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There is a paucity of educational resources for potential clinical trial participants, particularly resources in plain language, attentive to health literacy principles and translated into native languages. The New England Research Subject Advocacy Group was formed to explore common issues, interests, and concerns related to the experience of participation in clinical research and research participant safety. Specifically, the group sought to increase community awareness and trust through the development and distribution of publicly accessible informational resources. In support of these aims, the group developed a robust library of high-quality, plain-language educational materials covering topics in health research, research participation, and common research procedures, and translated the majority of the materials into an additional 15 languages. These resources have been downloaded over 130,000 times. After English, the most common languages downloaded are Vietnamese, Spanish, and Korean.
Dairy cows are increasingly being fed high levels of starch to increase energy intake and promote milk protein content. However, too high levels of degradable starch can cause rumen acidotic effects leading to poor rumen health, laminitis and ultimately reduced efficiency of milk production. Fibrous feeds have known benefits on rumen health by helping to buffer rumen pH, but little is known of the effects of replacing starch with fibre in high maize silage based rations for dairy cows. The objective of this trial was to determine the effects of incremental replacement of cereal grain with sugar beet feed in a total mixed ration on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition and yield of milk constituents of lactating dairy cows receiving a high starch diet based on maize silage.
Feeding of lowland sheep on straw-based systems during pregnancy and in early lactation has shown that ewe and lamb performance can be satisfactory, providing adequate compound supplementation is fed (Davies and Chapple, 1995). Whole barley and soya bean meal has been the standard ration. However, soya bean meal is imported and not fully traceable. Experiments with January- and March-lambing ewes have shown that traceable, homeproduced feeds based on equal quantities of molassed sugar beet feed and either maize or barley distillers grains can replace a barley/soya supplement when fed with straw or silage-based diets in late pregnancy (Chapple et al., 1998 and 1999). The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects on ewe and lamb performance of feeding sugar beet feeds with distillers grains to March-lambing ewes rearing twin lambs at pasture.
Feeding lowland sheep on straw-based systems during pregnancy is practised on many livestock/arable farms. Simple mixes of molassed sugar beet feed and distillers dark grains have been cost effective supplements for March-lambing ewes fed straw and produced satisfactory ewe and lamb performance (Chapple et al., 1998 and 2001). An ensiled mix of pressed sugar beet pulp and dried maize distillers grains (Praize, Trident Feeds) has been fed as the sole diet for finishing lambs (Pattinson et al., 2001) but there is little information on feeding Praize to pregnant ewes. The objective of this study was to compare ewe and lamb performance when March-lambing ewes were fed on a straw-based system and supplemented with either a cereal/protein home-mix, Praize or one of two dried sugar beet pulp/protein mixes.
Maize distillers grains (MDG) is a high quality by-product feed containing 317 g crude protein (CP)/kg DM and 13.5 MJ metabolisable energy/kg DM, and as such is a valuable traceable feed resource. An earlier study conducted at the Centre for Dairy Research (Sutton et al. 2000) with cows in late lactation using a total mixed ration (TMR) based on maize silage, compared the protein value of MDG with that of soyabean meal (SB). The study showed that MDG could be used to replace SB on a total nitrogen (TN) basis without effecting feed intake or nutrient digestion in the rumen, or flow of non-ammonia nitrogen to the duodenum. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of replacing SB with MDG on a TN basis, on DM intake and milk production in high yielding lactating dairy cows.
Feeding lowland sheep on straw-based systems during pregnancy (Davies and Chapple 1995) has shown that ewe and lamb performance can be satisfactory, providing adequate compound supplementation was fed. Whole barley and soya bean meal has been the standard ration. Experiments with March-lambing ewes (Chapple et al., 1997) has shown that feeds based on molassed sugar beet feed and maize distillers dark grains can replace a barley/soya supplement. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects on ewe and lamb performance of feeding sugar beet feeds with higher levels of distillers grains to January-lambing ewes on straw-based and big-bale silage systems during pregnancy and early lactation.
Feeding of lowland sheep on straw-based systems during pregnancy and in early lactation has shown that ewe and lamb performance can be satisfactory, providing adequate compound supplementation is fed (Davies and Chapple, 1995). Whole barley and soya bean meal has been the standard ration. However, soya bean meal is imported and may not be fully traceable. Maize or barley distillers fed with beans could provide traceable protein to replace soya bean meal in sheep diets. Experiments with housed early-lambing ewes and ewes suckling twin lambs at grass have shown that traceable feeds, based on molassed sugar beet and either maize or barley distillers grains, can replace a barley/soya supplement when fed with straw based diets in late pregnancy or at grass (Chapple et al., 1999 and 2000). The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects on ewe and lamb performance of feeding sugar beet feeds with distillers grains and beans to March-lambing ewes on a straw-based system.
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy for cancer survivors (MCGP-CS) to improve personal meaning, compared with supportive group psychotherapy (SGP) and care as usual (CAU).
A total of 170 cancer survivors were randomly assigned to one of the three study arms: MCGP-CS (n = 57); SGP (n = 56); CAU (n = 57). The primary outcome measure was the Personal Meaning Profile (PMP; total score). Secondary outcome measures were subscales of the PMP, psychological well-being (Scales of Psychological Well-being; SPWB), post-traumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory), Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC), optimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised), hopelessness (Beck's Hopelessness Scale), psychological distress (anxiety and depression, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS) and quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire; EORTC QLQ-C30). Outcome measures were assessed before randomization, post-intervention, and after 3 and 6 months of follow-up (FU).
Linear mixed model analyses (intention-to-treat) showed significant differences between MCGP-CS, SGP and CAU on the total PMP score, and on (sub)scales of the PMP, SPWB, MAC and HADS. Post-hoc analyses showed significantly stronger treatment effects of MCGP-CS compared with CAU on personal meaning (d = 0.81), goal-orientedness (d = 1.07), positive relations (d = 0.59), purpose in life (d = 0.69); fighting spirit (d = 0.61) (post-intervention) and helpless/hopeless (d = −0.87) (3 months FU); and distress (d = −0.6) and depression (d = −0.38) (6 months FU). Significantly stronger effects of MCGP-CS compared with SGP were found on personal growth (d = 0.57) (3 months FU) and environmental mastery (d = 0.66) (6 months FU).
MCGP-CS is an effective intervention for cancer survivors to improve personal meaning, psychological well-being and mental adjustment to cancer in the short term, and to reduce psychological distress in the long run.
Herbicides are the foundation of weed control in commercial crop-production systems. However, herbicide-resistant (HR) weed populations are evolving rapidly as a natural response to selection pressure imposed by modern agricultural management activities. Mitigating the evolution of herbicide resistance depends on reducing selection through diversification of weed control techniques, minimizing the spread of resistance genes and genotypes via pollen or propagule dispersal, and eliminating additions of weed seed to the soil seedbank. Effective deployment of such a multifaceted approach will require shifting from the current concept of basing weed management on single-year economic thresholds.
The visual system is influenced by action. Objects that are easier to reach or catch look closer and slower, respectively. Here, we describe evidence for one action-specific effect, and show that none of the six pitfalls can account for the results. Vision is not an isolate module, as shown by this top-down effect of action on perception.
Measuring cortisol in hair is a promising method to assess long-term alterations of the biological stress response system, and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) may be altered in psychiatric disorders and in subjects suffering from chronic stress. However, the pattern of associations between HCC, chronic stress and mental health require clarification. Our exploratory study: (1) assessed the association between HCC and perceived stress, symptoms of depression and neuroticism, and the trait extraversion (as a control variable); and (2) made use of the twin design to estimate the genetic and environmental covariance between the variables of interest. Hair samples from 109 (74 female) subjects (age range 12–21 years, mean 15.1) including 8 monozygotic (MZ) and 21 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were analyzed. Perceived stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale and/or the Daily Life and Stressors Scale, neuroticism, and extraversion with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory or the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms with the Somatic and Psychological Health Report. We found a modest positive association between HCC and the three risk factors — perceived stress, symptoms of depression, and neuroticism (r = 0.22–0.33) — but no correlation with extraversion (-0.06). A median split revealed that the associations between HCC and risk factors were stronger (0.47–0.60) in those subjects with HCC >11.36 pg/mg. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic effects underlying HCC are largely shared with those that influence perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism. These results of our proof of principle study warrant replication in a bigger sample but raise the interesting question of the direction of causation between these variables.
Data on gender-specific profiles of cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are rare and inconsistent, and possible disease-confounding factors have been insufficiently considered.
The LANDSCAPE study on cognition in PD enrolled 656 PD patients (267 without cognitive impairment, 66% male; 292 with mild cognitive impairment, 69% male; 97 with PD dementia, 69% male). Raw values and age-, education-, and gender-corrected Z scores of a neuropsychological test battery (CERAD-Plus) were compared between genders. Motor symptoms, disease duration, l-dopa equivalent daily dose, depression - and additionally age and education for the raw value analysis - were taken as covariates.
Raw-score analysis replicated results of previous studies in that female PD patients were superior in verbal memory (word list learning, p = 0.02; recall, p = 0.03), while men outperformed women in visuoconstruction (p = 0.002) and figural memory (p = 0.005). In contrast, gender-corrected Z scores showed that men were superior in verbal memory (word list learning, p = 0.02; recall, p = 0.02; recognition, p = 0.04), while no difference was found for visuospatial tests. This picture could be observed both in the overall analysis of PD patients as well as in a differentiated group analysis.
Normative data corrected for gender and other sociodemographic variables are relevant, since they may elucidate a markedly different cognitive profile compared to raw scores. Our study also suggests that verbal memory decline is stronger in women than in men with PD. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings, examine the progression of gender-specific cognitive decline in PD and define different underlying mechanisms of this dysfunction.
In view of the considerable ground covered by the Commission at its Paris meetings and the fairly complete record of the activities of institutes and observatories, etc. published in the Minutes, it has not been deemed profitable by the president to call for further reports in advance of the Stockholm meeting. At the Paris meeting it was agreed that such reports be printed independently before each meeting of the Union and that reprints of or references to the published reports be sent to the president. It is hoped that all such reports if ready will be made available before the Stockholm meeting so that they may be summarized by the representatives in attendance or by the president and recorded in the Minutes. With reference to the pronouncement at the Paris meeting “that it is eminently desirable that more attention be given to the development of accurate general perturbations and mean elements on the basis of accurate osculating elements”, the president has visited the Planeten-Institut at Frankfurt and the Rechen-Institut at Berlin and has been in correspondence with the Leningrad Institute. From these sources particularly valuable material has been received.
What drives Chinese MNEs’ global CSR integration and local CSR responsiveness? Drawing on institutional theory, we argue that both antecedents reflecting globally isomorphic patterns of adaptation and antecedents mirroring the distinct characteristics of China’s institutional context are relevant. We support our argument using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis on a sample of 29 of China’s globally most influential companies. We find that state influence and global CSR associations affect global CSR integration, whereas presence in the West and internationalization through mergers and acquisitions predict local CSR responsiveness. Our study thus suggests that home-country characteristics are an important co-determinant of the CSR approaches of emerging-market MNEs. We further find that multicultural experience in top management teams is associated with both global CSR integration and local CSR responsiveness, supporting notions of transnational CSR.
Nominally undoped cubic GaN epilayers deposited by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on semi-insulating GaAs substrates were investigated by electric and photoelectric spectroscopical methods. As a consequence of the existence of deep levels in the GaAs-substrate itself, special care has to be taken to separate the contributions of the substrate from that of the cubic GaN epilayer in the various spectra. Two different contact configurations (coplanar and sandwich structures) were successfully used to perform this separation. In the cubic GaN epilayer a trap with a thermal activation energy of (85±20)meV was found by thermal admittance spectroscopy and thermal stimulated currents. Optical admittance spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements furthermore revealed defects at EG-(0.04-0.13) eV, EG-(0.21-0.82) eV and two additional deeper defects at 1.91 Ev and 2.1 eV, respectively. These defect related transitions are very similar to those observed in hexagonal GaN.
Concern has been expressed over future biogeographical expansion and habitat capitalization by species of the phylum Cnidaria, as this may have negative implications on human activities and ecosystems. There is, however, a paucity of knowledge and understanding of jellyfish ecology, in particular species distribution and seasonality. Recent studies in the UK have principally focused on the Celtic, Irish and North Seas, but all in isolation. In this study we analyse data from a publicly-driven sightings scheme across UK coastal waters (2003–2011; 9 years), with the aim of increasing knowledge on spatial and temporal patterns and trends. We describe inter-annual variability, seasonality and patterns of spatial distribution, and compare these with existing historic literature. Although incidentally-collected data lack quantification of effort, we suggest that with appropriate data management and interpretation, publicly-driven, citizen-science-based, recording schemes can provide for large-scale (spatial and temporal) coverage that would otherwise be logistically and financially unattainable. These schemes may also contribute to baseline data from which future changes in patterns or trends might be identified. We further suggest that findings from such schemes may be strengthened by the inclusion of some element of effort-corrected data collection.
Clinical and ethical implications of personality and mood changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) are under debate. Although subjectively perceived personality changes are often mentioned by patients and caregivers, few empirical studies concerning these changes exist. Therefore, we analysed subjectively perceived personality and mood changes in STN-DBS PD patients.
In this prospective study of the ELSA-DBS group, 27 PD patients were assessed preoperatively and 1 year after STN-DBS surgery. Two categories, personality and mood changes, were analysed with semi-structured interviews. Patients were grouped into personality change yes/no, as well as positive/negative mood change groups. Caregivers were additionally interviewed about patients’ personality changes. Characteristics of each group were assessed with standard neurological and psychiatric measurements. Predictors for changes were analysed.
Personality changes were perceived by six of 27 (22%) patients and by 10 of 23 caregivers (44%). The preoperative hypomania trait was a significant predictor for personality change perceived by patients. Of 21 patients, 12 (57%) perceived mood as positively changed. Higher apathy and anxiety ratings were found in the negative change group.
Our results show that a high proportion of PD patients and caregivers perceived personality changes under STN-DBS, emphasizing the relevance of this topic. Mood changed in positive and negative directions. Standard measurement scales failed to adequately reflect personality or mood changes subjectively perceived by patients. A more individualized preoperative screening and preparation for patients and caregivers, as well as postoperative support, could therefore be useful.