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Healthy lifestyles prevent cardiovascular disease and are increasingly recognized in relation to mental health but longitudinal studies are limited. We examined bi-directional associations between mood disorders and healthy lifestyles in a cohort followed for 5 years.
Participants were aged 26–36 years at baseline (2004–2006) and 31–41 years at follow-up (2009–2011). At follow-up, lifetime mood disorders (depression or dysthymia) were retrospectively diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A five-item lifestyle score (comprising body mass index, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and healthy diet) was measured at both time points. Linear and log multinomial regression determined if mood disorder before baseline predicted changes in lifestyle (n = 1041). Log binomial regression estimated whether lifestyle at baseline predicted new episodes of mood disorder (n = 1233). Covariates included age, sex, socio-economic position, parental and marital status, social support, major life events, cardiovascular disease history, and self-rated physical and mental health.
A history of mood disorder before baseline predicted unfavourable trajectories of lifestyle over follow-up, including somewhat lower risk of improvement [relative risk (RR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56–1.03] and greater risk of worsening (RR 1.46, 95% CI 0.99–2.15) of lifestyle independent of confounding factors. Higher lifestyle scores at baseline were associated with a 22% (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61–0.95) reduced risk of first episodes of mood disorder, independent of confounding factors.
Healthy lifestyles and mood disorders are closely related. Our results suggest that healthy lifestyles may not only reduce cardiovascular disease but also promote mental health.
Recent results from spectroscopic studies of Magellanic Cloud stars are discussed. Emphasis is placed on how to interpret CNO abundances to examine stellar evolution scenarios. Observed CNO abundances are best explained by the new rotating stellar evolution models (see Langer & Heger, these proceedings). In addition, the Rolleston et al. (these proceedings) abundances for B stars in the Magellanic Bridge are discussed.
The current generation of older people who are approaching or recently experiencing retirement form part of a unique generational habitus who have experienced a cultural shift into consumerism. These baby boomers are often portrayed as engaging in excessive levels of consumption which are counter to notions of sustainable living and to intergenerational harmony. This paper focuses on an exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the consumption patterns of baby boomers as they retire. We achieve this through an understanding of the everyday practices of grocery shopping which have the potential to give greater clarity to patterns of consumption than the more unusual or ‘extraordinary’ forms of consumption such as global travel. In-depth interviews with 40 older men and women in four locations across England and Scotland were conducted at three points in time across the period of retirement. We suggest that the grocery shopping practices of these older men and women were influenced by two factors: (a) parental values and upbringing leading to the reification of thrift and frugality as virtues, alongside aspirations for self-actualisation such as undertaking global travel, and (b) the influence of household context, and caring roles, on consumption choices. We conclude with some tentative observations concerning the implications of the ways baby boomers consume in terms of increasing calls for people to live in more sustainable ways.
Carina is a small and faint classical dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the halo of the Milky Way with a highly episodic star formation history (e.g., Hurley-Keller et al. 1998). Using VLT/FLAMES in high resolution mode, we significantly increase the sample of stars with abundance determinations in Carina, adding to earlier work with UVES. Here we present our preliminary abundances for Fe, Mg, Ca and Ba in 23 red giant branch stars in the centre of Carina.
Chemical abundances and radial velocities for ∼210 stars in WLM, ∼130 new stars from DEIMOS spectroscopy, and 80 stars from Leaman et al. (2009) are presented. This sample shows that this isolated dwarf has chemically, dynamically, and spatially distinct stellar populations similar to the nearby dwarf spheroidals. The kinematics of the stars appear to be decoupled from the HI gas, which shows a higher rotational velocity profile. This thicker stellar configuration for a distant, isolated dwarf irregular may have implications for timescales of tidal transformation scenarios of infalling galaxies in the Local Group.
The NIR Ca II triplet has proven to be an important tool for quantitative spectroscopy. Here we present results of synthetic spectral analysis for the Ca II triplet for low-metallicity red giant stars, combined with observational data. Our results start to deviate strongly from the widely-used and linear empirical calibrations below [Fe/H] = −2. We provide a new calibration for Ca II triplet studies which is valid down until [Fe/H] = −4 and apply this new calibration to current data sets. We suggest that the classical dwarf galaxies are not so devoid of extremely low-metallicity stars as was previously thought and discuss preliminary results and possibilities for follow-up observations of these extremely low-metallicity candidates.
We have chosen the name of GYES, one of the mythological giants with one hundred arms,
offspring of Gaia and Uranus, for our instrument study of a multifibre spectrograph for
the prime focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Such an instrument could provide an
excellent ground-based complement for the Gaia mission and a northern complement to the
HERMES project on the AAT. The CFHT is well known for providing a stable prime focus
environment, with a large field of view, which has hosted several imaging instruments, but
has never hosted a multifibre spectrograph. Building upon the experience gained at GÉPI
with FLAMES-Giraffe and X-Shooter, we are investigating the feasibility of a high
multiplex spectrograph (about 500 fibres) over a field of view one degree in diameter. We
are investigating an instrument with resolution in the range 15 000 to 30 000, which
should provide accurate chemical abundances for stars down to 16th magnitude and radial
velocities, accurate to 1 km s-1 for fainter stars. The study is led by
GÉPI-Observatoire de Paris with a contribution from Oxford for the study of the
positioner. The financing for the study comes from INSU CSAA and Observatoire de Paris.
The conceptual study will be delivered to CFHT for review by October 1st 2010.
The microbial population of the intestinal tract is a complex natural resource that can be utilized in an effort to reduce the impact of pathogenic bacteria that affect animal production and efficiency, as well as the safety of food products. Strategies have been devised to reduce the populations of food-borne pathogenic bacteria in animals at the on-farm stage. Many of these techniques rely on harnessing the natural competitive nature of bacteria to eliminate pathogens that negatively impact animal production or food safety. Thus feed products that are classified as probiotics, prebiotics and competitive exclusion cultures have been utilized as pathogen reduction strategies in food animals with varying degrees of success. The efficacy of these products is often due to specific microbial ecological factors that alter the competitive pressures experienced by the microbial population of the gut. A few products have been shown to be effective under field conditions and many have shown indications of effectiveness under experimental conditions and as a result probiotic products are widely used in all animal species and nearly all production systems. This review explores the ecology behind the efficacy of these products against pathogens found in food animals, including those that enter the food chain and impact human consumers.
The induction of general anaesthesia is associated with the greatest cardiovascular changes in elderly patients. Induction can be performed either intravenously or with gaseous induction. Sevoflurane has advantages over propofol for induction of anaesthesia in the elderly, since the lower reduction in mean arterial pressure with sevoflurane is both statistically and clinically significant. This prospective randomized controlled trial investigated the cardiovascular benefits of co-induction of anaesthesia with 0.75 mg kg−1 propofol and 8% sevoflurane, when compared with 8% sevoflurane alone in patients requiring surgery for fractured neck of femur.
In total, 38 patients aged 75 or over were allocated into the two groups, receiving either 0.75 mg kg−1 of propofol followed by 8% sevoflurane or 8% sevoflurane alone. Vital signs were recorded until successful insertion of a laryngeal mask. Induction times, induction events and patient satisfaction scores were also recorded.
Results showed that there were no differences in the cardiovascular parameters between the two groups. Induction times were faster in the propofol and sevoflurane group (62 vs. 81 s; P = 0.028). The postoperative questionnaire showed that the majority of patients in both groups were satisfied with the induction process.
We concluded that 0.75 mg kg−1 of propofol followed by sevoflurane induction is an acceptable alternative to sevoflurane induction. It is associated with similar haemodynamic variables, faster induction times and is very well tolerated.
A-type supergiants are the primary targets for the quantitative spectroscopy of individual stars in nearby galaxies because of their intrinsic brightness. An overview is given on the non-LTE techniques required for their analysis. Applications concentrate on placing observational constraints on evolutionary models for massive stars and their host galaxies by detailed abundance analyses. Results from high-resolution studies of A-type supergiants in Local Group galaxies and from intermediate-resolution multi-object spectroscopy of supergiants far beyond the Local Group are summarised.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
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