The friction of pure ice against various materials was studied at the melting point by pulling plates of the materials of known roughness under a melting ice sample, which was loaded from above, and by maintaining a surrounding air temperature of +2°C (±1°C). Speed was varied over a wide range from 0.05 to 400 mm s−1.
Results for an aluminium sheet of roughness Ra
= 0.84 μm, showed a maximum in friction coefficient of 0.04 at a speed of 16 mm s−1. Below this speed the friction coefficient dropped to 0.002 at 0.2 mm s −1 and results from different ice samples were very reproducible. Above 16 mm s−1, the friction coefficient initially dropped to about 0.002 at 100 mm s−1, and then increased again to 0.037 at 400 mm s−1. Results at speeds above 16 mm s−1 were much less reproducible than those at lower speeds. Results are given also for the friction of ice on Formica, acrylic, and copper plates.
The amount of meltwater produced during a test was measured by weighing an absorbent tissue before and after mopping-up the meltwater. The amount of meltwater was significantly more for aluminium than for Formica or acrylic, showing that the thermal conductivity of the slider was controlling the amount of meltwater. The amount was also a strong function of velocity.