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The formation of stars in proto-galactic clouds can be viewed as two step processes i.e. the fragmentation of proto-galactic clouds and evolution of these fragments into stars. We consider here the latter process, the contraction of protosteller clouds (∼ 1M⊙) which consist of primordial gas. We investigate cooling processes by calculating the radiative transfer of H2 rotational/vibrational lines. We consider clouds in hydrostatic equilibrium as initial conditions. Comparing two timescales, the freefall time and the timescale of quasi-static contraction (∼ tcool, the cooling time) of these clouds, we find that as the clouds contract, the ratio of two timescales tff/tqsc, i.e. the efficiency of cooling, becomes larger even under the existence of cold and opaque envelope. Especially for the fragments of primordial filamentary clouds (tff ∼ tqsc initially), they collapse dynamically in the freefall timescale. This efficiency of cooling is utterly peculiar to the line cooling.
We have been monitoring the flux density of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) at 22 GHz since DOY=42 (11 Feb. 2013) with a sub-array of the Japanese VLBI Network in order to search the increase of 22-GHz emission from Sgr A* induced by the interaction of the G2 cloud with the accretion disk. The flux densities observed until DOY=322 (18 Nov. 2013) are consistent with the previously observed values before the approaching of the cloud. We have detected no large flare during this period.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief suicide management training programme for Japanese medical residents compared with the usual lecture on suicidality.
In this multi-center, clustered randomized controlled trial, the intervention group attended a structured suicide management programme and the control group, the usual lecture on depression and suicidality. The primary outcome was the difference in residents' cumulative competency score to manage suicidal persons from baseline (T0) to 1 month after the intervention (T2), determined using the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-1) score, at individual level.
Analysis of 114 residents (intervention group n = 65, control group n = 49) assigned to two clusters in each group revealed no change in SIRI-1 score from T0 to T2 or immediately after the intervention (T1) between the two groups. As a secondary analysis, discrepancy in judgement between the participants and Japanese suicidologists was examined immediately after the intervention in the adjusted model, with a mean difference in score of 9.98 (95% confidence interval: 4.39–15.56; p = 0.001).
The structured programme was not proven to improve competency in suicide management when measured by the SIRI-1 score. Further elaboration of the programme and valid measurement of its outcome would be needed to show the program's effectiveness.
Hexagonal ZnO was grown on hexagonal (001) sapphire substrate, then cubic La(Sr)MnO3(LSMO) was grown on ZnO underlayer by ion beam sputtering at substrate temperatures of 550-750°C to obtain double-layer of LSMO/ZnO. Out-of-plane (001) oriented ZnO was grown with in-plane orientation of [10-10](0001)ZnO//[11-20](0001)sapphire. Mixed phase of LSMO with out-of-plane (001), (110) and (111) orientations was grown on (001) ZnO usually. However each single phase of LSMO could be grown by controlling deposition conditions. The LSMO grains have their in-plane orientations of (110)LSMO //[10-10](0001)ZnO and (111)LSMO//[11-20](0001)ZnO.
Synthesis of FeC2O42H2O nano particles was carried out by thermal double decomposition of solutions of oxalic acid dihydrate (C2H2O4 2H2O) and FeSO4 7H2O employing CATA -2R microwave reactor. Structural elucidation was carried out by employing X-ray diffraction, particle size and shape were studied by transmission electron microscopy and nature of bonding was investigated by Optical absorption and near-infrared spectral studies. The powder resulting from this method is possesses distorted rhombic octahedral structure. The particle grain size is about 50 nm. Details of optical transitions are mentioned in terms of energy states.
Biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films can be bonded directly by oxygen plasma irradiation and low temperature heat press around 100°C. The irradiated films were kept in the atmosphere for six years, yet they can be bonded tightly as well. Dry- and wet-peel tests indicate that two bonding elements can be suggested, hydrogen bonding and chemical bonding. The films are bonded by these two elements at lower temperatures, but by the pure chemical bonding at higher temperatures. FTIR results on the non-irradiated, irradiated and bonded samples indicate that OH and COOH groups are created at the surface, they are responsible for the hydrogen and chemical bondings. Dehydrated condensation reaction is proposed for the chemical bonding. It is briefly mentioned on two origins for the long lifetime of irradiated active surface.
Magnetization measurement was carried out for Ba2Y1Cu3O7-y bulk and powder samples at 77K and 4.2K in order to evaluate intrinsic Jc. Excellent Jc values above 10 A/cm were obtained for powder samples at 77K and lOkOe. These Jc values were somewhat increased by substiution of Er for Y. High temperature sintering at 1030°C brings about drastic increase in magnetization which can be explained by the grain coarsening.
Preparation processing to obtain 124 single phase films has been studied by MOCVD. The YBCO thin films which were fabricated on MgO(100) and SrTiO3(100) substrates, respectively, were obtained under both conditions of Ts(temperature of susceptor)=800°C and Po2(oxygen partial pressure)=17.5torr. It was found that the oriented peaks of 124 c-axis and of 123 a-axis were more prominent than others at the composition ratio(Y/Ba/Cu=l.0/2.7/4.7), using the MgO(100) substrates. The 123 a-axis oriented grain was observed by using SEM and TEM. We have obtained thin films which were dominant in the 124 phase on the SrTiO3(100) substrates. The film surface morphology on the SrTiO3(100) substrate was smoother than that on the MgO(100) substrate. The origin of a-axis oriented grain growth was explained by the surface step(about 10 À) on MgO(100).
High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) has been used to study the microstructures of Y-Ba-Cu-0 superconducting thin films in which the YBa2Cu4O8 phase was the main phase. From cross-sectional observations, the c-normal 123 phase predominated in the film near the substrate surface, while the c-normal 124 phase occupied the region near the film surface. Another remarkable microstructure was that a-normal 123 variants overcame the c-normal 123 region, but the c-normal 124 phase surpassed the a-normal 123 phase in the upper part of the film.
Effects of high magnetic field and tensile stress on martensitic transformation behavior and microstructure at 4 K have been studied in Fe-31Ni-0.4C and Fe-27Ni-0.8C shape memory alloys. It was found that the critical magnetic field to induce martensitic transformation is between 7.5 T and 10 T. In the case of Fe-27Ni-0.8C, martensitic transformation is stress-induced at lower level of stress in magnetic field than in the case when no magnetic Field is applied. The amount of martensite formed by increasing the magnetic field under constant stress is larger than that formed by increasing the stress in the constant magnetic field.
Sintering processes are monitored by dilatometry. A conventional dilatometer under high gas pressure (typical HIPping conditions) is constructed using graphite rods to examine linear thermal expansivity of one sample. This method has a few disadvantages, such as the pressure of graphite rods acting as a uniaxial hot press. The advantage of a HIP method, compared to a hot press sintering is the capacity to process many samples at a time. The graphite rod method is applicable for only one sample. A volumetric dilatometer was developed using buoyancy under high gas pressure, which can monitor HIP sintering processes of many samples and check for capsule failure.
We are investigating applicability of photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy to porous silicon. Since PA spectroscopy is based on a non-radiative relaxation process, the measurement is of importance as a counterpart to photoluminescent spectroscopy. We studied a dependence of a PA amplitude on a chopping frequency and discussed the influence of a PA signal originated in a silicon substrate. The frequency dependence was elucidated with a two-layer model. Differences in PA spectra are correlated with a photoluminescent efficiency. From the correlation, we believe that non-radiative centers quench the efficiency.
Porous silicon was used to fabricate refractive index lattices. Patterned n-doping and/ or substrate etching were used to introduce lateral periodicity. By anodizing p-type substrate with an n-doped area, we realized large refractive index contrast two-dimensional lattices with underlying cladding layer. The anodization process showed an effect specific to the small dimensional patterning and this effect has significant influence on the formed refractive index structure.
We studied the effect of post-anodization chemical etching on porous silicon by means of photoluminescence (PL), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. We performed these measurements with repeating etching and then observed the variation of the spectra. On the basis of the correlation between PL and FTIR spectral changes, the PL emission at 660 and 730 nm in PL spectra stems from Si-H2, and Si-H clusters at surface, respectively. Raman spectra show a close relation between PL emission at 850 nm and nanocrystallites in porous silicon. In addition, chemical etching contributes to the promotion of nanocrystallites and to dissolving them.
Face centered cubic (FCC) single crystal silver nanoparticles(NPs) of nearly monodispersed particle size of 12nm were prepared by simple ripening multi-twined particles (MTP). The product yield was nearly 100% and growth mechanism was considered to be similar to Ostwald ripening but utilize chemical potential difference between MTP and FCC NPs. Controlling the ratio between defectless and defective particles before ripening by controlling kinetics of particle generation stage, it was possible to control the final defectless particle size from 7-18 nm maintaining almost 100% product yield.
Low-affinity penicillin-binding protein PBP-2a encoded by mecA is closely related to methicillin resistance in staphylococci, and expression of PBP-2a is controlled by regulator elements encoded by mecRl and mecI which are located adjacent to mecA on the chromosome. Deletion or mutation which occurred in mec regulator gene is considered to be associated with constitutive production of PBP-2a. The distribution of the mec regulator genes in 176 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 33 strains of S. epidermidis isolated from a single hospital was studied by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Most clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (94.3 %) and S. epidermidis (MRSE) (83.9 %) possessed both mecI and mecR1 genes (type I), whereas no mec regulator genes were detected in mecA-negative isolates. In contrast, 7 MRSA and 5 MRSE isolates were found to have incomplete regulator genes, and they were classified into three groups; strains which lacked only mecI gene (type II), strains which lacked mecIand 3'-end of mecR1 gene (type III), and strains which lacked both regulator genes (type IV). Analysis of mecI gene from all the strains having mecI by restriction fragment length polymorphism after Mse I digestion indicated that three MRSA strains possessed one of the known point mutations identified previously. These findings indicated the predominance of a single type of MRSA possessing both mecI and mecR1 in the study period and also suggested a high genomic diversity in mec regulator region of staphylococci.
A molecular typing method for Staphylococcus aureus based on coagulase gene polymorphisms (coagulase gene typing) was evaluated by examining a total of 240 isolates which comprised 210 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 30 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) collected from a single hospital. By Alul restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR-amplified 3′-end region of the coagulase gene including 81-bp repeated units, the MRSA and MSSA isolates examined were divided into 6 and 12 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns, respectively, whereas five patterns were commonly detected in MRSA and MSSA. MRSA isolates that showed a particular RFLP pattern were considered to be predominant in the hospital. Coagulase typing with type-specific antisera was also performed for all S. aureus isolates for comparison. Coagulase types II and VII were most frequently detected and included isolates with four and five different AluI RFLP patterns, respectively, whereas each of the other coagulase types corresponded to a single RFLP pattern. These results indicated that RFLP typing was more discriminatory than serological typing, for typing S. aureus and demonstrated its utility in epidemiologic investigation of S. aureus infection in hospitals.
MecA, a structural gene located on the chromosome of Staphylococcus aureus, characterizes methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and femA and femB(fem) genes encode proteins which influence the level of methicillin resistance of S. aureus. In order to examine effectiveness of detecting mecA and fem genes in identification of MRSA, the presence of these genes in 237 clinically isolated strains of staphylococci was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An amplified mecA DNA fragment of 533 base pairs (bp) was detected in 100% of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus, in 16·7 % of oxacillin-sensitive S. aureus, in 81·5% of S. epidermidis, and in 58·3% of other coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). While the PCR product of femA (509 bp) or femB (651 bp) was obtained from almost all the S. aureus strains except for five oxacillin-resistant strains (2·5%), neither of these genes were detected in CNS. Therefore, the detection of femA and femB together with mecA by PCR was considered to be a more reliable indicator to identify MRSA by differentiating it from mecA-positive CNS than single detection of mecA.
Quantitative data on phyto-oestrogen, particularly lignan, content in edible plants are insufficient. We, therefore, measured isoflavonoids and lignans in nine edible berries using an isotope dilution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for foods and found substantial concentrations of the lignan secoisolariciresinol (1·39–37·18 mg/kg DM), low amounts of matairesinol (0–0·78 mg/kg DM) and no isoflavones. To determine pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion pattern of the mammalian lignan enterolactone derived from plant lignans, a study with human subjects was conducted. Five healthy women and two men consumed, after a 72 h period of a phyto-oestrogen-free regimen, a single strawberry-meal containing known amounts of plant lignans. Basal and post-meal blood and urine samples were collected at short intervals. The samples were analysed using time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of enterolactone. The meal increased plasma concentration of enterolactone after 8–24 h and in urine in the 13–24 h and 25–36 h urine collections. High individual variability of the metabolic response was observed. Enterolactone excreted in the urine collected throughout the 48 h post-meal yielded on average 114 % of the plant lignans consumed. It is concluded that berries containing relatively high concentrations of plant lignans contribute to plasma and urinary levels of mammalian enterolactone in human subjects.