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To assess the prevalence of prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities among overweight or obese clozapine- or olanzapine-treated schizophrenia patients, and to identify characteristics of the schizophrenia group with prediabetes.
A cross-sectional study assessing the presence of prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia clozapine- or olanzapine-treated patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2. Procedures were part of the screening process for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating liraglutide vs placebo for improving glucose tolerance. For comparison, an age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy control group without psychiatric illness and prediabetes was included. Prediabetes was defined as elevated fasting plasma glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance and/or elevated glycated hemoglobin A1c.
Among 145 schizophrenia patients (age = 42.1 years; males = 59.3%) on clozapine or olanzapine (clozapine/olanzapine/both: 73.8%/24.1%/2.1%), prediabetes was present in 69.7% (101 out of 145). While schizophrenia patients with and without prediabetes did not differ regarding demographic, illness, or antipsychotic treatment variables, metabolic abnormalities (waist circumference: 116.7±13.7 vs 110.1±13.6 cm, P = 0.007; triglycerides: 2.3±1.4 vs 1.6±0.9 mmol/L, P = 0.0004) and metabolic syndrome (76.2% vs 40.9%, P<0.0001) were significantly more pronounced in schizophrenia patients with vs without prediabetes. The age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls had significantly better glucose tolerance compared to both groups of patients with schizophrenia. The healthy controls also had higher levels of high-density lipoprotein compared to patients with schizophrenia and prediabetes.
Prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities were highly prevalent among the clozapine- and olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia, putting these patients at great risk for later type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These results stress the importance of identifying and adequately treating prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities among clozapine- and olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia.
CuxO thin films have been deposited on a quartz substrate by reactive radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering at different target powers Pt (140-190 W) while keeping other growth process parameters fixed. Room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicate considerable improvement of crystallinity for the films deposited at Pt>170 W, with most pronounced excitonic features being observed in the film grown using Pt=190 W. These results corroborate well with the surface morphology of the films, which was found more flat, smooth and homogeneous for Pt >170 W films in comparison with those deposited at lower powers.
We report on a setup for the investigation of proton acceleration in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration. The main interest here is to focus on stable laser beam parameters as well as a reliable target setup and diagnostics in order to do extensive and systematic studies on the acceleration mechanism. A motorized target alignment system in combination with large target mounts allows for up to 340 shots with high repetition rate without breaking the vacuum. This performance is used to conduct experiments with a split mirror setup exploring the effect of spatial and temporal separation between the pulses on the acceleration mechanism and on the resulting proton beam.
Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) has been deposited on (100), (110) and (111) oriented n-type Si and on fused silica by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The films have been post deposition annealed in the temperature range 200-500 οC. The AZO films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall and transmittance measurements. Circular diodes have been fabricated from the AZO/Si structures and characterized by current-voltage (IV) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The AZO films form Schottky junctions with the Si substrates for all the crystallographic orientations. It is established that after post deposition annealing the structure AZO/n-Si (110) is distinguished as the system with largest rectification.
Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with a modestly increased risk of fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia. Since placental abruption shares similar pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors with fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia, we hypothesized that maternal stress may be implicated in abruption risk. We investigated the association between maternal bereavement during pregnancy and placental abruption.
We studied singleton births in Denmark (1978–2008) and Sweden (1973–2006) (n = 5 103 272). In nationwide registries, we obtained data on death of women's close family members (older children, siblings, parents, and partners), abruption and potential confounders.
A total of 30 312 (6/1000) pregnancies in the cohort were diagnosed with placental abruption. Among normotensive women, death of a child the year before or during pregnancy was associated with a 54% increased odds of abruption [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–1.82]; the increased odds were restricted to women who lost a child the year before or during the first trimester in pregnancy. In the group with chronic hypertension, death of a child the year before or in the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with eight-fold increased odds of abruption (odds ratio 8.17, 95% CI 3.17–21.10). Death of other relatives was not associated with abruption risk.
Loss of a child the year before or in the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of abruption, especially among women with chronic hypertension. Studies are needed to investigate the effect of less severe, but more frequent, sources of stress on placental abruption risk.
The chemical profiles of Zn, Ge, and Se implanted into InP at elevated temperatures have been measured with secondary ion mass spectrometry and correlated to the implantation damage as deduced from RBS/channeling measurements. An asymmetric broadening of the chemical profiles towards the bulk was found for implantation temperatures above 150°C. This effect is concluded to be due to impurity channeling during implantation.
Electrically active defects in both 4H and 6H polytypes of SiC have been observed through the use of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Schottky contacts were grown by vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) with doping concentrations, the epitaxial layer having a doping concentration in the range of 1014 cm−3 to 1017cm−3. Numerous levels have been found in the as-grown n-type 6H-SiC samples and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and MeV electron irradiation have been employed to corrrelate the defect levels to impurities or structural defects. In contrast, only a single level is observed in the as-grown 4H-SiC samples.
6H polytype silicon carbide (SiC) samples of n-type have been implanted with 50 keV H+ ions and subsequently annealed at temperatures between 200 °C and 1150 °C. Using depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry motion of hydrogen is observed in the implanted region for temperatures above 700 °C. A diffusion coefficient of ∼10−14 cm2/s is extracted at 800°C with an approximate activation energy of ∼3.5 eV. Hydrogen displays strong interaction with the implantation-induced defects and stable hydrogen-defect complexes are formed. These complexes anneal out at temperatures in excess of 900°C and are tentatively identified as Carbon-Hydrogen centers at a Si vacancy.
The redistribution of titanium during the growth of epitaxial CoSi2 from the reaction of Co(20nm)/Ti(lOnm)/Si<100> structures has been investigated. The concentration of Ti in the CoSi2 layers versus annealing temperature has been determined. Emphasis is placed on the formation of inhomogeneities in the epitaxial CoSi2 layers, and the role of Ti with respect to the thermal stability of the layers. The fundamental mechanism for the development of inhomogeneities in the epitaxial CoSi2 layers will be discussed.
The lattice diffusion of arsenic in CoSi2 has been studied in the temperature range from 750°C to 950°C. Two types of bulk samples were used: single crystals prepared by a modified Czochralski pulling technique from a radio frequency levitated melt and polycrystals synthesised by quenching from the melt. The latter samples were subsequently annealed in vacuum at 900°C and displayed grain sizes in the millimetre range. Starting from an ion implanted arsenic profile with two different doses (5·1014 and 5·1015 cm−2) the concentration versus depth profiles after annealing at different temperatures and different times were measured using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Contrary to previous studies by other authors substantial diffusion has been observed with an activation energy of 3.3 eV and a pre-exponential factor of 7.37 cm2/s for the diffusion coefficient. These values are very close to the self diffusion coefficient of Si in CoSi2 suggesting that the As atoms migrate via thermal vacancies on nearest neighbour lattice sites by a similar type of mechanism as the Si (and Co) atoms. In the high dose implanted polycrystalline samples arsenic precipitation occurred which gives an estimate for the solid solubility in the 1019 atoms/cm3 range at 800 °C.
A brief survey is given of some recent result of boron diffusion in low doped n-type (intrinsic) and p-type 4H-SiC. Aluminum diffusion and solubility limit in 4H-SiC are also discussed. Ion implantation of boron has been performed in epitaxial material to form a diffusion source but also epitaxial 4H-SiC structures, with heavily boron or aluminum doped layers prepared by vapor phase epitaxy have been studied. Heat treatments have been made at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 2050°C for 5 minutes up to 64 h. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has been utilized for analysis. For boron diffusion in acceptor doped 4H-SiC, 4×1019 Al atoms/cm3, an activation energy of 5.3 eV has been determined and a strong dependence on Al content for the diffusion coefficient is revealed. Transient enhanced diffusion of ion-implanted boron in intrinsic 4H-SiC samples is discussed. Solubility limits of ∼1×1020 Al/cm3 (1700°C) and <1×1020 B/cm3 (1900°C) have been deduced.
Phosphorus diffusion in a biaxially compressed Si0.87Ge0.13 film has been investigated in the temperature range of 810–900°C. A significant enhancement of the P diffusion in the biaxially compressed Si0.87Ge0.13 in comparison with P diffusion in Si is observed. Injection of Si self-interstitials (I) during oxidation of a Si-cap in Si/Si0.87Ge0.13/Si heterostructures is used to characterize the atomic mechanism of P diffusion in Si0.87Ge0.13. It is found that the upper limit of the interstitial fraction of the P diffusion in Si0.87Ge0.13 is 0.87 of that in Si. A comparison between B and P diffusivities in SiGe supports the hypothesis of the pairing-controlled mechanism for the diffusion of B in SiGe.
Epitaxial layers of low doped 4H-SiC are implanted with 20 keV 2H+ ions to a dose of 1×1015 cm−2. The samples are subsequently annealed at temperatures ranging from 1040 to 1135 °C. Secondary ion mass spectrometry is used to obtain the concentration versus depth profiles of the atomic deuterium in the samples. It is found that the concentration of implanted deuterium decreases rapidly in the samples as a function of anneal time.
The experimental data are explained by a model where the deuterium migrates rapidly and becomes trapped and de-trapped at implantation-induced defects which exhibit a slightly shallower depth distribution than the implanted deuterium ions. Computer simulations using this model, in which the damage profile is taken from Monte Carlo simulations and the surface is treated as a perfect sink for the diffusing deuterium atoms, are performed with good results compared to the experimental data. The complexes are tentatively identified as carbon-deuterium at a Si-vacancy and a dissociation energy (ED) of approximately 4.9 eV is extracted for the deuterium-vacancy complexes.
In twin studies of cardiovascular disease biomarkers the dizygotic correlations are often estimated to be less than half of monozygotic correlations indicating a potential influence of nonadditive genetic factors. Using a large and homogenous sample, we estimated the additive and dominance genetic influences on levels of high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, hemoglobin Alc and c-reactive protein, all of which are biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease. The blood biomarkers were measured on 12,000 Swedish twins born between 1911 and 1958. The large sample allowed us to obtain heritability estimates with considerable precision and provided adequate statistical power for estimation of dominance genetic components. Our study showed complete absence of the shared environment component for the investigated traits. Dominant genetic component was shown to be significant for low density lipoprotein (0.18), glucose (0.31), Hemoglobin Alc (0.55), and c-reactive protein (0.27). To our knowledge, this is the first statistically significant evidence for dominance genetic variance found for low density lipoprotein, glucose, hemoglobin Alc, and c-reactive protein in a population based twin sample. The study highlights the importance of acknowledging nonadditive genes underlying the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.
Lactic acid bacteria are probiotics widely used in functional food products, with a variety of beneficial effects reported. Recently, intense research has been carried out to provide insight into the mechanism of the action of probiotic bacteria. We have used gene array technology to map the pattern of changes in the global gene expression profile of the host caused by Lactobacillus administration. Affymetrix microarrays were applied to comparatively characterize differences in gene transcription in the distal ileum of normal microflora (NMF) and germ-free (GF) mice evoked by oral administration of two Lactobacillus strains used in fermented dairy products today – Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 (L. F19) or Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFB 1748. We show that feeding either of the two strains caused very similar effects on the transcriptional profile of the host. Both L. F19 and L. acidophilus NCFB 1748 evoked a complex response in the gut, reflected by differential regulation of a number of genes involved in essential physiological functions such as immune response, regulation of energy homeostasis and host defence. Notably, the changes in intestinal gene expression caused by Lactobacillus were different in the mice raised under GF v. NMF conditions, underlying the complex and dynamic nature of the host-commensal relationship. Differential expression of an array of genes described in this report evokes novel hypothesis of possible interactions between the probiotic bacteria and the host organism and warrants further studies to evaluate the functional significance of these transcriptional changes on the metabolic profile of the host.
This study identifies the use of the sky view factor (SVF) in urban climate studies. In addition, it relates air temperature differences to the SVF and examines these differences with respect to the height at which fish-eye photographs are taken for the calculation of the SVF. The study focuses on night-time air temperature patterns within the urban canopy using data collected during clear, calm nights from sixteen permanent stations and from car measurements. Fish-eye photographs taken at two levels (2 m above ground and at ground level) are compared and shown to be statistically different. The results of the study performed in Göteborg, Sweden, indicate a fairly strong relationship between air temperature and SVF. The permanent stations used indicate that it is better to use fish-eye photographs taken at ground level. The relationship is determined by means of regression analysis. The SVF variation in urban areas and the importance of SVF in relation to other central parameters such as thermal admittance are also discussed.