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This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
Population genetics of invading pests can be informative for understanding their ecology. In this study, we investigated population genetics of the invasive alfalfa weevil Hypera postica in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. We analyzed mitochondrial tRNALeu-COII, nuclear EF-1α gene fragments, and Wolbachia infection in relation to three leguminous host plants: Vicia angustifolia, Vicia villosa, and a new host Astragalus sinicus cultivated as a honey source and green manure crop. A parsimony network generated from mitochondrial gene sequences uncovered two major haplotypic groups, Western and Egyptian. In contrast to reported Wolbachia infection of the Western strain in the United States, none of our analyzed individuals were infected. The absence of Wolbachia may contribute to the stable coexistence of mitochondrial strains through inter-strain reproductive compatibility. Hypera postica genetic variants for the mitochondrial and nuclear genes were associated neither with host plant species nor with two geographic regions (Hisayama and Kama) within Fukuoka. Mitochondrial haplogroups were incongruent with nuclear genetic variants. Genetic diversity at the nuclear locus was the highest for the populations feeding on V. angustifolia. The nuclear data for A. sinicus-feeding populations indicated past sudden population growth and extended Bayesian skyline plot analysis based on the mitochondrial and nuclear data showed that the growth of A. sinicus-feeding population took place within the past 1000 years. These results suggest a shorter history of A. sinicus as a host plant compared with V. angustifolia and a recent rapid growth of H. postica population using the new host A. sinicus.
We show that the dispersion in the Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law in galaxies is affected significantly by the evolutionary stage of star forming molecular gas, using narrow band Paα imaging of Taffy I, an interacting pair of galaxies. Star forming regions in the system show very uniform ages except for the bridge region, and the SK law of regions at the same age show a exceptionally tight SK law.
GaP, GaAs, and InP nanowires were grown on graphitic layers by the vapor-liquid-solid method in a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy chamber. On graphene/SiC(0001), Au particles as catalyst were formed at the steps by controlling the Au deposition rate and the annealing temperature in a low-energy electron microscopy system. GaP nanowires were grown on this substrate, and it was found that vertical nanowires were formed at the steps of the surface. We also performed GaP, GaAs, and InP nanowire growth on graphite substrates. Free-standing nanowires were obtained for all three materials, although they were vertically, diagonally, and laterally-oriented at the same time. The results suggested that the growth at the steps is the key to growing nanowires vertically on graphene surface.
The a- and b-axis resistivities and the a-axis magnetoresistivities applying magnetic field (B) along all three crystallographic axes in non-superconductive PrBa2Cu4O8 single crystals have been measured using four-probe method. Resistivitiy along the b-axis (parallel to double-chains) showed a highly conductive behavior, of which the origin is attributed to the double-chains because of a large anisotropic conduction between a- and b-axis directions. However, a metallic behavior along the a-axis was also observed in temperature region below 130 K, which could be understood in terms of presence of finite and coherent inter-chain interaction along the a-axis direction. This conclusion is derived from good agreement with values of mean-free path length in the double chain, lchain estimated from both the ρb-T curve and the a-axis MR applying B//c using quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) band model.
A new fabrication method of SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI) and Ge-on-Insulator (GOI) structures are presented as well as the application to high-mobility channel CMOS devices. This method, the Ge-condensation technique, consists of epitaxial growth of a SiGe layer with a low Ge fraction on an SOI substrate and successive oxidation at high temperatures, which can be incorporated in conventional CMOS processes. During the oxidation, Ge atoms are pushed out from the oxide layer and condensed in the remaining SiGe layer. The interface between the Si and SiGe layers is disappeared due to the interdiffusion of Si and Ge atoms. Eventually, an SGOI layer with a higher Ge fraction is formed on the buried oxide layer. The Ge fraction in the SGOI layer can be controlled by the oxidation time because total amount of Ge atoms in the SGOI layer is conserved throughout the oxidation process. We found that the lattice relaxation in the SGOI layer also can be controlled through the initial SiGe thickness. P- and n-type strained SOI MOSFETs, which were fabricated on relaxed SGOI substrates formed by this technique, exhibited mobility enhancement of 50% and 80%, respectively. CMOS ring oscillators comprised of the MOSFETs exhibited reduction in propagation delay of 70%-30% compared to a conventional SOI-CMOS device. Ultrathin-body strained SGOI pMOSFETs with high Ge fraction and surface channels were also fabricated by this technique. These devices exhibited hole-mobility enhancement factors up to 2.3. Furthermore, Ge-on-Insulator (GOI) structures with thicknesses less than 10 nm were realized for ultrathin body GOI-CMOS applications by using the Ge-condensation technique. In conclusion, the Ge-condensation technique is a promising technique for fabricating various types of high-mobility channel-on-insulator devices.
YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals and epitaxial films are grown and characterized. In flux growth for bulk crystals, effects of growth conditions on yield and electric resistivity of crystals are examined. The yield of flaky crystals depends on the formation of cavities. The transition temperature is 86 K after annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. Films are prepared on SrTiO3 by sputtering and epitaxial growth is confirmed by high resolution electron microscopy. Periodic lattice defects are observed near the interface between the substrate and the film. It seems that these defects result from the diffusion of impurities from the substrate.
All-oxide S-N-S (superconductor-normal layer-superconductor) junctions having a planar structure are fabricated and their electrical characteristics in the normal state are investigated. The superconducting electrodes are composed of HoBa2Cu3O7−x, and the normal layer is La1.5Ba1.5Cu3O7-y. Conductance characteristics are measured and their behaviors are explained by the geometrical resonance of quasiparticles. A pair potential distribution in the normal layer is estimated from the resonance structure.
We developed GaAs heteroepitaxy on a Si substrate by metalorganio vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs). When we preheated Si at 1000ºC in the atmosphere including TBAs, a carbide layer was formed on the Si surface. This led to polycrystalline GaAs growth. By carrying out high-temperature preheating in an H2 -only atmosphere and supplying TBAs after the preheating, we have successfully grown single-crystal GaAs with a mirror surface in a process completely free of AsH3.
We developed GaAs heteroepitaxy on a Si substrate by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs). In buffer layer growth at 450°C, the surface morphology and crystal quality of TBAs-grown films were slightly inferior to those of AsH3-grown films. At buffer layer growth below 400°C, the quality of TBAs-grown films improved. The GaAs films we grew using TBAs had a better quality than those grown using AsH2.
A low temperature preheating process is developed for metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of GaAs on wet chemical pretreated Si substrates. NH4 OH/H2 O2 is found to be most effective in decreasing the preheating temperature among the chemicals we tried: NH4 OH/H2 O2, H2SO4 /H2O2, or hot HNO3. By using NH4OH/H2 O2, the preheating temperature is reduced from 1000°C to 875°C. X-ray diffraction measurements and surface observations with an atomic force microscope (AFM) show that the GaAs film quality obtained with the 875 °C preheating process is better than that obtained with 1000°C preheating.
We have discovered 24 K-superconductivity in a family of compounds Ln2−xCexCuO4−y (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm). Novel feature of the superconductivity in these family of compounds is that superconductivity is produced by electron-doping in sharp contrast with high-Tc cuprates discovered so far. The effect of doping on physical properties particularly the elecronic phase diagram and transport coefficients which indicate symmetry in many respects between electron- and hole- doping is described.
Very High Frequency (VHF) has been applied to the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride films (a-SiNx:H) to fabricate amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistors (TFTs). Especially, the effect of the excitation frequency on the deposition rate and the film quality of a-SiNx.H deposited in a SiH4/NH3/N2 plasma has been investigated. The films were prepared by VHF (40 MHz and 60 MHz) and HF (13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced CVD.
The optical bandgap, the hydrogen content, the Si-H/N-H ratio and TFT mobility for films deposited in VHF plasma did not change significantly with the increase in deposition rate up to 300 nm/min. Internal stress could be constrained to acceptable levels at very high deposition rates. In contrast, the film quality deteriorated with an increase of the deposition rate in HF plasma. There seems to be a parallel relation between the optical emission intensity and the deposition rate which depends on the excitation frequency.
The first measurements of Si/SiGeC valence band offsets have been performed using heterostructure p-type MOS capacitors. Single crystalline epitaxial layers of SiGeC and Si were grown by the rapid thermal CVD technique, limited reaction processing, using ethylene as the carbon source. Films with carbon contents of up to ∼1.2% were studied. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the strain compensating effect of carbon in SiGeC. Substitutionality of carbon in SiGe was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. MOS capacitors were fabricated by thermal oxidation (750°C) of the epitaxial Si cap on top of the SiGeC layer. Quasi-static and high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements show wellbehaved characteristics for the samples with carbon contents up to approximately 1%. Onedimensional Poisson simulations of the C-V curves were used to extract the valence band offset between Si and SiGeC. For a fixed germanium fraction, the offset decreases with increasing carbon content. However, for a given lattice mismatch, the offset for Si/Si1−x−yGexCy is larger than the measured value for Si/Si1−zGez.
Microtribology of Silicon single crystals is one of the important factors for the practical use of MEMS. In this study, the effect of crystal orientation on microwear of Silicon single crystal and the wear structure were mainly investigated. Microfriction experiments using atomic force / friction force microscope (AFM / FFM) were carried out to investigate the effect of crystal orientation on the microwear depth of Silicon single crystals. In these experiments, the scanning-scratching directions of a tip of AFM / FFM were <100> and <110> on Si(100) surface and <112> on Si(111) surface. As a result, it was found that the depth of the wear marks generated on Silicon surfaces increased in the following order: <112>, <100>, <100>. Cross-sectional TEM observations of the microwear marks were carried out. As a result, it was found that the small dislocation loops were generated in the surface region at the first stage of the microwear, and the size and the number of dislocations increased with the progress of the microwear.
Transport and magnetic properties of layered cobalt oxide (BiPb)2Sr3Co2O9 are investigated in detail under magnetic field up to 8 T. Parent compound, Bi2Sr3Co2O9, is a typical band insulator with Co ions being in a low-spin 3+ state because of the well-separated dε and dγ levels possibly due to a strong crystal field. We have tried to introduce holes mainly by Pb substitution for Bi. The hole-doped sample shows metallic behavior in a resistivity measurement between 300 and 30 K. Below 30 K, however, the resisitivity increases. Under the magnetic field the resistivity is strongly suppressed in this region. We observed more than 30% resistivity drop at 2 K under H = 8 T, which is comparable to insulating (La,Sr)CoO3 system. We discuss the mechanism of hole doping and the origin of negative magnetoresistance with tranport and magnetic properties, and point out that the conventional double-exchange mechanism cannot be applied to this system. This means that some new mechanism is necessary to explain this phenomenon.
We have investigated the generation process of crystalline defects in GaP layers grown on Si substrates (GaP/Si) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE). Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that a regular network of misfit dislocations was generated in GaP/Si by MEE. On the other hand, threading dislocations as well as interfacial misfit dislocations were observed in GaP/Si by MBE. Moreover, stacking faults were generated in high density at the hetero-interface of GaP/Si by MBE. The density of stacking faults was drastically reduced by MEE.
A magneto-optic spatial light modulator (MOSLM) driven by electric field is presented. Using finite element method simulation, the parameters of the MOSLM are decided including the 1 μm piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based layer, the 200 nm bottom electrode, and the 8V electrical applied voltage. A flat surface magneto-optical bismuth-substituted iron garnet (Bi:YIG) based film having an array-pixels structure was created by a site-selected epitaxial method on a SGGG-based substrate. In order to avoid high temperature annealing process which may damage the Bi:YIG film, the PZT film was deposited by the aerosol deposition method (ADM) on the Bi:YIG film. By stress field induced by the PZT film to the Bi:YIG film with an external magnetic field, the pixels of the device were successfully switched.