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Nanostructured coatings have been prepared on a ﬂexible, moving paperboard using deposition of ca. 10-50-nm-sized titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide nanoparticles generated by a liquid ﬂame spray process, directly above the paperboard, to achieve improved functional properties for the material. With moderately high production rate (∼ g/min), the method is applicable for thin aerosol coating of large area surfaces. LFS-made nanocoating can be synthesized e.g. on paper, board or polymer film in roll-to-roll process. The degree of particle agglomeration is governed by both physicochemical properties of the particle material and residence time in aerosol phase prior to deposition. By adjusting the speed of the substrate, even heat sensitive materials can be coated. In this study, nanoparticles were deposited directly on a moving paperboard with line speeds 50-300 m/min. Functional properties of the nanocoating can be varied by changing nanoparticle material; e.g. TiO2 and SiO2 are used for changing the surface wetting properties. If the liquid precursors are dissolved in one solution, synthesis of multi component nanoparticle coatings is possible in a one phase process. Here, we present analysis of the properties of LFS-fabricated nanocoatings on paperboard. The thermophoretic ﬂux of nanoparticles is estimated to be very high from the hot ﬂame onto the cold substrate. A highly hydrophobic coating was obtained by a mass loading in the order of 50–100 mg/m2 of titanium dioxide on the paperboard.
An alternative to TRO model of a W UMa-type star is presented in which the binary is past mass exchange with mass ratio reversal. The secondary is hydrogen depleted and both components are in thermal equilibrium. Evolution in contact is driven by orbital angular momentum loss and mass transfer from the secondary to primary component, similarly as it is observed in Algols. Temperature equalization of both components results from an assumed energy transfer by a large scale flow encircling the whole system in the common envelope.
Consistently with a trend observed in recent past triennial reports, progress in the theory of stellar atmospheres continues to be made in two different directions: 1) the traditional areas of continuum and line radiation transfer, line blanketing, atomic physics and atmospheric structures controlled by the joint conditions of radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium, and 2) in areas of emerging interest such as oscillations, velocity fields, winds and mass loss, chromospheres, coronae and magnetic phenomena. Particular attention is devoted also to the accurate determination of stellar elemental abundances and their implications for stellar interior structure and evolution as well as for the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy.
From IUE archival data and visual spectrophotometric observations published by Adelman and Pyper, nearly 20 energy distributions of 56 Ari in different rotational phases were obtained. The light variations in selected spectral bands correlate with spectrum variations. The bolometric flux varies by ˜ 2.5 % over the rotation period.
It is shown that the scaling of rotation periods by a color-dependent parameter (turnover time) improves substantially the observed activity-period relations only for single, main sequence, solar type stars with 0.5 ≲ B – V ≲ 0.8. For other single main sequence stars and for single giants activity indices correlate equally well with rotation period and the Rossby number, or show no correlation with either parameter.
An analysis of data spanning 24 years shows that a secondary 20m periodicity is a persistent feature in photometric observations of TT Ari. This period decreases from 27m in 1961 to 17m in 1985. The 4d beat period of photometric and spectroscopic periods is also apparent in observations of 1966.