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Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is prevalent across the world, but more so in low- and middle-income countries. It is associated with various adverse outcomes for mothers and infants. This study sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of IPV among pregnant women attending one midwife and obstetrics unit (MOU) in the Western Cape, South Africa.
A convenience sample of 150 pregnant women was recruited to participate in the study. Data were collected using several self-report measures concerning the history of childhood trauma, exposure to community violence, depression and alcohol use. Multivariable logistic models were developed, the first model was based on whether any IPV occurred, the remaining models investigated for physical-, sexual- and emotional abuse.
Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates for any IPV were 44%. The 12-month IPV rates were 32% for emotional and controlling behaviours, 29% physical and 20% sexual abuse. The adjusted model predicting physical IPV found women who were at risk for depression were more likely to experience physical IPV [odds ratios (ORs) 4.42, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.88–10.41], and the model predicting sexual IPV found that women who reported experiencing community violence were more likely to report 12-month sexual IPV (OR 3.85, CI 1.14–13.08).
This is the first study, which illustrates high prevalence rates of IPV among pregnant woman at Mitchells Plain MOU. A significant association was found between 12-month IPV and unintended pregnancy. Further prospective studies in different centres are needed to address generalisability and the effect of IPV on maternal and child outcomes.
There remains a large disparity in the quantity, quality and impact of mental health research carried out in sub-Saharan Africa, relative to both the burden and the amount of research carried out in other regions. We lack evidence on the capacity-building activities that are effective in achieving desired aims and appropriate methodologies for evaluating success.
AFFIRM was an NIMH-funded hub project including a capacity-building program with three components open to participants across six countries: (a) fellowships for an M.Phil. program; (b) funding for Ph.D. students conducting research nested within AFFIRM trials; (c) short courses in specialist research skills. We present findings on progression and outputs from the M.Phil. and Ph.D. programs, self-perceived impact of short courses, qualitative data on student experience, and reflections on experiences and lessons learnt from AFFIRM consortium members.
AFFIRM delivered funded research training opportunities to 25 mental health professionals, 90 researchers and five Ph.D. students across 6 countries over a period of 5 years. A number of challenges were identified and suggestions for improving the capacity-building activities explored.
Having protected time for research is a barrier to carrying out research activities for busy clinicians. Funders could support sustainability of capacity-building initiatives through funds for travel and study leave. Adoption of a train-the-trainers model for specialist skills training and strategies for improving the rigor of evaluation of capacity-building activities should be considered.
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