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This paper presents the requirements and needs for establishing a benchmarking protocol that considers representation characteristics, supported cognitive criteria, and enabled reasoning activities for the systematic comparison of function modeling representations. Problem types are defined as reverse engineering, familiar products, novel products, and single-component systems. As different modeling approaches share elements, a comparison of modeling approaches on multiple levels was also undertaken. It is recommended that researchers and developers of function modeling representations collaborate to define a canonically acceptable set of benchmark tests and evaluations so that clear benefits and weaknesses for the disparate collection of approaches can be compared. This paper is written as a call to action for the research community to begin establishing a benchmarking standard protocol for function modeling comparison purposes. This protocol should be refined with input from developers of the competing approaches in an academically open environment. At the same time, the benchmarking criteria identified should also serve as a guide for validating a modeling approach or analyzing its failure.
There has been no more fundamental concept in the field of industrial and organizational (I–O) psychology than “employability,” whereby individuals seek to gain and retain jobs with organizations, and organizations desire to attract and keep quality employees. Indeed, theory, research, and practice in the field continually have sought to identify the best predictors of performance and career success. Expansion of the predictor and criterion domains has been a focus of scholarly and practical concern for at least the past couple of decades, as we have realized that the fundamental nature of work, jobs, and organization have changed considerably in U.S. organizations.
Tb doped gadolinium fluoride nanophosphors embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix is reported for X-ray imaging applications. The nanocomposite scintillators were prepared by a melt-quench method followed by annealing. The GdF3:Tb nanophosphors precipitated within the oxide glass matrix during the processing and their luminescence and scintillation properties were investigated.
To investigate potential sources and risks associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in a deployed US military hospital.
Retrospective analysis of factors associated with recovery of MDR bacteria, supplemented by environmental sampling.
The largest US military hospital in Afghanistan.
US and Afghan patients with positive bacterial culture results, from September 2007 through August 2008.
Microbiologic, demographic, and clinical data were analyzed. Potential risk factors included admission diagnosis or mechanism of injury, length of stay, gender, age, and nationality (US or Afghan). Environmental sampling of selected hospital high-touch surfaces and equipment was performed to help elucidate whether environmental MDR bacteria were contributing to nosocomial spread.
A total of 266 patients had 411 bacterial isolates that were identified during the study period, including 211 MDR bacteria (51%). Gram-negative bacteria were common among Afghan patients (241 [76%] of 319), and 70% of these were classified as MDR. This included 58% of bacteria recovered from Afghan patients within 48 hours of hospital admission. The most common gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli (53% were MDR), Acinetobacter (90% were MDR), and Klebsiella (63% were MDR). Almost one-half of potential extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers were community acquired. Of 100 environmental swab samples, 18 yielded MDR bacteria, including 10 that were Acinetobacter, but no potential ESBL-producing bacteria.
Gram-negative bacteria from Afghan patients had high rates of antimicrobial resistance. Patients experiencing Complex trauma and prolonged hospital stays likely contribute to the presence of MDR bacteria in this facility. However, many of these patients had community-acquired cases, which implies high rates of colonization prior to hospital admission.
We have measured the level of density fluctuations 〈δne2(K)〉 for ‖K‖ ∼ 1/λD as a function of the angle between k and the current within a collisionless shock. The cut-off angle is in good agreement with that predicted for current-driven ion wave turbulence and one-dimensional heating of the ions. This agreement provides further evidence that ion-wave instability is responsible for the observed turbulence within the shock.
Disaster preparedness is an area of major concern for the medical community that has been reinforced by recent world events. The emergency healthcare system must respond to all types of disasters, whether the incidents occur in urban or rural settings. Although the barriers and challenges are different in the rural setting, common areas of preparedness must be explored.
This study sought to answer several questions, including: (1) What are rural emergency medical services (EMS) organizations training for, compared to what they actually have seen during the last two years?; (2) What scale and types of events do they believe they are prepared to cope with?; and (3) What do they feel are priority areas for training and preparedness?
Data were gathered through a multi-region survey of 1,801 EMS organizations in the US to describe EMS response experiences during specific incidents as well as the frequency with which these events occur. Respondents were asked a number of questions about local priorities.
A total of 768 completed surveys were returned (43%). Over the past few years, training for commonly occurring types of crises and emergencies has declined in favor of terrorism preparedness. Many rural EMS organizations reported that events with 10 or fewer victims would overload them. Low priority was placed on interacting with other non-EMS disaster response agencies, and high priority was placed on basic staff training and retention.
Maintaining viable, rural, emergency response capabilities and developing a community-wide response to natural or man-made events is crucial to mitigate long-term effects of disasters on a local healthcare system. The assessment of preparedness activities accomplished in this study will help to identify common themes to better prioritize preparedness activities and maximize the response capabilities of an EMS organization.
Previous studies from our group suggest that the synchronised onset of oestradiol secretion by preimplantation conceptuses from Meishan pigs may contribute to the enhanced prenatal survival characteristic of this breed (Ashworth and Pickard, 1998). We have recently reported that in vitro, the onset of oestradiol secretion by conceptuses can be regulated in a dose-dependent manner by an aromatase inhibitor (letrozole; Ashworth et al., 2005). Before commencing in vivo trials to assess the efficacy of letrozole to promote prenatal survival, it is important to determine whether exogenous letrozole reaches the uterine lumen and to establish the relationship between the dose administered and the impact on oestradiol secretion at the conceptus-uterine interface.
The Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) is one of the major scientific and technical precursors to the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I) mission. KIN's primary objective is to measure the level of exo-zodiacal mid-infrared emission around nearby main sequence stars, which requires deep broad-band nulling of astronomical sources of a few Janskys at 10 microns. A number of new capabilitites are needed in order to reach that goal with the Keck telescopes: mid-infrared coherent recombination, interferometric operation in “split pupil” mode, N-band optical path stabilization using K-band fringe tracking and internal metrology, and eventually, active atmospheric dispersion correction. We report here on the progress made implementing these new functionalities, and discuss the initial levels of extinction achieved on the sky.
We present an analysis of the Chandra observations of two dwarf starburst, Wolf-Rayet galaxies (NGC 4449 and NGC 5253). We have identified at least three different classes of objects within the X-ray point source populations, and we have found the diffuse emission, resulting from the stellar winds and supernova explosions of massive stars, to have a complex morphology and to consist of several components. Comparison with the Hα emission suggests the presence of ~ kpc-scale wind-blown bubbles and ruptured superbubbles.
A significant improvement (40–60%) was reported in the low voltage (100–1000V) cathodoluminescence efficiency of ZnS phosphors coated with SiO2 by the sol-gel technique. The properties of the coatings were found to be critically dependent upon the precursor concentration, pH value and the temperature of the solution with optimum performance being obtained for a SiO2 concentration of 1.0 wt%, pH values between 7–9, and a solution temperature of 83 °C. The efficiency curves exhibited a characteristic voltage dependence which was analyzed by a one-dimensional numerical model. Enhanced low voltage efficiency was attributed to a reduction of surface recombination and the actual shape of the efficiency curve was determined by the interplay between the reduction of surface recombination and energy losses in the SiO2 coating.
Using a case note study, this paper presents a longitudinal survey of the effect of psychiatric inpatient care on benzodiazepine prescribing. Standards were proposed to assess the quality of this prescribing. Based on these standards, the study shows inappropriate use of benzodiazepines. Following admission, there was an increase in the number of patients prescribed benzodiazepines and in the number of benzodiazepines prescribed. Of the benzodiazepines withdrawn, most were contrary to the proposed standard. The quality of drug history showed little emphasis being placed on rationalising benzodiazepine prescribing. The issue of how benzodiazepines should be handled during psychiatric admission is discussed.
We hypothesized that fatty acids at the sn−2 position of chylomicron triacylglycerol are preferentially released into the venous plasma (rather than being taken up and stored in the adipocytes) after hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase (EC 18.104.22.168) in adipose tissue. Arterio–venous differences across adipose tissue were studied in eight healthy subjects on two occasions for 6 h after ingestion of different structured triacylglycerols rich in palmitic acid either at the sn−2 or the sn−1,3 positions. In particular the specific fatty acids making up lipoprotein fractions and plasma non-esterified fatty acids were analysed. After the different meals there were no differences between either postprandial arterialized or venous plasma metabolite concentrations. Chylomicron triacylglycerol extraction in adipose tissue was the same following the two types of fat. There was no difference between the specific fatty acid composition of the postprandial non-esterified fatty acid release from adipose tissue after ingestion of the two triacylglycerols, indicating that there was no preferential release of a saturated fatty acid at the sn−2 position.
A spectral representation for the isotropic part of the Coulomb
collisional operator is given. The particle distribution function is expanded
in a series of generalized Laguerre polynomials, and the Coulomb collisional
operator is expressed in
terms of the spectral amplitudes. When the spectral representation is applied
the Fokker–Planck equation, a system of coupled ordinary
for the spectral amplitudes is obtained. The spectral coefficients related
Coulomb operator are defined through recurrence relations, which we reduce
simplified form. This makes possible accurate and efficient analytical
numerical evaluations of the interaction matrices. The results presented
can be used in
analytical investigations of the properties of the Coulomb collisional
well as in numerical calculations for plasmas far from thermal equilibrium.
method can also be generalized to include angular dependencies for non-isotropic
A low temperature process for the oxidation of amorphous and polycrystalline silicon was studied using a helical resonator plasma source. Constant current anodization of amorphous silicon was performed at 350°C and 30 mtorr in an oxygen plasma. Oxidation rate data were analyzed by both parabolic and power law expressions: parabolic rate coefficient B = 23.45 nm2/min and power law rate coefficients α = 0.3807 and C* = 7.3 nm/minα. Oxidation at substrate floating conditions yielded thin oxides; the growth rate saturated after 20 mins, at a thickness of about 10 nm. For TFr fabrication, a two layer oxide was used. The first layer was grown by plasma oxidation to a thickness of about 10 nm to ensure a good interface, and the second layer deposited by PECVD to the final thickness of 35 nm. Electrical properties of control oxides grown on c-Si at the same conditions were promising, with a fixed oxide charge of 1.98 × 1011 charges/cm2 and a mean breakdown field of 5.3 MV/cm after post metallization anneal. The TF's had an average effective electron mobility of 31.1 V/cm2 and an average threshold voltage of 4.6 V.
Ultrasound treatment (UST) was applied to improve electronic properties of polycrystalline silicon films on silica-based substrates. A strong decrease of sheet resistance by a factor of two orders of magnitude was observed in hydrogenated films at UST temperatures lower than 100°C. This is accompanied by improvement of a film homogeneity as confirmed by spatially resolved photoluminescence study. The UST effect on sheet resistance demonstrates both stable and metastable behavior. A stable UST effect can be accomplished using consecutive cycles of UST and relaxation. An enhanced passivation of grain boundary defects after UST was directly measured by nano-scale contact potential difference with atomic force microscope. Two specific UST processes based on interaction between ultrasound and atomic hydrogen are suggested: enhanced passivation of grain boundary states and UST induced metastability of hydrogen related defects. We also demonstrate a utility of UST for improvement of leakage current and threshold voltage in hydrogenated poly-Si thin film transistors.