CYP2C19 polymorphisms and smoking influence the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy, but interaction between the two have hitherto not been examined. A total of 142 H. pylori-positive patients who received triple drug therapy with lansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin were categorized into three groups with regard to diplotypes of CYP2C19: homozygous extensive metabolizer (homEM), heterozygous EM (hetEM), and poor metabolizer (PM). The overall success rate was 61·3%. Smoking was an independent risk factor of eradication failure (OR 2·81, 95% CI 1·14–6·91), whereas CYP2C19 polymorphisms were less influential. Among non-smokers, the homEM and hetEM groups showed worse eradication rates (58·5 and 67·3%) relative to PM (76·2%) as expected; however, an opposite trend was observed among smokers (homEM 50·0%, hetEM 46·7%, PM 20·0%), indicating possible interactions with CYP2C19 polymorphisms. Smoking has a greater influence on H. pylori eradication than the CYP2C19 genotype. Interaction between smoking and CYP2C19 should be examined in the future.