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Temporal and spatial scarcity of water in semi-arid and seasonal ecosystems often leads to changes in movements and behaviour of large vertebrates, and in the neotropics this dynamic is poorly understood due to logistical and methodological limitations. Here we used camera trapping to elucidate variation in patterns of seasonal use of waterholes and pathways by 10 large-mammal and four large-bird species in the dry forest of north-western Costa Rica. From 2011 to 2015, we deployed trail cameras at 50 locations, including waterholes and three types of pathway (roads, human trails and animal paths). We used Generalized Linear Models to evaluate the effect of location and seasonality on the rates at which independent photographs were taken. We found interacting effects of location and seasonality for the capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus), the tiger heron (Trigrisoma mexicanum), the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the tapir (Tapirus bairdii) suggesting that these species were the most influenced by waterholes during the dry season. Comparison of waterhole sites and specific types of pathways (roads, animal paths and human trails) showed that location influenced photo-capture rates of almost all species, suggesting a useful insight to avoid and account for bias in camera trap studies. Furthering our ecological understanding of seasonal water regimes and large vertebrates’ behaviours allow for better understanding of the consequences of climate change on them.
Introduction: The Ottawa SAH Rule was developed to identify patients at high-risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who require investigations and the 6-Hour CT Rule found that computed tomography (CT) was 100% sensitive for SAH 6 hours of headache onset. Together, they form the Ottawa SAH Strategy. Our objectives were to assess: 1) Safety of the Ottawa SAH Strategy and its 2) Impact on: a) CTs, b) LPs, c) ED length of stay, and d) CT angiography (CTA). Methods: We conducted a multicentre prospective before/after study at 6 tertiary-care EDs January 2010 to December 2016 (implementation July 2013). Consecutive alert, neurologically intact adults with a headache peaking within one hour were included. SAH was defined by subarachnoid blood on head CT (radiologists final report); xanthochromia in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); >1x106/L red blood cells in the final tube of CSF with an aneurysm on CTA. Results: We enrolled 3,669 patients, 1,743 before and 1,926 after implementation, including 185 with SAH. The investigation rate before implementation was 89.0% (range 82.9 to 95.6%) versus 88.4% (range 85.2 to 92.3%) after implementation. The proportion who had CT remained stable (88.0% versus 87.4%; p=0.60), while the proportion who had LP decreased from 38.9% to 25.9% (p<0.001), and the proportion investigated with CTA increased from 18.8% to 21.6% (p=0.036). The additional testing rate (i.e. LP or CTA) diminishedfrom 50.1% to 40.8% (p<0.001). The proportion admitted declined from 9.8% to 7.3% (p=0.008), while the mean length of ED stay was stable (6.2 +/− 4.0 to 6.4 +/− 4.1 hours; p=0.45). For the 1,201 patients with CT 6 hours, there was an absolute decrease in additional testing (i.e. LP or CTA) of 15.0% (46.6% versus 31.6%; p<0.001). The sensitivity of the Ottawa SAH Rule was 100% (95%CI: 98-100%), and the 6-Hour CT Rule was 95.3% (95%CI: 88.9-98.3) for SAH. Five patients with early CT had SAH with CT reported as normal: 2 unruptured aneuryms on CTA and presumed traumatic LP (determined by treating neurosurgeon); 1 missed by the radiologist on the initial interpretation; 1 dural vein fistula (i.e. non-aneuyrsmal); and 1 profoundly anemic (Hgb 63g/L). Conclusion: The Ottawa SAH Strategy is highly sensitive and can be used routinely when SAH is being considered in alert and neurologically intact headache patients. Its implementation was associated with a decrease in LPs and admissions to hospital.
The ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata is reported from Maltese waters for the first time. Mature colonies were recorded on artificial substrata at two different sites (and on natural substrata at one of these), 4 km apart, during the summer months. The appearance of this ascidian is expected to be seasonal as the winter temperature in Malta may fall below that required for the maintenance of zooid growth. A second species, E. moorei, which was described in 1890 is here confirmed to be the same as E. turbinata, meaning that the species has existed in the Mediterranean since at least ~1880. The possibility that the Mediterranean population is a relic one from warmer periods cannot yet be excluded, so it is best described as being cryptogenic. The species appears to be spreading slowly, perhaps as a result of the rise in surface sea temperature. The Maltese sites offer an opportunity to monitor the species as they are accessible dive sites. This will allow assessment of whether this species remains restricted to these sites, or if it spreads perhaps to impact other species.
Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for livEstoCk and food safety (REFLECT) statement using examples from the animal welfare science literature. A total of 52 studies from 40 articles were evaluated using a modified REFLECT statement. No single study reported all REFLECT checklist items. Seven studies reported specific objectives with testable hypotheses. Six studies identified primary or secondary outcomes. Randomization and blinding were considered to be partially reported in 21 and 18 studies, respectively. No studies reported the rationale for sample sizes. Several studies failed to report key design features such as units for measurement, means, standard deviations, standard errors for continuous outcomes or comparative characteristics for categorical outcomes expressed as either rates or proportions. In the discipline of animal welfare science, authors, reviewers and editors are encouraged to use available reporting guidelines to ensure that scientific methods and results are adequately described and free of misrepresentations and inaccuracies. Complete and accurate reporting increases the ability to apply the results of studies to the decision-making process and prevent wastage of financial and animal resources.
A cardiac source is often implicated in strokes where the deficit includes aphasia. However, less is known about the etiology of isolated aphasia during transient ischemic attack (TIA). Our objective was to determine whether patients with isolated aphasia are likely to have a cardioembolic etiology for their TIA.
We prospectively studied a cohort of TIA patients in eight tertiary-care emergency departments. Patients with isolated aphasia were identified by the treating physician at the time of emergency department presentation. Patients with dysarthria (i.e., a phonation disturbance) were not included. Potential cardiac sources for embolism were defined as atrial fibrillation on history, electrocardiogram, Holter monitor, atrial fibrillation on echocardiography, or thrombus on echocardiography.
Of the 2,360 TIA patients identified, 1,155 had neurological deficits at the time of the emergency physician assessment and were included in this analysis, and 41 had isolated aphasia as their only neurological deficit. Patients with isolated aphasia were older (73.9±10.0 v. 67.2±14.5 years; p=0.003), more likely to have a history of heart failure (9.8% v. 2.6%; p=0.027), and were twice as likely to have any cardiac source of embolism (22.0% v. 10.6%; p=0.037).
Isolated aphasia is associated with a high rate of cardioembolic sources of embolism after TIA. Emergency patients with isolated aphasia diagnosed with a TIA warrant a rapid and thorough assessment for a cardioembolic source.
Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.
Piglets reared in swine production in the USA undergo painful procedures that include castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and identification with ear notching or tagging. These procedures are usually performed without pain mitigation. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in 1- to 28-day-old piglets undergoing these procedures. The National Pork Board funded project to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in piglets. Recommendation development followed a defined multi-step process that included an evidence summary and estimates of the efficacies of interventions. The results of a systematic review of the interventions were reported in a companion paper. This manuscript describes the recommendation development process and the final recommendations. Recommendations were developed for three interventions (CO2/O2 general anesthesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and lidocaine) for use during castration. The ability to make strong recommendations was limited by low-quality evidence and strong certainty about variation in stakeholder values and preferences. The panel strongly recommended against the use of a CO2/O2 general anesthesia mixture, weakly recommended for the use of NSAIDs and weakly recommended against the use of lidocaine for pain mitigation during castration of 1- to 28-day-old piglets.
The Sahel in West Africa is a major wintering area for many western Palearctic migrants. The breeding populations of many of these have declined over the past 50 years. However, there have been few intensive field studies on migrant ecology in the Sahel and these were generally within a very restricted area. Consequently our knowledge of the distribution of species within this extensive area and the habitat associations of these species is limited. Understanding these habitat associations is essential for the effective conservation management of populations. We brought together a group of experts and consulted a wider group by email to assess the main Sahelian habitat types used by 68 African-Eurasian migrant bird species. Those species that showed strongest declines during 1970–1990 were associated with more open habitats than those newly declining during 1990–2000, when declining species were associated with habitats with more shrubs and trees. Populations of species that winter in the Sahel are generally stable or increasing now as rainfall has increased and is now near the long-term average for the Sahel. Those which use the Sahel only as a staging area are, in many cases, in rapid decline at present.
To determine the success rate of initial probing in children with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction at different ages, using nasal endoscopy.
Fifty eyes of 38 consecutive children with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction underwent endoscopic nasolacrimal duct probing under general anaesthesia. Patients were followed up for at least three months. Probing success was defined as complete remission of symptoms and a normal fluorescein dye disappearance test result.
The age range of patients was 17–109 months. The success rates of probing were: 100 per cent (29 out of 29) for cases of stenosis at the lower nasolacrimal duct, 100 per cent (7 out of 7) for functional epiphora cases and 92.86 per cent (13 out of 14) for nasolacrimal atresia cases. Overall, there was only one child for whom the probing treatment for nasolacrimal duct obstruction was not successful; this child had Down's syndrome and a more complex developmental abnormality of the nasolacrimal duct. Age and site of obstruction were not found to significantly affect the outcome of probing.
Probing of the nasolacrimal system using an endoscopic approach allows direct visualisation of the nasolacrimal duct. This can facilitate diagnosis of the anomaly and significantly increase the procedure success rate.
A heuristic greedy algorithm is developed for efficiently tiling spatially dense redshift surveys. In its first application to the Galaxy and MassAssembly (GAMA) redshift survey we find it rapidly improves the spatial uniformity of our data, and naturally corrects for any spatial bias introduced by the 2dF multi-object spectrograph. We make conservative predictions for the final state of the GAMA redshift survey after our final allocation of time, and can be confident that even if worse than typical weather affects our observations, all of our main survey requirements will be met.
The Lagrangian theory developed for fountains in a stationary fluid is extended to predict the path and breadth of a fountain in a one- and two-layer fluid with a moderate crossflow. The predictions compare well with the results of laboratory experiments of fountains in a one-layer fluid. The empirical spreading parameter determined from the one-layer experiments is used in the theory for fountains in a two-layer crossflow. Though qualitatively correct, the theory underpredicts the height and radius of the fountains. Similar to the behaviour of fountains in two-layer stationary ambients, the fountain in a two-layer crossflow is observed to exhibit three regimes of flow: it may penetrate the interface, eventually returning to the level of the source where it spreads as a propagating gravity current; upon descent, it may be trapped at the interface where it spreads as a propagating intrusion; it may do both, partially descending to the source and partially being trapped at the interface. These regimes are classified theoretically and empirically. The theoretical classification compared the buoyancy excess of the descending flow to the density difference between the two layers. The regimes are also classified using empirically determined regime parameters which govern the relative initial momentum of the fountain and the relative density difference of the fountain and the ambient fluid.
We present experimental results of the generation of internal gravity waves by a turbulent buoyant plume impinging upon the interface between a uniform density layer of fluid and a linearly stratified layer. The wave field is observed and its properties are measured non-intrusively using axisymmetric Schlieren. In particular, we determine the fraction of the energy flux associated with the plume at the neutral buoyancy level that is extracted by the waves. On average, this was found to be approximately 4%. Within the limits of the experimental parameters, the maximum vertical displacement amplitude of waves were found to depend linearly upon the maximum penetration height of the plume beyond the neutral level. The frequency of the waves was found to lie in a narrow range relative to the buoyancy frequency. The results are used to interpret the generation of waves in the atmosphere by convective storms impinging upon the tropopause via the mechanical oscillator effect.
Flagellin gene sequence polymorphisms were used to discriminate amongst 77 strains of Campylobacter jejuni from sporadic and outbreak-associated human enteric infections, and from chickens, sheep and calves. The results were assessed in relation to Lior biotyping and serotyping (Penner somatic antigens). Eight DNA PCR-RFLP patterns (genotypes) were identified by analysis of HinfI fragment length polymorphisms in flagellin gene (flaA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. One genotype (F-l) was a feature of 55% of strains. Strains within the genotypes were heterogeneous with respect to somatic antigens with 12 serogroups represented amongst the C. jejuni isolates of flaA type F-l. Serogroups Pen 1. 2 and 23 were the commonest (45%) amongst the 20 different serogroups represented. Several unique clusters of isolates with diverse biotypes were defined, and one cluster (F-7/Pen 23) contained epidemiologically implicated outbreak strains as well as sheep and calf isolates. We conclude that HinfI flaA typing is reproducible and offers high typability, and its combination with serogrouping provides a novel approach to characterizing isolates of C. jejuni with improved discrimination.
We present an experimental study of an axisymmetric turbulent fountain in a two-layer stratified environment. Interacting with the interface, the fountain is observed to exhibit three regimes of flow. It may penetrate the interface, but nonetheless return to the source where it spreads as a radially propagating gravity current; the return flow may be trapped at the interface where it spreads as a radially propagating intrusion or it may do both. These regimes have been classified using empirically determined regime parameters which govern the relative initial momentum of the fountain and the relative density difference of the fountain and the ambient fluid. The maximum vertical distance travelled by the fountain in a two-layer fluid has been theoretically determined by extending the theory developed for fountains in a homogeneous environment. The theory compares favourably with experimental measurements. We have also developed a theory to analyse the initial speeds of the resulting radial currents. The spreading currents exhibited two different flow regimes: a constant-velocity regime and an inertia-buoyancy regime in which the front position, R, scales with time, t, as R ∼ t3/4. These regimes were classified using a critical Froude number which characterized the competing effects of momentum and buoyancy in the currents.
Special interest sessions are a means of developing additional clinical interests in higher specialist training. We investigated the educational value of developing a group treatment programme for people with multiple sclerosis as well as its benefits for participants.
Feedback from those attending the groups indicated the programme was rated highly or very highly. There was a trend towards improvement in quality of life measures.
The group programme provided an excellent opportunity for shared interdisciplinary learning. The use of special interest sessions in psychiatry was important in building relationships with a department without direct psychiatric input and allowed the psychiatric trainee to acquire specific disease knowledge.
We present the preliminary results of a frequency analysis of 1457 fundamental mode RR Lyrae (RR0) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) from MACHO Project photometry. We find the same classes of pulsational behavior as were found in our earlier survey of first overtone RR Lyrae (RR1) stars. Variables whose prewhitened power spectra contain one or two peaks close to the main frequency component in the original power spectra are commonly known as Blazhko-type variables. The present analysis shows the overall frequency of Blazhko-type stars in the total RR0 population analysed to date to be ≈ 10%. This is lower than the often cited Galactic field/globular rate of 20-30% (Szeidl, 1988).
The incidence rate of Blazhko-type variability in the LMC appears to be about three times higher in RR0 stars than in RR1 stars. This puts important constraints on possible models of the Blazhko effect.
Marginal Zn deficiency is thought to be prevalent in both developed and developing countries. However, the extent of Zn deficiency is not known, due to the lack of a reliable diagnostic indicator. Blood plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of metallothionein (MT) reflect Zn status, but measurement of MT is dependent on the availability of sensitive immunoassays. Our aim was to show whether measurement of T lymphocyte MT-2A mRNA, using a competitive reverse transcriptase (RT)–polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, could indicate Zn status in human subjects in a residential Zn-depletion study. In the study, the Zn intake of seven volunteers was maintained at 13·7 mg/d for 5 weeks (baseline) followed by 4·6 mg/d for 10 weeks (marginal intake) and then 13·7 mg/d (repletion) for 5 weeks. The quantitative assay was developed using standard techniques and concentrations of MT-2A mRNA were normalized by reference to β-actin mRNA which was also measured by competitive RT–PCR assay. An alternative method of measuring the PCR product using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection was also evaluated. There was considerable inter-individual variation in MT-2A mRNA concentration and the mean level at the end of the baseline period was 10·3 (SE 3·7) fg MT-2A mRNA/pg β-actin mRNA, which then decreased by 64 % during the low Zn intake period. After repletion, MT-2A mRNA returned to baseline concentrations. In contrast, plasma Zn was unchanged by marginal Zn intake or repletion. The effect of low Zn in all individuals was consistent. We conclude that this assay is a sensitive method of evaluating marginal changes in dietary Zn intake.
A review of the properties of Type II Cepheids and RV Tauri stars in the Magellanic Clouds is presented. In the behaviour of their light and colour curves, the RV Tauri stars appear to be a direct extension of the Type II Cepheids to longer periods. A single P – L – C relationship describes both the Type II Cepheids and RV Tauri stars in the LMC. The derived high intrinsic magnitudes for the RV Tauri variables supports the proposition that these objects are luminous stars evolving off the AGB. Preliminary analysis of the long time-series MACHO photometry indicates one star (MACHO*05:37:45.0–69:54:16) has an obvious ‘period-quadrupled’ periodicity, which is supporting evidence for a period-doubling bifurcation transition to chaotic pulsations.
We present the first results of the analysis of 22 Blazhko stars. We find: 1) Blazhko RRab stars that are nearly pure amplitude modulators; 2) Blazhko RRab stars that have both amplitude and phase modulation; 3) A Blazhko RRab star that has an abrupt period change; 4) Proof of the Blazhko effect in RRc stars. Our data show the character of the amplitude and phase modulations of the light curves over the Blazhko cycles far better than has been previously possible.