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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To develop feasible screening methods for activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with point of care applicability. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Current knowledge establishes the relevance of G6PD as a critical therapeutic determinant for effective antimalarial therapy due to the occurrence of mutations that lead to post-treatment severe adverse effects. We present our findings on development of cost effective point-of-care screening methodologies to ascertain G6PD deficiency. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Using Patient Cohort Explorer and data from the Department of Pathology, we established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS as high as 11.8% (African-American males in all population, n = 2518). Next, for selection of potential target groups, we set up a protocol for recruitment of volunteers based on ethnic background, parental ethnicity, and medical history. G6PD activity was evaluated using point of care methods [Trinity Biotech test or CareSTART Biosensor], and Gold Standard quantitative spectrophotometric assay (LabCorp). Determinations in >20 subjects have showed comparable concordance. If used with a conservative interpretation of the signal, the Trinity Biotech test showed superior potential for use in the field relative to the CareSTART Biosensor. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in our medical center. We have also setup tests for point-of-care assessment of G6PD. Pending evaluation of the relative tests performance, we will be in position to screen individuals and select them for a prospective clinical trial to evaluate the safety of antimalarial agents on scope of G6PD deficiency.
The role of the family in recovery from brain injury is of central importance. Family members provide emotional and practical support, advocate for the patient and assist in rehabilitation. The experience of observing a family member following a traumatic injury is extremely challenging and families can experience high levels of distress, anger, guilt and denial in the early post-traumatic phase. These features are followed, in the longer term, by increasing social isolation, depression and anxiety about the future1–3 and can persist for many years after discharge from hospital. Cognitive and personality changes in the individual with the brain injury are reported as the main causes of family distress than other consequences.
This paper presents the requirements and needs for establishing a benchmarking protocol that considers representation characteristics, supported cognitive criteria, and enabled reasoning activities for the systematic comparison of function modeling representations. Problem types are defined as reverse engineering, familiar products, novel products, and single-component systems. As different modeling approaches share elements, a comparison of modeling approaches on multiple levels was also undertaken. It is recommended that researchers and developers of function modeling representations collaborate to define a canonically acceptable set of benchmark tests and evaluations so that clear benefits and weaknesses for the disparate collection of approaches can be compared. This paper is written as a call to action for the research community to begin establishing a benchmarking standard protocol for function modeling comparison purposes. This protocol should be refined with input from developers of the competing approaches in an academically open environment. At the same time, the benchmarking criteria identified should also serve as a guide for validating a modeling approach or analyzing its failure.
There has been no more fundamental concept in the field of industrial and organizational (I–O) psychology than “employability,” whereby individuals seek to gain and retain jobs with organizations, and organizations desire to attract and keep quality employees. Indeed, theory, research, and practice in the field continually have sought to identify the best predictors of performance and career success. Expansion of the predictor and criterion domains has been a focus of scholarly and practical concern for at least the past couple of decades, as we have realized that the fundamental nature of work, jobs, and organization have changed considerably in U.S. organizations.
Tb doped gadolinium fluoride nanophosphors embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix is reported for X-ray imaging applications. The nanocomposite scintillators were prepared by a melt-quench method followed by annealing. The GdF3:Tb nanophosphors precipitated within the oxide glass matrix during the processing and their luminescence and scintillation properties were investigated.
To investigate potential sources and risks associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in a deployed US military hospital.
Retrospective analysis of factors associated with recovery of MDR bacteria, supplemented by environmental sampling.
The largest US military hospital in Afghanistan.
US and Afghan patients with positive bacterial culture results, from September 2007 through August 2008.
Microbiologic, demographic, and clinical data were analyzed. Potential risk factors included admission diagnosis or mechanism of injury, length of stay, gender, age, and nationality (US or Afghan). Environmental sampling of selected hospital high-touch surfaces and equipment was performed to help elucidate whether environmental MDR bacteria were contributing to nosocomial spread.
A total of 266 patients had 411 bacterial isolates that were identified during the study period, including 211 MDR bacteria (51%). Gram-negative bacteria were common among Afghan patients (241 [76%] of 319), and 70% of these were classified as MDR. This included 58% of bacteria recovered from Afghan patients within 48 hours of hospital admission. The most common gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli (53% were MDR), Acinetobacter (90% were MDR), and Klebsiella (63% were MDR). Almost one-half of potential extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers were community acquired. Of 100 environmental swab samples, 18 yielded MDR bacteria, including 10 that were Acinetobacter, but no potential ESBL-producing bacteria.
Gram-negative bacteria from Afghan patients had high rates of antimicrobial resistance. Patients experiencing Complex trauma and prolonged hospital stays likely contribute to the presence of MDR bacteria in this facility. However, many of these patients had community-acquired cases, which implies high rates of colonization prior to hospital admission.
In a previous study we showed that genetic variation in HTR2A, which encodes the serotonin 2A receptor, influenced outcome of citalopram treatment in patients with major depressive disorder. Since chronic administration of citalopram, which selectively and potently inhibits the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), putatively enhances serotonergic transmission, it is conceivable that genetic variation within HTR2A also influences pretreatment 5-HTT function or serotonergic transmission. The present study used positron emission tomography (PET) and the selective 5-HTT ligand, [11C]DASB, to investigate whether the HTR2A marker alleles that predict treatment outcome also predict differences in 5-HTT binding. Brain levels of 5-HTT were assessed in vivo using PET measures of the non-displaceable component of the [11C]DASB binding potential (BPND). DNA from 43 patients and healthy volunteers, all unmedicated, was genotyped with 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms located within or around HTR2A. Allelic association with BPND was assessed in eight brain regions, with covariates to control for race and ethnicity. We detected allelic association between [11C]DASB BPND in thalamus and three markers in a region spanning the 3′ untranslated region and second intron of HTR2A (rs7333412, p=0.000045; rs7997012, p=0.000086; rs977003, p=0.000069). The association signal at rs7333412 remained significant (p<0.05) after applying corrections for multiple testing via permutation. Genetic variation in HTR2A that was previously associated with citalopram treatment outcome was also associated with thalamic 5-HTT binding. While further work is needed to identify the actual functional genetic variants involved, these results suggest that a relationship exists between genetic variation in HTR2A and either 5-HTT expression or central serotonergic transmission that influences the therapeutic response to 5-HTT inhibition in major depression.
We have measured the level of density fluctuations 〈δne2(K)〉 for ‖K‖ ∼ 1/λD as a function of the angle between k and the current within a collisionless shock. The cut-off angle is in good agreement with that predicted for current-driven ion wave turbulence and one-dimensional heating of the ions. This agreement provides further evidence that ion-wave instability is responsible for the observed turbulence within the shock.
Disaster preparedness is an area of major concern for the medical community that has been reinforced by recent world events. The emergency healthcare system must respond to all types of disasters, whether the incidents occur in urban or rural settings. Although the barriers and challenges are different in the rural setting, common areas of preparedness must be explored.
This study sought to answer several questions, including: (1) What are rural emergency medical services (EMS) organizations training for, compared to what they actually have seen during the last two years?; (2) What scale and types of events do they believe they are prepared to cope with?; and (3) What do they feel are priority areas for training and preparedness?
Data were gathered through a multi-region survey of 1,801 EMS organizations in the US to describe EMS response experiences during specific incidents as well as the frequency with which these events occur. Respondents were asked a number of questions about local priorities.
A total of 768 completed surveys were returned (43%). Over the past few years, training for commonly occurring types of crises and emergencies has declined in favor of terrorism preparedness. Many rural EMS organizations reported that events with 10 or fewer victims would overload them. Low priority was placed on interacting with other non-EMS disaster response agencies, and high priority was placed on basic staff training and retention.
Maintaining viable, rural, emergency response capabilities and developing a community-wide response to natural or man-made events is crucial to mitigate long-term effects of disasters on a local healthcare system. The assessment of preparedness activities accomplished in this study will help to identify common themes to better prioritize preparedness activities and maximize the response capabilities of an EMS organization.
Previous studies from our group suggest that the synchronised onset of oestradiol secretion by preimplantation conceptuses from Meishan pigs may contribute to the enhanced prenatal survival characteristic of this breed (Ashworth and Pickard, 1998). We have recently reported that in vitro, the onset of oestradiol secretion by conceptuses can be regulated in a dose-dependent manner by an aromatase inhibitor (letrozole; Ashworth et al., 2005). Before commencing in vivo trials to assess the efficacy of letrozole to promote prenatal survival, it is important to determine whether exogenous letrozole reaches the uterine lumen and to establish the relationship between the dose administered and the impact on oestradiol secretion at the conceptus-uterine interface.
The Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) is one of the major scientific and technical precursors to the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I) mission. KIN's primary objective is to measure the level of exo-zodiacal mid-infrared emission around nearby main sequence stars, which requires deep broad-band nulling of astronomical sources of a few Janskys at 10 microns. A number of new capabilitites are needed in order to reach that goal with the Keck telescopes: mid-infrared coherent recombination, interferometric operation in “split pupil” mode, N-band optical path stabilization using K-band fringe tracking and internal metrology, and eventually, active atmospheric dispersion correction. We report here on the progress made implementing these new functionalities, and discuss the initial levels of extinction achieved on the sky.
We present an analysis of the Chandra observations of two dwarf starburst, Wolf-Rayet galaxies (NGC 4449 and NGC 5253). We have identified at least three different classes of objects within the X-ray point source populations, and we have found the diffuse emission, resulting from the stellar winds and supernova explosions of massive stars, to have a complex morphology and to consist of several components. Comparison with the Hα emission suggests the presence of ~ kpc-scale wind-blown bubbles and ruptured superbubbles.
A significant improvement (40–60%) was reported in the low voltage (100–1000V) cathodoluminescence efficiency of ZnS phosphors coated with SiO2 by the sol-gel technique. The properties of the coatings were found to be critically dependent upon the precursor concentration, pH value and the temperature of the solution with optimum performance being obtained for a SiO2 concentration of 1.0 wt%, pH values between 7–9, and a solution temperature of 83 °C. The efficiency curves exhibited a characteristic voltage dependence which was analyzed by a one-dimensional numerical model. Enhanced low voltage efficiency was attributed to a reduction of surface recombination and the actual shape of the efficiency curve was determined by the interplay between the reduction of surface recombination and energy losses in the SiO2 coating.
Using a case note study, this paper presents a longitudinal survey of the effect of psychiatric inpatient care on benzodiazepine prescribing. Standards were proposed to assess the quality of this prescribing. Based on these standards, the study shows inappropriate use of benzodiazepines. Following admission, there was an increase in the number of patients prescribed benzodiazepines and in the number of benzodiazepines prescribed. Of the benzodiazepines withdrawn, most were contrary to the proposed standard. The quality of drug history showed little emphasis being placed on rationalising benzodiazepine prescribing. The issue of how benzodiazepines should be handled during psychiatric admission is discussed.
We hypothesized that fatty acids at the sn−2 position of chylomicron triacylglycerol are preferentially released into the venous plasma (rather than being taken up and stored in the adipocytes) after hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase (EC 126.96.36.199) in adipose tissue. Arterio–venous differences across adipose tissue were studied in eight healthy subjects on two occasions for 6 h after ingestion of different structured triacylglycerols rich in palmitic acid either at the sn−2 or the sn−1,3 positions. In particular the specific fatty acids making up lipoprotein fractions and plasma non-esterified fatty acids were analysed. After the different meals there were no differences between either postprandial arterialized or venous plasma metabolite concentrations. Chylomicron triacylglycerol extraction in adipose tissue was the same following the two types of fat. There was no difference between the specific fatty acid composition of the postprandial non-esterified fatty acid release from adipose tissue after ingestion of the two triacylglycerols, indicating that there was no preferential release of a saturated fatty acid at the sn−2 position.
A spectral representation for the isotropic part of the Coulomb
collisional operator is given. The particle distribution function is expanded
in a series of generalized Laguerre polynomials, and the Coulomb collisional
operator is expressed in
terms of the spectral amplitudes. When the spectral representation is applied
the Fokker–Planck equation, a system of coupled ordinary
for the spectral amplitudes is obtained. The spectral coefficients related
Coulomb operator are defined through recurrence relations, which we reduce
simplified form. This makes possible accurate and efficient analytical
numerical evaluations of the interaction matrices. The results presented
can be used in
analytical investigations of the properties of the Coulomb collisional
well as in numerical calculations for plasmas far from thermal equilibrium.
method can also be generalized to include angular dependencies for non-isotropic