An inventory of arthropods was carried out at locations in the desert area of Touggourt, southeast Algeria. Samples were collected from two diverse habitats, a palm grove (agricultural habitat) and dunes (natural habitat). Using the Barber pitfall trap, 1100 specimens, divided into four classes, 15 orders, 44 families and 99 species were obtained. In the palm grove, 660 arthropods were trapped, belonging to four classes and 12 orders. Of these four classes, Insecta dominated followed by Crustacea, Arachnida and Entognata. Insecta accounted for 59.49% of the total capture and was dominated by two orders: Hymenoptera (41.81%) and Amphipoda (34.55%). In the Hymenoptera, Cataglyphis sp. was the most abundant (38.2%), followed by Pheidole pallidula (2.3%). In the dunes, 440 individuals were trapped. Insecta was the most abundant (90.69%), and Crustacea and Arachnida were scarce. Of the dominance by insects, Hymenoptera was most abundant (68.15%), and within that order, Cataglyphis bombycina (35.5%) was the most abundant followed by Monomorium subopacum (8.9%). In the palm grove, 42 species were recorded, compared to 57 in the dunes. The Shannon–Weaver index and equitability varied in both stations. In the palm grove, the diversity was 2.6, and the equitability was 0.5. By contrast in the dunes, the diversity was equal to 4 and the Equitability equal to 0.7. The differences in vegetation between the two sites reflect the differences in species diversity.