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Most position sensitive proportional counters (PSPCs) currently used in X-ray diffraction experiments have a dead time longer than 5 μs. Though such PSPCs are useful in measuring weak diffraction diagrams, a faster counter is needed to detect strong X-ray diagrams produced with synchrotron radiation sources. The long dead time of PSPCs using a charge division position read-out is due to the slow analog division circuit plus analog-to-digital converter employed in the present system. A fast processor can be built utilising two high-speed ADCs to digitize voltage signals from the detector, followed by a digital divider to compute position of detected photons. The present paper describes the design of such a processor and some preliminary testings of its performances.
In this paper, a colloidal solution of copper nanoparticles was prepared from a Cu ion aqueous solution with the protein casein surfactant by a liquid phase reduction method at low temperature below 373K. For the casein concentration ranging from 6g/L to 75g/L, the formation of copper nanoparticle colloid were observed. As a result, the peak was observed at the ranging of 450 to 650 nm corresponding to the copper nanoparticle colloid plasmon absorption. As the surfactant concentration increases, the absorption spectrum tends to blue-shift and the particle diameter decreases. Thus, it indicated that the optical property and particle diameter of copper nanoparticle colloidal solution will be controlled by the protein casein surfactant concentration.
The large-amplitude δ Scuti star CY Aqr was observed from sites in the U.S.A., South Africa and Australia during August 1988. Coates et al. (1991) published 48 new times of maximum light derived from these observations and assembled, from the literature, previous times of maximum light. It is clear that the period of the star is changing with the balance of evidence favouring discrete changes in 1951 and 1966, rather than a continuous change.
It has been suggested by Fitch (1973) and Else (1972), from an analysis of the observations of Zissell (1968), that there is a secondary frequency present in CY Aqr. Coates et al. (1992) have analysed both the 1988 observations and those of Zissell. After subtracting the primary frequency and its harmonics, they find no stable secondary frequency above the noise level of two millimagnitudes.
A large-format PtSi array (effectively 1k × 0.5k pixels) has been incorporated into an infrared camera intended for survey work using the 0.75-m telescope at Sutherland. The array is very uniform and almost free of cosmetic defects. The camera, its electronics and the operational procedures that we use are described, together with the methods of data reduction. The limiting magnitudes that can be observed in the JHK broad bands are given.
We study the performance and limitations of the morphological classification method based on luminosity concentration and mean surface brightness. In particular, the effects of the different colour bands and of a finite seeing are investigated.
We have observed a 0.7×1.2deg2 field in the SGP region with the UT / NAOJ Mosaic CCD Camera attached to the 40-inch Swope Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and constructed a sample of 1150 galaxies in the region down to R=20.5. Then we applied to the sample a new, objective cluster-finding technique, which is an improved variant of the so-called “matched-filter technique” pioneered by Postman et al. (1996). Using projected positions and apparent magnitudes of galaxies simultaneously, this technique can, not only find cluster candidates, but also estimate their redshifts and richnesses. A number of Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated enough accuracies of the estimations and much lower spurious detection rate than that by conventional cluster-finding methods which use only surface density of galaxies.
At present, the photometric data for clusters at z ≲ 0.2 mainly come from photographic photometry. The lack of CCD data for such clusters is simply due to the fact that no CCD camera had been available until recently that covers the wide extension of clusters within a reasonable amount of observing time. We have developed a large mosaic CCD camera and conducted multicolor imaging observations of z ≲ 0.2 clusters using the 40-inch Swope telescope at Las Campanas Observatory.
Subaru Telescope is an 8.3-m diameter optical-infrared new-generation telescope under construction on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The telescope is expected to be operational by early 1999. The current status of its construction and the plans for its instrumentation are presented. The design specifications of the telescope and its seven common user instruments are described, with emphasis on their application to studies of the Local Group.
Two of the five cocoon stars in the “Quintuplet” cluster of young, luminous objects, located about 30 pc in projection from the Galactic Centre, are variables. The nearby “Pistol Star”, also called the “Serendipitous Star”, and a similar object, both suspected on spectroscopic grounds of being Luminous Blue Variables, have indeed been found to vary, confirming their tentative classification. A further variable apparent member of the cluster is probably a Mira in the same line of sight.
We observed three 0.44 square degree fields centered on the Coma cluster center (Coma-1), about 1 degree SW of the Coma center (Coma-3), and on a control field in SA57 with the mosaic CCD camera at the prime focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. We detected 5628, 5020, and 4323 galaxies down to R = 22 mag in Coma-1, Coma-3, and SA57 fields, respectively. We measure the magnitude and color within the variable aperture r90 in which about 90% of the total flux is included. The histograms of (B–R) colors of galaxies are made for four magnitude bins of width ΔR = 2 mag covering 13 < R < 21 mag for each of the three fields. The mean colors and the 1σ scatters of the Coma galaxies are obtained by a histogram subtraction technique (Coma-1/3 minus SA57). We find a very shallow slope of the color-magnitude relation (CMR), Δ(B–R)/ΔR=−0.0037, which indicates nearly a constant (B–R) color over 6 magnitude in 15 < R < 21 mag (−19.5 < MR < −13.5 at Coma cluster). Dwarf galaxies are dominant in this magnitude range, and we conclude that the mean color of dwarf galaxies in the Coma clusters is nearly constant at (B–R) ∼ 1.6–1.7, which is similar to the color of the faint end of giant elliptical galaxies.
We study the total luminosity function (LF) and the type-specific LF of 7 nearby clusters of galaxies (A1060, S805, A2063, A1736, A1644, A1631, and A754) using the R-band image (1.0 × 0.5 deg2) taken with our mosaic CCD camera mounted on 1-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory.
A second report on our 4-year survey for long-period variables (LPVs) in the central 24 × 24 arcmin2 of the Galactic Bulge is presented. All four seasons of data have now been reduced and ∼ 350 variables have been found. Preliminary periods have been obtained for most of them. Fifty-five out of 103 known OH/IR stars in the field have been recovered in the K-band.
Type I storms are the most frequently observed solar phenomena at metre and decimetre wavelengths. Since the first identification of the emission of this type with a large sunspot group a great many type I storms have been recorded with radio-spectrographs, polarimeters and interferometers (see, for example, Wild, Smerd and Weiss, Kundu, Wild). Nevertheless, we can offer no satisfactory answers to the most fundamental questions about type I storms: ‘What kind of disturbances supply energy to a localized coronal region to maintain the storm activity for up to several days?’; ‘What is the emission mechanism responsible for the peculiar features observed in type I storms?’.
The work of Commission 25 covers a wide range of topics concerning the measurement of magnitude, colour and polarisation of astronomical objects. As such, the area of interest covers virtually every field of astrophysical research in the visual and infrared spectral domain. Our reports cover some aspects of photometry and polarimetry as a technique rather than being an account of research highlights over the last three years.
We report on the status of the CCD cameras for the Kiso 105-cm Schmidt telescope. We have two types of cameras – single-chip and mosaic. The single-chip camera is available for common use. At present about 90 % of the telescope time is allocated to observations with CCD cameras.
The red variables whose amplitude is larger than 1.3 mag in the MOA database are studied for the LMC. Among 3 196 such stars, 532 stars are likely to be Miras or red semiregular variables. The period–colour relation of these stars is shown.
A high time- and spatial-resolution radio interferometer for solar observations has been constructed at Nobeyama (Figure I.; Nakajima et al. 1994). The Nobeyama Radioheliograph consists of 84 antennas, 0.8m in diameter, arranged on a T-shape lines of 500m in the EW and 220m in the NS directions. The time resolution is 50 ms and the spatial resolution is 10”. The field of view is 40’ at the observing frequency 17GHz, which enables us to watch the whole sun. The radioheliograph has observed hundreds of flares during the few months since the beginning of regular observations in July ‘92, and such powerful performance has never before been demonstrated in the history of solar radio observations.
Spectral observations obtained soon after the 1987 brightening of U Sco support a thermonuclear runaway model for outbursts of this object. Spectra later in the decline are, however, more characteristic of a hot accretion disc. These observations are reconciled in a model where the low-mass high-velocity shell ejected from the surface of the white dwarf collides with the accretion disc causing it to brighten.