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The current study evaluated the effect of sowing date (early, mid-August or timely, mid-September) on two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) with different rates of nitrogen (N) (0–225 kg total N/ha) applied as animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers (N: phosphorus: potassium; NPK). Overwinter plant N uptake and soil mineral N content were determined during 2014/15, while harvest yields (grain, straw, N content) were determined during 2014/15 and 2015/16. Overwinter uptake of N was 14 kg N/ha higher in early than in timely-sown wheat. Despite very different yield levels in 2015 and 2016 harvests, the advantage of early sowing on grain yields was similar (1.1 and 0.9 t/ha); straw yield benefits were greater in 2015 (1.7 t/ha more) than in 2016 (0.4 t/ha more). In 2015 and 2016, N offtake was 35 and 17 kg N/ha higher in early than in timely-sown wheat, respectively. The mineral N fertilizer value of cattle slurry averaged 50%. Early sowing increased the apparent N recovery (ANR) for wheat regardless of nutrient source. However, ANR was substantially higher for NPK (82% in 2015; 52% in 2016) than for AM (39% in 2015; 27% in 2016). Performance of the two cultivars did not differ consistently with respect to the effect of early sowing on crop yield, N concentration and offtake, or ANR. Within the north-west European climatic region, moving the sowing time of winter wheat from mid-September to mid-August provides a significant yield and N offtake benefit.
The interaction between sea ice and glaciers has been studied for the floating tongue of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden glacier, northeast Greenland (79°30’N, 22° W). Information from glacial geological studies, expedition reports, aerial photographs and satellite imagery is used to document the glacier front position and fast-ice conditions on millennial to decadal time-scales. The studies indicate that the stability of the floating glacier margin is dependent on the presence of a protecting fast-ice cover in front of the glacier. In periods with a permanent fast-ice cover, no calving occurs, but after fast-ice break-up the glacier responds with a large calving activity, whereby several years of accumulated glacier-ice flux suddenly breaks away. Climate-induced changes of sea-ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean with seasonal break-up of the near-shore fast ice could lead to disintegration of the floating glaciers. The present dominant mass loss by bottom melting would then to a large extent be taken over by grounding-line calving of icebergs. The local influx of fresh water from the north Greenland glaciers to the sea would be reduced and the local iceberg production would increase.
Dairy cow mortality is an important animal welfare issue that also causes financial losses. The objective of this study was to identify farm characteristics and herd management practices associated with high on-farm cow mortality in Swedish dairy herds. A postal questionnaire was sent to farmers that had either high or low mortality rates for 3 consecutive years. The questionnaire consisted of five sections: ‘About the farm’, ‘Milking and housing’, ‘Feeding’, ‘Routines’ and ‘Lame and sick cows’. A total of 145 questionnaires were returned (response rate=33%). Ten of the 77 characteristics investigated met the inclusion criteria for multivariable analysis. The final logistic regression model included: herd size, breed, use of natural service bull, bedding improvement frequency and pasture system. Herds with Swedish Holstein as the predominant breed (odds ratio (OR) 22.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2 to 101.8) or with mixed breeds (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 17.5) had a greater risk of being high mortality herds than herds that were predominantly Swedish Red (OR 1). Herds larger than 100 cows (OR 19.6, 95% CI 3.5 to 110.4) and herds with 50 to 99 cows (OR 13.8, 95% CI 3.2 to 60.6) had greater risk of mortality than herds numbering 35 to 50 cows (OR 1). Being a high mortality herd was also associated with having cows on exercise lots during the summer season (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 9.9) compared with on pasture. A missing answer on the question of bedding improvement frequency was associated with high mortality herds. Overall, this study suggests that characteristics that are related to intensification of the dairy industry are also associated with high on-farm mortality of dairy cows.
Assortative mating has been demonstrated in mental disorders but the extent of cohabitation between patients with clinically diagnosed psychiatric disease has been poorly explored.
We conducted a register-based study of all Danes between 18 and 70 years of age in a 13-year observational period, linking data on individuals' contacts with psychiatric services with data on individuals' cohabitation status. Two different Poisson regression analyses were performed: the first comparing the rates of commencing cohabitation with a psychiatric patient between individuals, depending on whether the individuals themselves had, or did not have, a psychiatric diagnosis; the second comparing the incidence rates of psychiatric diagnoses for individuals cohabitating with psychiatric patients with the similar rates for individuals living with unaffected cohabitants.
In total, 159 929 (5.0%) out of 3 204 633 individuals were given a psychiatric diagnosis during the study period. Diagnosed individuals had an overall rate ratio (RR) of commencing cohabitation with a psychiatric patient of 1.95 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90–2.00] for women and 1.65 (95% CI 1.61–1.69) for men, when compared with unaffected individuals. The overall RR of receiving a psychiatric diagnosis while cohabitating with a psychiatric patient was 2.40 (95% CI 2.31–2.49) for women and 2.91 (95% CI 2.81–3.01) for men, when compared with those cohabitating with unaffected individuals. Individuals with schizophrenia and men with bipolar disorder had the highest RR of commencing cohabitation with a cohabitant with a similar diagnosis.
Cohabitation among individuals with severe psychiatric disorders is increased. This has implications for research and for the clinical management of patients.
We performed spatially-resolved photoluminescence and Raman experiments on the substrate interface region of wurtzite GaN layers. We found that the broad ”yellow” photoluminescence band is strong only near the interface. Our investigations reveal that both the substrate interface and a region of structural reorientation of the layer near the interface act as source of the photoluminescence. The Raman-scattering experiments show that at least a portion of the GaN layer near the substrate interface is oriented in such a way that the c-axis of the layer is parallel to the substrate interface. At a distance about 30 µm away from the interface the layer reorients by turning the c-axis by 90° into a direction perpendicular to the substrate interface.
We present results of high-pressure Raman-scattering experiments on bulk GaN and GaN grown on GaAs. We determined the Grüneisen parameters of both the cubic TO and LO phonon modes and the hexagonal A1, E1 and E2 modes. Our measurements reveal that the Grüneisen parameters for the GaAs substrate are about 30% smaller than those of bulk GaAs. This is a consequence of the lower compressibility of GaN compared to GaAs, which results in a pressure-induced biaxial strain on the substrate. From the pressure behavior of the GaAs modes and by comparing with our results for bulk GaN we obtained information about the biaxial strain in the GaN epitaxial layer.
We present results of spatially-resolved photoluminescence and Raman measurements on a 200 μm thick GaN layer grown on sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Our microphotoluminescence measurements reveal that the peak position of the excitonic and donoracceptor-pair transitions strongly depends on the distance to the substrate interface. We observed a strong blue shift near the interface and discuss the influence of strain, which we quantified by micro-Raman experiments.
Bifunctional 8,8'-dihydroxy-5,5'-biquinoline (bisquinoline) is reactively self-assembled with diethyl zinc to form a linear coordination polymer. The potential of this method to produce insoluble and intractable structures of controllable supramolecular architecture suitable for semiconducting applications has stimulated an in-depth investigation of the growth mechanism of these polymeric chelates. These films were characterized by FTIR, UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The film growth on glass or indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated substrates was monitored by UV/VIS spectroscopy and ellipsometry. FTIR spectroscopy indicates that the self-assembled films are polymeric in nature. Single layer light emitting diodes exhibited an orange electroluminescence, consistent with the corresponding photoluminescence spectrum
The nonlinear transient evolution of a suddenly applied monochromatic wave in a homogeneous plasma is considered, with particular emphasis on the magnetized case, where ordinary and extraordinary electromagnetic waves travelling normal to B are treated. Two important features are described. First, the penetration of the wave front is shown to be accompanied by ‘radiation’ of low-frequency waves, of which ion cyclotron and lower-hybrid waves are considered here. Next, the presence of a nonlinear, second-harmonic precursor is predicted, containing two natural modes of oscillation, one with exactly twice the frequency of the fundamental, and the other a slightly frequency-shifted contribution. The analysis is readily generalized to waves other than those considered here.
Two coupled equations describing the nonlinear evolution of modified convective cells with a finite but small wavenumber parallel to the external magnetic field B are derived. It is found that, for oblique propagation, the electrostatic and magnetostatic convective mode do not decouple as in the strictly perpen-dicular case. Various aspects of the governing equations are investigated. In the weakly nonlinear lirait, a three-wave interaction study shows the possibility of dual energy cascading, or of cascading to larger wavenumbers only, depending on the direction of the parallel wavenumber component of the pump wave. Furthermore, solitary wave solutions in the form of double vortices are considered.
Using ideas of S. Wassermann on non-exact
-algebras and property
groups, we show that one of his examples of non-invertible
-extensions is not semi-invertible. To prove this, we show that a certain element vanishes in the asymptotic tensor product. We also show that a modification of the example gives a
-extension which is not even invertible up to homotopy.
The translabyrinthine approach is one of the favoured access routes for removal of vestibular schwannomas; however, total hearing loss in the operated ear is a predictable consequence. Here, we report a case in which a patient maintained serviceable hearing almost six years after classic translabyrinthine surgery. Possible explanations for the hearing preservation are discussed, as well as the feasibility of a modified translabyrinthine approach in attempting preservation of hearing following vestibular schwannoma surgery.
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the potential influence of inulin on the establishment of new and patent infections of Trichuris suis in growing pigs. Two experimental diets were formulated based on barley flour with either added insoluble fibre from oat husk (Diet 1) or a pure inulin (16%) supplementation (Diet 2). Twenty-eight 10-week-old pigs were divided randomly into 4 groups (Groups 1–4) each of 7 pigs. After 3 weeks adaptation to the experimental diets all pigs were infected with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs. Group 1 was fed Diet 1 until 7 weeks post-infection (p.i.) and Group 3 until 9 weeks p.i., Group 2 was fed Diet 2 until 7 weeks p.i., Group 4 was fed Diet 1 until week 7 p.i. and was switched-over from Diet 1 to Diet 2 until week 9 p.i. Seven weeks p.i. pigs in Groups 1 and 2 were slaughtered, and pigs in Groups 3 and 4 were slaughtered at 9 weeks p.i. Trichuris suis worm burdens were determined for all pigs. Inulin-fed pigs (Group 2) exhibited an 87% reduction in EPG, compared to the pigs on standard diet (Group 1) (P<0·0001). The number of worms recovered at week 7 p.i. from pigs on the inulin diet (Group 2) was significantly reduced by 71%, compared to the pigs on standard diet (Group 1) (P<0·01). At week 9, worm recovery in pigs on the inulin diet switch protocol (Group 4) was reduced by 47% compared to the control pigs in Group 3 (P<0·01). Further, the inulin-fed pigs exhibited a significant reduction in female worm fecundity and worm large intestine location was more distal compared to those from pigs on standard diet. These results demonstrate that inclusion of the highly degradable fructose polymer inulin in the diet leads to significant reductions in T. suis establishment, egg excretion, and female worm fecundity and can be used as a treatment for patent infections.
Non-typhoid Salmonella infections may present as severe gastroenteritis necessitating hospitalization and some patients become septic with bacteraemia. We hypothesized that the seasonal variation of non-typhoid Salmonella occurrence in humans diminishes with increased severity of infection. We examined the seasonal variation of non-typhoid Salmonella infections in three patient groups with differing severity of infection: outpatients treated for gastroenteritis (n=1490); in-patients treated for gastroenteritis (n=492); and in-patients treated for bacteraemia (n=113). The study was population-based and included all non-typhoid Salmonella patients in a Danish county from 1994 to 2003. A periodic regression model was used to compute the peak-to-trough ratio for the three patient groups. The peak-to-trough ratios were 4·3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·6–5·0] for outpatients with gastroenteritis, 3·2 (95% CI 2·4–4·2) for in-patients with gastroenteritis, and 1·6 (95% CI 1·0–2·8) for in-patients with bacteraemia. We conclude that the role of seasonal variation diminishes with increased severity of non-typhoid Salmonella infection.