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The older Finnish Twin Cohort (FTC) was established in 1974. The baseline survey was in 1975, with two follow-up health surveys in 1981 and 1990. The fourth wave of assessments was done in three parts, with a questionnaire study of twins born during 1945–1957 in 2011–2012, while older twins were interviewed and screened for dementia in two time periods, between 1999 and 2007 for twins born before 1938 and between 2013 and 2017 for twins born in 1938–1944. The content of these wave 4 assessments is described and some initial results are described. In addition, we have invited twin-pairs, based on response to the cohortwide surveys, to participate in detailed in-person studies; these are described briefly together with key results. We also review other projects based on the older FTC and provide information on the biobanking of biosamples and related phenotypes.
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are critical to developmental, diagnostic, and clinical models of antisocial behaviors (AB). However, assessments of CU traits within large-scale longitudinal and neurobiologically focused investigations remain remarkably sparse. We sought to develop a brief measure of CU traits using items from widely administered instruments that could be linked to neuroimaging, genetic, and environmental data within already existing datasets and future studies.
Data came from a large and diverse sample (n = 4525) of youth (ages~9–11) taking part in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Moderated nonlinear factor analysis was used to assess measurement invariance across sex, race, and age. We explored whether CU traits were distinct from other indicators of AB, investigated unique links with theoretically-relevant outcomes, and replicated findings in an independent sample.
The brief CU traits measure demonstrated strong psychometric properties and evidence of measurement invariance across sex, race, and age. On average, boys endorsed higher levels of CU traits than girls and CU traits were related to, yet distinguishable from other indicators of AB. The CU traits construct also exhibited expected associations with theoretically important outcomes. Study findings were also replicated across an independent sample of youth.
In a large, multi-site study, a brief measure of CU traits can be measured distinctly from other dimensions of AB. This measure provides the scientific community with a method to assess CU traits in the ABCD sample, as well as in other studies that may benefit from a brief assessment of CU.
Large-scale studies evaluating risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a leading cause of infectious diarrhea among patients undergoing stem cell transplantation (SCT), are lacking. We have evaluated risk factors for CDI among both autologous SCT (auto-SCT), and allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT) recipients using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database provided by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP).
We used patient data obtained from the NIS database for all adult patients admitted for auto- and allo-SCTs from January 2001 to December 2010. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to evaluate risk factors of CDI in auto- and allo-SCT patients.
Auto-SCTs constituted 61.5% of all SCTs performed during the study period. Of the 53,072 auto-SCT patients, 5.8% had CDI, whereas 8.5% of 33,189 allo-SCT patients had CDI. Univariate analyses identified age, gender, indication for SCT, radiation as part of the conditioning regimen, respiratory failure, septicemia, lengthy hospital stay, and multiple comorbidities as risk factors for CDI in both subsets. On multivariate analyses for auto-SCT, there was significant correlation between age and the indication for transplant (P=.003), but the indication for either auto- or allo-SCT was not associated with CDI on multivariate analyses. The following factors were found to be associated with CDI: septicemia (auto-SCT odds ratio [OR],=1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35–2; and allo-SCT OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.36–2.1), male gender (auto-SCT OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.09–1.53; and allo-SCT OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.18–1.57), lengthy hospital stay (auto-SCT OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 2.29–3.45; and allo-SCT OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 2.15–3.22), and presence of multiple comorbidities (auto-SCT OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.11–1.57; and allo-SCT OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.0–1.4).
The prevalence of CDI was higher among patients undergoing allo-SCT. CDI was significantly associated with longer hospital stay, septicemia, and male gender for auto- and allo-SCT recipients. While this analysis did not permit us to directly ascribe the associations to be causative for CDI, it identifies the more vulnerable population for CDI and provides a rationale for the development of more effective approaches to preventing CDI.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact atrial septum is a poor predictor of outcomes. Prenatal assessment of pulmonary venous Doppler and emergent postnatal cardiac intervention may be associated with better outcomes.
Materials and methods
A retrospective review of all hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients in two centres over a 5-year period was performed. Group 1 included patients with adequate inter-atrial communication. Group 2 included patients with prenatal diagnosis with an intact atrial septum who had immediate transcatheter intervention. Group 3 included patients with intact atrial septum who were not prenatally diagnosed and underwent either delayed intervention or no intervention before stage 1 palliation. Primary outcome was survival up to stage 2 palliation.
The incidence of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with a restrictive atrial communication was 11.2% (n=19 of 170). Overall survival to stage 2 or heart transplantation was 85% and 67% for Groups 1 and 2, respectively (n=129/151, n=8/12; p=0.03), and 0% (n=0/7) for Group 3. Survival benefits were observed between Groups 2 and 3 (p<0.001). Foetal pulmonary vein Doppler reverse/forward velocity time integral ratio of ⩾18% (sensitivity, 0.99, 95% CI, 0.58–1; specificity, 0.99, 95% CI, 0.96–1) was predictive of the need for emergent left atrial decompression.
Using a multidisciplinary approach and foetal pulmonary vein Doppler, time-saving measures can be instituted by delivering prenatally diagnosed neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact atrial septum close to the cardiac catheterisation suite where left atrial decompression can be performed quickly and safely that may improve survival.
In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.
Among 741 children under 5 years admitted to hospital with respiratory infections during two winters, infection with influenza A virus was diagnosed in 70 (9%), with influenza B virus in 8 (1%), and with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 259 (35 %). Both influenza virus and RSV infections were diagnosed most frequently in children under the age of one year, and diagnosed more frequently in males than females. Influenza illnesses were more severe in boys than girls. Both infections occurred more often, but were not more severe, in children from a conurbation than in those from ‘rural’ areas. Convulsions were the cause of 36% of admissions with influenza A infections, but were rare in RSV infections. Bronchiolitis was the reason for 39% of admissions with RSV infections, but was rare in influenza infections. It is suggested that infants admitted to hospital are a good source of influenza virus strains for monitoring arttigenic variation.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of supplementing dairy cows with 1000 IU/day of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (SynAc), RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (NatAc), or RRR-α-tocopherol (NatAlc), from approximately 3 weeks before estimated calving until 2 weeks after calving, on the concentration of α-tocopherol and its stereoisomers (RRR-, RSS-, RRS-, RSR- and the four 2S-forms of α-tocopherol) in blood and milk. An unsupplemented group was included as control. Blood samples were collected at 3, 2 and 1 weeks before estimated calving, at calving, and 3, 7 and 14 days after calving, while milk samples were taken twice within 24 h after calving and at 7 and 14 days in milk. Overall, time and treatment had significant effects on plasma α-tocopherol with higher concentrations in NatAc than in the other groups. In addition, SynAc had higher concentrations than Control, and NatAlc tended to be higher than Control. The lowest plasma concentrations were observed at calving and 3 days after calving. Independent of treatment, the concentration was higher in colostrum than in milk day 7 and 14 after calving. Analyses of the stereoisomer distribution in plasma and milk showed that, irrespective of dietary treatment, RRR-α-tocopherol was the most predominant form, constituting more than 86%, whereas the remaining part of α-tocopherol was made up by the three synthetic 2R isomers, while the 2S isomers only contributed less than 1% of the total α-tocopherol. In control cows and cows supplemented with natural vitamin E, the proportion of RRR-α-tocopherol in plasma and milk constituted more than 98% of the total α-tocopherol. In conclusion, the results indicate that daily oral supplementation of dairy cows with RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate gives the highest blood concentrations of α-tocopherol in the periparturient period. Analyses of the distribution of the individual stereoisomers of α-tocopherol further indicate that the bioavailability of RRR-α-tocopherol relative to synthetic stereoisomers in cattle is considerably higher than officially accepted until now.
Five complimentary studies were undertaken with the overall aim to examine the ability of free-living stages of Haemonchus contortus to over-winter and tolerate cold stress. Two studies deal with the development and long-term survival of eggs and infective larvae of two geographically different isolates (Kenya and Sweden). Eggs and larvae were monitored in climatic chambers at temperatures that fluctuated daily between −1°C and 15°C, or at constant temperatures of 5°C and 15°C. The development from egg to larvae was dependent on temperatures over 5°C. The long time survival was favoured at lower temperatures. Furthermore, the overwintering capacity of the free-living stages of these isolates was estimated under Swedish field conditions. Two groups of lambs were experimentally infected with different isolates, and kept separated on previously ungrazed plots. In early May the following year, two parasite-naive tracer lambs were turned out on each of the plots to estimate the pick up of overwintered larvae. This experiment was replicated in central and southern Sweden. In addition, two experiments were performed in 2003 on pasture previously grazed by naturally infected sheep. One trial was on a pasture in southern Sweden grazed by a commercial flock, where extreme numbers of H. contortus were found towards the end of the grazing season 2002. The other study was on a pasture plot in central Sweden grazed by a hobby flock in 2002, where three of six lambs died due to haemonchiasis. Overwintered H. contortus was recorded on three of four experimental sites. Worm burdens were in all instances extremely low. No differences in development and survival were found between the isolates. Consequently, overwintering on pasture is of no practical significance in the transmission of H. contortus between grazing-seasons in Sweden.
This paper reviews the acute and chronic effects of feeding, diet composition and daily variation on equine acid–base status. The dietary cation–anion difference (DCAD) has a marked effect on blood acid–base balance in both the short term and long term. In general, diets with a low DCAD generate an acute acidosis that develops into a persistent though mild systemic, strong ion acidosis with long-term feeding. In contrast, high-DCAD diets result in a mild, persistent strong ion alkalosis characterized by elevated plasma pH, [HCO3] and total CO2 (TCO2). The acute blood acid–base responses to feeding include alterations in plasma pH and plasma concentrations of HCO3, TCO2, Cl−, Na+, K+ and protein. The forage component of the diet appears to be primarily responsible for the acute responses. There is limited research examining abrupt alterations in DCAD and the influence of daily variation on equine plasma acid–base balance. It is concluded that the composition of the diet, duration of adaptation to the diet, timing of feeding and time of day need to be considered when examining acid–base balance in horses.
The upper 20—30 m of ice-rich permafrost at three sites overridden by the northwest margin of the Laurentide ice sheet in the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands, western Arctic Canada, comprise massive ice beneath ice-rich diamicton or sandy silt. The diamicton and silt contain (1) truncated ice blocks up to 15 m long, (2) sand lenses and layers, (3) ice veins dipping at 20—30°, (4) ice lenses adjacent and parallel to sedimentary contacts, and (5) ice wedges. The massive ice is interpreted as intrasedimental or buried basal glacier ice, and the diamicton and silt as glacitectonite that has never thawed. Deformation of frozen ground was mainly ductile in character. Deformation was accompanied by sub-marginal erosion of permafrost, which formed an angular unconformity along the top of the massive ice and supplied ice clasts and sand bodies to the overlying glacitectonite. After deformation and erosion ceased, postglacial segregated ice and ice- wedge ice developed within the deformed permafrost.
The Center on Polymer Interfaces and Macromolecular Assemblies (CPIMA), an NSF MRSEC and joint partnership among Stanford University, IBM Almaden, and University of California at Davis, established the Summer Undergraduate Research Experience (SURE) Program in 1995. Its mission is twofold: to expose undergraduate students to cutting-edge research and to help students with their ultimate career decisions. Approximately twenty-five students each summer are assigned a research project under the direction of a mentor. Students are exposed to a variety of research environments including universities, industry, and laboratories overseas. Regardless of site, students participate in research group meetings and learn the research process –a valuable experience that is often not obtained during a student's undergraduate years. To complete the research experience, SURE students attend a CPIMA Forum where they present posters on their research and interact with members of both academia and industry. While undergraduates are exposed to academia, they are often not exposed to industry or alternative careers. SURE students learn about industrial research by visiting IBM and getting a tour of the Almaden Research Center. A Career Day is held during the Program where students are given workshops on applying to graduate school as well as talks from people in different scientific careers, both traditional and nontraditional. Assessment surveys show that after their exposure to a number of experiences and ideas over 10 weeks, the SURE students have learned important lessons that a traditional classroom does not afford. To date, over 150 students have participated.
Industrial experience can be a significant factor in materials science education, and internships at our laboratory under two NSF programs directly impact undergraduates and high school teachers. In these programs, the participants become a member of individual, existing research groups under a mentor on a technical project relevant to IBM. The research is publishable but closely related to a technical area important to IBM. During the summer the participants become members of the research group, attending departmental meetings and informal discussions. In addition, they attend a special seminar series on industrial research frontiers, receive career-training discussions, and participate in a variety of other programs sponsored for summer interns by IBM. Every participant presents a poster at an internal technical meeting at IBM or a technical meeting at Stanford (or both) at the end of the summer. One of the programs, an NSF MRSEC “Center for Polymer Interfaces and Macromolecular Interfaces” (CPIMA), involves a partnership with Stanford University and the University of California at Davis. The CPIMA program has an active group of postdoctoral scientists, graduate students, undergraduate (summer) students and (summer) high school teachers. In addition to IBM, summer students in CPIMA may work with other industrial firms who are industrial affiliates of CPIMA. In addition, CPIMA has a public science and K-12 component in materials science in educational outreach with the The Tech Museum of Innovation in San Jose. The other program, an NSF GOALI grant on “Surface and Analytical Chemistry of Materials” with San Jose State University, involves undergraduate and graduate (masters) San Jose State University students during the academic year who work on collaborative research projects between IBM scientists and San Jose State University professors. In addition, this project also has a large summer program with undergraduates from across the US and with high school teachers. The impact of the programs on the students, teachers, and institutions will be reviewed, with a special emphasis on the impact on the industrial partner.
This paper examines the debris-rich basal ice layer from Worthington Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., a small valley glacier overlying rigid bedrock. The debris-rich basal ice layer studied shows evidence for large-scale longitudinal compressive deformation (isoclinal folds and nappes), similar in style and magnitude features to that reported from push moraines formed in glacial sediments. The debris-rich ice largely comprised stratified solid ice (layers of alternating debris-rich and debris-poor ice) which we suggest results from the tectonic attenuation of folds produced from the deformation of the frozen debris, glacier ice and bubble-rich ice that comprise the initial basal layer of Worthington Glacier. Beneath the glacier lies a thin bed of saturated diamicton which contains evidence of limited movement. It is suggested that this is the result of the partial melt-out of the debris-rich basal ice layer which then behaved as a local (and seasonal) thin deforming layer.
It is suggested that this example, from a valley glacier flowing over rigid bedrock, provides further evidence that the processes of sediment transport, incorporation and deposition in the debris-rich basal ice are similar to and linked with those in the deforming layer.
The aim was to investigate the effect of tiapride (100 mg three times a day for at least one month) on outcome following detoxification.
The setting was a tertiary referral centre. The study design was randomised, double-blind, and placebo-controlled. One hundred routinely admitted alcohol-dependent patients were entered, and 54 completed the trial. Outcome was assessed by considering drinking status at three months and six months follow-up, and by comparing psychological status at intake and follow-up using the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index, the Litman Self-esteem scale and a Satisfaction with Life Situations scale. We also compared performance over the six months before admission with the three and six months of follow-up on measures of health, social and drinking variables.
Tiapride proved better (usually at statistically highly significant levels) than placebo at promoting: abstinence, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life situations; and at reducing: alcohol consumption, use of health service resources, and levels of neuroticism.
Tiapride merits serious consideration in the longer-term treatment of alcoholic patients.
A normal coordinate approach was used to generate ciystallographic packing candidates of a multitorsional polyimide synthesized from 3,3′,4,4′-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDA) and 2,2-dimethyl-l,3-(4-aminophenoxy)propane (DMDA) (PI-2). Candidates were obtained under conditions of fixed axial advance of 24.6 Å per monomer, and imposed 2/1 helical or 1/0 transiational symmetry, consistent with the observed WAXD meridional layer line spacing . The ability of comb in atori ally generated torsional states to adopt the desired geometry was examined. Necessary corrections to die conformational parameter equations originally derived by Kusanagi, et al. [2|, have been made. The procedure described allowed crystallographic conformations satisfying explicit geometric and MM3 intramolecular energy criteria to be generated for a linear multitorsional polyimide prior to the application of crystallographic screening or refinement procedures.
One hundred and twelve alcoholic patients treated by an intensive one-month residential programme were followed up for one year. As a group, they were socially disadvantaged and highly dependent on alcohol. Outcome of treatment was assessed at six months and one year following discharge by multiple measures which included assessments of drinking behaviour, measurements of social stability, neuroticism and self-esteem, and self-ratings of satisfaction with important aspects of day-to-day living. During the first six months following treatment, 37% were abstinent or drinking in controlled fashion; during the second six months, 53% achieved this status. Improvement in drinking status was positively related to improvements in all other outcome variables.
Thirty-two chemically dependent alcoholics with significant levels of anxiety or depression were admitted to a double-blind randomised study in which the effect of the substituted benzamide tiapride was compared with that of placebo over a 6-month period. Twenty patients completed the study. Assessments included relevant biochemical and haematological tests, drinking levels and associated behaviour, expressed satisfaction with various areas of life, the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index of neurotic symptoms and questionnaires on self-esteem and alcohol dependence. The results indicated that in comparison with the placebo group, patients treated with tiapride drank less and had longer periods of abstinence. This was associated with improvements in laboratory tests, reduction in neurotic symptoms, gains in self-esteem and increased levels of expressed satisfaction with life situation. The drug was well tolerated and no deleterious effects were noted, suggesting its potential usefulness for this patient group.