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Despite the magnitude and protracted nature of the Rohingya refugee situation, there is limited information on the culture, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of this group. This paper, drawing on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Rohingya refugees, including an examination of associated cultural factors. The ultimate objective is to assist humanitarian actors and agencies in providing culturally relevant Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) for Rohingya refugees displaced to Bangladesh and other neighbouring countries.
We conducted a systematic search across multiple sources of information with reference to the contextual, social, economic, cultural, mental health and health-related factors amongst Rohingya refugees living in the Asia-Pacific and other regions. The search covered online databases of diverse disciplines (e.g. medicine, psychology, anthropology), grey literature, as well as unpublished reports from non-profit organisations and United Nations agencies published until 2018.
The legacy of prolonged exposure to conflict and persecution compounded by protracted conditions of deprivations and displacement is likely to increase the refugees' vulnerability to wide array of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation. High rates of sexual and gender-based violence, lack of privacy and safe spaces and limited access to integrated psychosocial and mental health support remain issues of concern within the emergency operation in Bangladesh. Another challenge is the limited understanding amongst the MHPSS personnel in Bangladesh and elsewhere of the language, culture and help-seeking behaviour of Rohingya refugees. While the Rohingya language has a considerable vocabulary for emotional and behavioural problems, there is limited correspondence between these Rohingya terms and western concepts of mental disorders. This hampers the provision of culturally sensitive and contextually relevant MHPSS services to these refugees.
The knowledge about the culture, context, migration history, idioms of distress, help-seeking behaviour and traditional healing methods, obtained from diverse sources can be applied in the design and delivery of culturally appropriate interventions. Attention to past exposure to traumatic events and losses need to be paired with attention for ongoing stressors and issues related to worries about the future. It is important to design MHPSS interventions in ways that mobilise the individual and collective strengths of Rohingya refugees and build on their resilience.
The alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica (Gyllenhal); Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a destructive pest of alfalfa (Medicago sativa Linnaeus; Fabaceae) worldwide. The biological control parasitoid, Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was successfully introduced, and considered highly effective, in the eastern and mid-western United States of America. Redistribution efforts carried out throughout the 1980s reported initial establishment in the northern Great Plains, however follow-up studies to assess long-term persistence and efficacy are lacking. We resurveyed the counties in which M. aethiopoides had been initially recovered following redistribution in Montana (Flathead and Petroleum counties), Wyoming (Platte County), and South Dakota (Brookings County), to gauge whether this species has become permanently established and, if so, assess levels of parasitism in the field. We collected adult weevils from five fields in each county, and reared them in the laboratory to assess parasitism. Despite rearing more than 1000 weevils, no parasitoids were recovered from any of the locations sampled in our study, suggesting a widespread failure of M. aethiopoides to persist in the region. Thus, M. aethiopoides does not currently appear to be an important biological control agent of alfalfa weevil in the northern Great Plains. More intensive surveys will be required to assess the extent of the distributional limits of this species throughout the region.
Auditory hallucinations (AH) are often considered a sign of a psychotic disorder. This is promoted by the DSM-5 category of Other Specified Schizophrenia Spectrum And Other Psychotic Disorder (OSSSOPD), the diagnostic criteria for which are fulfilled with the sole presence of persistent AH, in the absence of any other psychotic symptoms. And yet, persistent AH are not synonymous with having a psychotic disorder, and should therefore not be uncritically treated as such. Many people who seek treatment for persistent AH have no other psychotic symptoms, have preserved reality-testing capacities, and will never develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Instead, hallucinations may be the result of many different causes, including borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), hearing loss, sleep disorders or brain lesions, and they may even occur outside the context of any demonstrable pathology. In such cases, the usage of the DSM-5 diagnosis of OSSSOPD would be incorrect, and it may prompt unwarranted treatment with antipsychotic medication. We therefore argue that a DSM-5 diagnosis of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder (or any other type of psychotic disorder) characterized by AH should require at least one more symptom listed under the A-criterion (i.e. delusions, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior or negative symptoms). Adhering to these more stringent criteria may help to distinguish between individuals with persistent AH which are part of a psychotic disorder, for whom antipsychotic medication may be helpful, and individuals with AH in the absence of such a disorder who may benefit from other approaches (e.g. different pharmacological interventions, improving coping style, trauma-related therapy).
Hydrospires are internal structures in blastoids that primarily served a respiratory function. Historically, hydrospires have been modeled as passive-flow respiratory structures with a vertical orientation. This project constructed virtual 3D models of blastoids from legacy acetate peel collections at the Naturalis Museum in the Netherlands. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the blastoid models reconstructed in living position indicated that hydrospires likely were oriented horizontally when the blastoid was in feeding mode in current velocities>0.5 cm/s to 10 cm/s. In this range of current velocities, passive water flow through the hydrospires did not produce conditions optimized for efficient gas exchange. However, optimal water flow through the hydrospires could be achieved if the excurrent velocity of water exiting the hydrospire through the spiracle was approximately one-half the velocity of ambient environmental currents. Maintaining such a ratio in the dynamic current systems in which blastoids lived suggests that cilia-driven active water flow through the hydrospires is a better model for optimizing respiratory effectiveness.
School belonging, at both a school and university level, has been well documented as a predictor of academic and psychosocial success. The construct has been examined by scholars in a variety of different professional disciplines (e.g., education, psychology, sociology) and continues to be consistently researched. Although significant contributions have been made in the field, there are still additional areas of investigation needed, as well as interventions that need to be designed and explored. The current article was designed to review the theoretical foundations of belonging, conceptualise school belonging with respect to how it is presented in the literature, discuss the key variables related to school belonging, present a summary of the predictors of school belonging, discuss school belonging in a university setting, and posit future directions for research.
ISO has opened new infrared windows for spectroscopy, enabling detailed studies of the composition of the dust particles present in circumstellar disks. For oxygen-rich dust, and in particular for silicates, a forest of new features has been discovered, and comparison with laboratory data has enabled the identification of most of them. Of special relevance is the detection of crystalline silicates, which present themselves as a new diagnostic for studying the formation of comets and planetesimals in the disks surrounding young and, surprisingly, also evolved stars.
We present flux-calibrated, synthetic spectra for the calibration stars of the Short Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory ISO-SWS (cf. Kessler et al. 1996). ISO-SWS covers a wavelength range of 2.4 to 45 μm (cf. de Graauw et al. 1996), and although in the NIR the flux calibration of Vega can be used, at longer wavelengths the flux calibration has to be extrapolated by other means, because (i) Vega has at λ ≥ 25 μm an IR excess due to circumstellar dust and (ii) there is an, as yet, unresolved controversy about Vega's flux at 10 μm (cf. Rieke et al. 1985). The majority of the standard stars of SWS are of MK class G and K III, as cool giants are amongst the brightest objects in the IR, and model atmospheres for cool giants are available and well-studied (cf. Jørgensen and Gustafsson 1994).
We have studied the absorption bands around 14 μm in the spectra of 11 carbon stars with mass-loss rates ranging from 10−8 to 10−4 M⊙ yr−1, based on data obtained with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). All stars clearly show a C2H2 absorption band peaking at 13.7 μm, while the contribution from HCN molecules is small in this wavelength region. A simple plane-parallel LTE model with two layers at different temperatures is used to derive the C2H2 abundances in the outer photosphere and in the circumstellar envelope. We find that (1) the column density of the hot-layer, placed at about 3R* with a temperature of 1400 K is roughly the same for all stars regardless of the mass-loss rate, and (2) the contribution of cool molecules in the circumstellar envelope increases with the dust mass-loss rate, (3) the abundance of C2H2 in the two layers is about the same, i.e. no obvious depletion of C2H2 molecules seems to occur in the circumstellar envelope.
Haematological profiles indicate the health status of an animal and can be used to identify sub-clinical stress responses. The objectives of the study were to examine (i) the effect of breed and plane of nutrition, on haematological profiles of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves in response to gradual weaning, and (ii) the effect of breed on immune response genes in bovine whole blood using real-time quantitative PCR. Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves were group housed indoors and individually fed using an automatic feeder. They were allocated to a high, medium or low plane of nutrition, based on milk replacer (MR) and concentrate. The nutrition treatments were calculated using National Research Council guidelines in order to achieve a high, medium or low growth rate for each respective breed. During the weaning phase MR was gradually reduced over a 14-day (d) period (d −13 to d 0). Calves were blood sampled on d −14, −6, −3, 0, 1, 3, 8 and 14 relative to weaning (d 0) for subsequent haematological analysis. On d −14, 1 and 8, a subset of eight Holstein-Friesian calves randomly selected from the medium nutrition treatment and eight Jersey calves randomly selected from the high nutrition treatment, were blood sampled for gene expression profiling, targeting biomarkers of weaning stress. These two treatment groups were chosen to examine the effect of breed on expression of the genes of interest, as energy intake and animal performance were similar. There was no effect of breed×plane of nutrition interaction nor effect of plane of nutrition on any variable measured (P>0.05). Gradual weaning produced differential biological responses in the two breeds evidenced by breed×time interactions for lymphocyte, monocyte and red blood cell number, plasma haemoglobin and haptoglobin concentrations (P<0.05). The typical stress response consisting of neutrophilia and lymphopaenia was not observed for any treatment. An immune response to gradual weaning was observed as the relative gene expression level of the pro-apoptotic gene, Fas, increased on d 1 relative to d −14 (P<0.05). Relative gene expression levels were greater in Jersey calves compared with Holstein-Friesian for the pro-inflammatory cytokine CXCL8 (P=0.05) and the glucocorticoid receptor, GRα (P<0.05). The increased levels of these transcripts suggest that Jersey calves may have a more sensitive immune system compared with Holstein-Friesian.
I have no intention of putting forward yet another theory of composition for the work of Herodotos. This type of study is frequently unsatisfactory, as it tends to depend either on subjective judgements or on circular arguments regarding, for example, the date of composition of particular passages (‘this passage belongs to Herodotos' “developed style” and was therefore written later than such and such a passage occurring later on in the existing arrangement of the work’); alternatively it may tend to force the content of the History into some pre-selected mould, a glaring example of which procedure is ‘pedimental structure’ (Herodotos was not building a temple, and there is no reason why he should have felt symmetry to be a necessary feature of history); or it may establish some kind of moral canon to which Herodotos is alleged to have thought all history conformed.
Gallium Nitride (GaN) thin films were successfully grown by electron cyclotron resonance molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-MBE), gas source MBE (GSMBE), and chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). Time of flight mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (TOF-MSRI) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) were used in-situ to determine the surface composition, crystalline structure, and growth mode of GaN thin films deposited by the three MBE methods. The substrate nitridation and the buffer layers were monitored and optimized by TOF-MSRI and RHEED. For GSMBE, the gallium to nitrogen ratio is found to correlate well with ex-situ optical properties. In the case of CBE, carbon incorporation determines the surface morphology, crystalline quality and optical activity of the epilayers.
High-redshift quasars are unique probes of the evolution of supermassive black holes and the intergalactic medium at the end of the epoch of reionization. We present the optical spectra of eight new z ~ 6 quasars selected from the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1). Details of the selection strategy can be found in Bañados et al. (2014). With this work we increase the number of known quasars at z < 5.7 by more than 10%. The quasars discovered here span a large range of luminosities (19.6 ≤ zP1 ≤ 21.2) and are remarkably heterogeneous in their spectral features: half of them show bright emission lines whereas the other half show weak or no Lyα emission line. We find a larger fraction of weak–line emission quasars than in lower redshift studies, although still based on low number statistics, this may imply that the quasar population could be more diverse than previously thought.
Structural models of emotional disorders propose that anxiety disorders can be classified into fear and distress disorders. Sources of evidence for this distinction come from genetic, self-report and neurophysiological data from adults. The present study examined whether this distinction relates to cognitive processes, indexed by attention bias towards threat, which is thought to cause and maintain anxiety disorders.
Diagnostic and attention bias data were analysed from 435 children between 5 and 13 years of age; 158 had principal fear disorder (specific phobia, social phobia or separation anxiety disorder), 75 had principal distress disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, GAD) and 202 had no psychiatric disorder. Anxious children were a clinic-based treatment-seeking sample. Attention bias was assessed on a visual-probe task with angry, neutral and happy faces.
Compared to healthy controls, children with principal distress disorder (GAD) showed a significant bias towards threat relative to neutral faces whereas children with principal fear disorder showed an attention bias away from threat relative to neutral faces. Overall, children displayed an attention bias towards happy faces, irrespective of diagnostic group.
Our findings support the distinction between fear and distress disorders, and extend empirically derived structural models of emotional disorders to threat processing in childhood, when many anxiety disorders begin and predict lifetime impairment.
Adolescent development involves a complex interplay between genetics, biology, and social and emotional relationships within multiple contexts of home, school and the broader community. The transition from primary to secondary school, coupled with the onset of puberty, can therefore be a difficult period for young people to negotiate at a critical period of their developmental pathway. Using a social ecological perspective, this article examines the impact of the transition experience on adolescent social and emotional health, both immediately following transition to secondary school and at the end of the first year in this new school environment. This 1-year prospective study involving 1,500 Australian Grade 8 secondary school students found that 31% of students in the sample experienced a ‘difficult’ or ‘somewhat difficult’ transition to their new school. This third of the student sample were consequently more likely to experience poorer social and emotional health, including higher levels of depression and anxiety at the end of their first year of secondary school, while controlling for these variables at the time of transition. A central message from this work exemplifies the urgent need for a longitudinal intervention trial to develop best practice guidelines for activities that help ameliorate the negative impact a change in education context can create for adolescents negotiating a rapid metamorphosis from childhood to adulthood.
Patchy or divided populations can be important to infectious disease transmission. We first show that Lloyd’s mean crowding index, an index of patchiness from ecology, appears as a term in simple deterministic epidemic models of the SIR type. Using these models, we demonstrate that the rate of movement between patches is crucial for epidemic dynamics. In particular, there is a relationship between epidemic final size and epidemic duration in patchy habitats: controlling inter-patch movement will reduce epidemic duration, but also final size. This suggests that a strategy of quarantining infected areas during the initial phases of a virulent epidemic might reduce epidemic duration, but leave the population vulnerable to future epidemics by inhibiting the development of herd immunity.
The use of thiourea/ammonia pre-treatments on (100) InP, followed by chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films (∼ 30 Å), with low-temperature, low-pressure chemical vapor deposited SiO2 has been shown to produce metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) samples with near-ideal capacitance-voltage (C-V) response. Here, we report on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the near-surface of InP following pre-treatment and CdS deposition. The pre-treatment was shown by XPS to form an indium sulfide layer and effectively remove native oxides from the InP surface. The subsequent deposition of CdS on a sulfur-passivated surface forms a stable layer which protects the substrate from oxidation during SiO2 chemical vapor deposition. MIS samples prepared using the pre-treatment without CdS deposition showed improved C- V response, while samples prepared with both the pre-treatment and CdS deposition showed a dramatic reduction in the density of interface states.