The UK General Medical Council highlights the centrality of effective communication, reflective practice and the doctor-patient relationship in medical practice. A decline in empathy has been documented as occurring within clinical and early postgraduate years, potentially affecting diagnostic processes and patient engagement. Access to Balint groups can enhance awareness of the patient beyond the medical model, but remains limited at many UK medical schools. This scheme offered Balint groups to Bristol medical students in their first clinical year, demonstrating that this method is relevant beyond psychiatry.
Initial focus groups with medical students indicated that many felt unable to discuss distressing aspects of clinical encounters. During 2013-2014, a Balint scheme run by psychiatry trainees was started for 150 students in their psychiatry placements. During 2014-15, the scheme was introduced to all third-year medical students on their medicine/surgery placement. Balint leaders have group supervision with a psychoanalytic psychotherapist. Evaluation of the scheme was based on pre-and post-group questionnaires and leaders’ process notes.
Sixteen groups led by 12 trainees were run twice over the year to serve 246 medical students. Two example cases are discussed here. Students appreciated the chance to discuss complex encounters with patients in a supportive peer environment, and work through a range of emotionally challenging issues.
Novel aspects of this work include the implementation of Balint groups within medicine and surgery placements; the enrolment of psychiatry trainees as leaders with group supervision and leadership training workshops from the UK Balint Society; and the scale of the scheme.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Neurobiological models of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) have been advanced by symptom capture functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), where participants self-report hallucinations during scanning. To date, regions implicated are those involved with language, memory and emotion. However, previous studies focus on chronic schizophrenia, thus are limited by factors, such as medication use and illness duration. Studies also lack detailed phenomenological descriptions of AVHs. This study investigated the neural correlates of AVHs in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) using symptom capture fMRI with a rich description of AVHs. We hypothesised that intrusive AVHs would be associated with dysfunctional salience network activity.
Sixteen FEP patients with frequent AVH completed four psychometrically validated tools to provide an objective measure of the nature of their AVHs. They then underwent fMRI symptom capture, utilising general linear models analysis to compare activity during AVH to the resting brain.
Symptom capture of AVH was achieved in nine patients who reported intrusive, malevolent and uncontrollable AVHs. Significant activity in the right insula and superior temporal gyrus (cluster size 141 mm3), and the left parahippocampal and lingual gyri (cluster size 121 mm3), P < 0.05 FDR corrected, were recorded during the experience of AVHs.
These results suggest salience network dysfunction (in the right insula) together with memory and language processing area activation in intrusive, malevolent AVHs in FEP. This finding concurs with others from chronic schizophrenia, suggesting these processes are intrinsic to psychosis itself and not related to length of illness or prolonged exposure to antipsychotic medication.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In the context of untimely access to community formal services, unmet needs of persons with dementia (PwD) and their carers may compromise their quality of life.
The Actifcare EU-JPND project (www.actifcare.eu) focuses on access to and (non) utilization of dementia formal care in eight countries (The Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Ireland, Italy, Portugal), as related to unmet needs and quality of life. Evaluations included systematic reviews, qualitative explorations, and a European cohort study (PwD in early/intermediate phases and their primary carers; n = 453 days; 1 year follow-up). Preliminary Portuguese results are presented here (FCT-JPND-HC/0001/2012).
(1) extensive systematic searches on access to/utilization of services; (2) focus groups of PwD, carers and health/social professionals; (3) prospective study (n = 66 days from e.g., primary care, hospital outpatient services, Alzheimer Portugal).
In Portugal, nationally representative data is scarce regarding health/social services utilization in dementia. There are important barriers to access to community services, according to users, carers and professionals, whose views not always coincide. The Portuguese cohort participants were 66 PwD (62.1% female, 77.3 ± 6.2 years, 55.5% Alzheimer's/mixed subtypes, MMSE 17.8 ± 4.8, CDR1 89.4%) and 66 carers (66.7% female, 64.9 ± 15.0 years, 56.1% spouses), with considerable unmet needs in some domains.
All Actifcare milestones are being reached. The consortium is now analyzing international differences in (un) timely access to services and its impact on quality of life and needs for care (e.g., formal community support is weaker in Portugal than in many European countries). National best-practice recommendations in dementia are also in preparation.
Abstract submitted on behalf of the Actifcare Eu-JPND consortium.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The national implementation of competency-based medical education (CBME) has prompted an increased interest in identifying and tracking clinical and educational outcomes for emergency medicine training programs. For the 2019 Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Symposium, we developed recommendations for measuring outcomes in emergency medicine training in the context of CBME to assist educational leaders and systems designers in program evaluation.
We conducted a three-phase study to generate educational and clinical outcomes for emergency medicine (EM) education in Canada. First, we elicited expert and community perspectives on the best educational and clinical outcomes through a structured consultation process using a targeted online survey. We then qualitatively analyzed these responses to generate a list of suggested outcomes. Last, we presented these outcomes to a diverse assembly of educators, trainees, and clinicians at the CAEP Academic Symposium for feedback and endorsement through a voting process.
Academic Symposium attendees endorsed the measurement and linkage of CBME educational and clinical outcomes. Twenty-five outcomes (15 educational, 10 clinical) were derived from the qualitative analysis of the survey results and the most important short- and long-term outcomes (both educational and clinical) were identified. These outcomes can be used to help measure the impact of CBME on the practice of Emergency Medicine in Canada to ensure that it meets both trainee and patient needs.