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− Agency is one of five core analytical problems in the Earth System Governance (ESG) Project’s research framework, which offers a unique approach to the study of environmental governance. − Agency in Earth System Governance draws lessons from ESG–Agency research through a systematic review of 322 peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2008 and 2016 and contained in the ESG–Agency Harvesting Database.− ESG–Agency research draws on diverse disciplinary perspectives with distinct clusters of scholars rooted in the fields of global environmental politics, policy studies, and socio-ecological systems. − Collectively, the chapters in Agency in Earth System Governance provide an accessible synthesis of some of the field’s major questions and debates and a state-of-the-art understanding of how diverse actors engage with and exercise authority in environmental governance.
− The role of the state as an agent of earth system governance has become more complex, contingent, and interdependent. − Although participatory and collaborative processes have contributed to more effective, equitable, and legitimate environmental governance outcomes in some instances, analyses of these processes should be situated within a broader governance perspective, which recasts questions of policy change around questions of power and justice. −The complexity and normative aspects of agency in earth system governance requires new forms of policy evaluation that account for social impacts and the ability of governance systems to adapt. − Many of the core analytical concepts in ESG–Agency scholarship, such as agency, power, authority, and accountability, remain under-theorized. In addition, some types of actors, including women, labor, non-human agents, those who work against earth system governance, and many voices from the Global South, remain largely hidden. − ESG–Agency scholars need to develop research projects and collaborations in understudied regions while also recruiting and supporting scholars in those regions to engage with this research agenda.
A growing body of research shows that women legislators outperform their male counterparts in the legislative arena, but scholars have yet to examine whether this pattern emerges in non-policy aspects of representation. We conducted an audit study of 6,000 U.S. state legislators to analyze whether women outperform or underperform men on constituency service in light of the extra effort they spend on policy. We find that women are more likely to respond to constituent requests than men, even after accounting for their heightened level of policy activity. Female legislators are the most responsive in conservative districts, where women may see the barriers to their election as especially high. We then demonstrate that our findings are not a function of staff responsiveness, legislator ideology, or responsiveness to female constituents or gender issues. The results provide additional evidence that women perform better than their male counterparts across a range of representational activities.
In the past years, numerous alternative cations to replace Pb2+ in perovskite solar cells have been investigated. In terms of toxicity and chemical stability, methylammonium bismuth iodide [(CH3NH3)3Bi2I9 or MBI] containing the Bi3+ cation has been considered as a promising material. However, fabrication of coherent MBI films remains challenging. Recently, significant progress has been achieved by using vapor deposition processes. Compared with solution-processed ones, vapor-deposited MBI solar cells show higher fill factors and efficiencies. In this work, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of MBI is investigated. Employing nitrogen as carrier gas, the precursors bismuth iodide (BiI3) and methylammonium iodide (MAI) are deposited sequentially over several cycles and form MBI during the process. In order to form dense and coherent layers, the lengths of the deposition cycles as well as the substrate temperature have been optimized. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the strong influence of both parameters on growth and crystal properties. Optimized films of MBI integrated into solar cells show that CVD of MBI is a promising method for fabricating large-area solar cells.
The humble pendulum is often invoked as the archetype of a simple, gravity driven, oscillator. Under ideal circumstances, the oscillation frequency of the pendulum is independent of its mass and swing amplitude. However, in most real-world situations, the dynamics of pendulums is not quite so simple, particularly with additional interactions between the pendulum and a surrounding fluid. Here we extend the realm of pendulum studies to include large amplitude oscillations of heavy and buoyant pendulums in a fluid. We performed experiments with massive and hollow cylindrical pendulums in water, and constructed a simple model that takes the buoyancy, added mass, fluid (nonlinear) drag and bearing friction into account. To first order, the model predicts the oscillation frequencies, peak decelerations and damping rate well. An interesting effect of the nonlinear drag captured well by the model is that, for heavy pendulums, the damping time shows a non-monotonic dependence on pendulum mass, reaching a minimum when the pendulum mass density is nearly twice that of the fluid. Small deviations from the model’s predictions are seen, particularly in the second and subsequent maxima of oscillations. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV), we reveal that these deviations likely arise due to the disturbed flow created by the pendulum at earlier times. The mean wake velocity obtained from PIV is used to model an extra drag term due to incoming wake flow. The revised model significantly improves the predictions for the second and subsequent oscillations.
Following pioneering work in Norway, cirque glaciers have widely been viewed as rigidly rotating bodies. This model is incorrect for basin-filling cirque glaciers, as we have demonstrated at West Washmawapta Glacier, a small glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Here we report observations at the same glacier that assess whether complex temporal variations of flow also occur. For parts of three summers, we measured daily displacements of the glacier surface. In one year, four short-duration speed-up events were recorded. Three of the events occurred during the intervals of warmest weather, when melt was most rapid; the fourth event occurred immediately following heavy rain. We interpret the speed-up events as manifestations of enhanced water inputs to the glacier bed and associated slip lubrication by increased water volumes and pressures. No further speed-ups occurred in the final month of the melt season, despite warm temperatures and several rainstorms; the dominant subglacial water system likely transformed from one of poorly connected cavities to one with an efficient channel network. The seasonal evolution of hydrology and flow resembles behaviors documented at other, larger temperate glaciers and indicates that analyses of cirque erosion cannot rely on simple assumptions about ice dynamics.
We study periodically driven Taylor–Couette turbulence, i.e. the flow confined between two concentric, independently rotating cylinders. Here, the inner cylinder is driven sinusoidally while the outer cylinder is kept at rest (time-averaged Reynolds number is
). Using particle image velocimetry, we measure the velocity over a wide range of modulation periods, corresponding to a change in Womersley number in the range
$15\leqslant Wo\leqslant 114$
. To understand how the flow responds to a given modulation, we calculate the phase delay and amplitude response of the azimuthal velocity. In agreement with earlier theoretical and numerical work, we find that for large modulation periods the system follows the given modulation of the driving, i.e. the behaviour of the system is quasi-stationary. For smaller modulation periods, the flow cannot follow the modulation, and the flow velocity responds with a phase delay and a smaller amplitude response to the given modulation. If we compare our results with numerical and theoretical results for the laminar case, we find that the scalings of the phase delay and the amplitude response are similar. However, the local response in the bulk of the flow is independent of the distance to the modulated boundary. Apparently, the turbulent mixing is strong enough to prevent the flow from having radius-dependent responses to the given modulation.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
The number of people entering specialist drug treatment for cannabis problems has increased considerably in recent years. The reasons for this are unclear, but rising cannabis potency could be a contributing factor.
Cannabis potency data were obtained from an ongoing monitoring programme in the Netherlands. We analysed concentrations of δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from the most popular variety of domestic herbal cannabis sold in each retail outlet (2000–2015). Mixed effects linear regression models examined time-dependent associations between THC and first-time cannabis admissions to specialist drug treatment. Candidate time lags were 0–10 years, based on normative European drug treatment data.
THC increased from a mean (95% CI) of 8.62 (7.97–9.27) to 20.38 (19.09–21.67) from 2000 to 2004 and then decreased to 15.31 (14.24–16.38) in 2015. First-time cannabis admissions (per 100 000 inhabitants) rose from 7.08 to 26.36 from 2000 to 2010, and then decreased to 19.82 in 2015. THC was positively associated with treatment entry at lags of 0–9 years, with the strongest association at 5 years, b = 0.370 (0.317–0.424), p < 0.0001. After adjusting for age, sex and non-cannabis drug treatment admissions, these positive associations were attenuated but remained statistically significant at lags of 5–7 years and were again strongest at 5 years, b = 0.082 (0.052–0.111), p < 0.0001.
In this 16-year observational study, we found positive time-dependent associations between changes in cannabis potency and first-time cannabis admissions to drug treatment. These associations are biologically plausible, but their strength after adjustment suggests that other factors are also important.
Pb-based organometal halide perovskite solar cells have passed the threshold of 20 % power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, the main issues hampering commercialization are toxic Pb contained in these cells and their instability in ambient air. Therefore, great attention is devoted to replace Pb by Sn or Bi, which are less harmful and - in the case of Bi - also expected to yield enhanced stability. In literature, the most efficient hybrid organic-inorganic methylammonium bismuth iodide (MBI) perovskite solar cells reach PCE up to 0.2 %. In this work, we present spin-coated MBI perovskite solar cells and highlight the impact of the concentration of the perovskite solution on the layer morphology and photovoltaic (PV) characteristics. The solar cells exhibit open-circuit voltages of 0.73 V, which is the highest value published for this type of solar cell. The PCE increases from 0.004 % directly after processing to 0.17 % after 48 h of storage in air. 300 h after exposure to air, the cells still yield 56 % of their peak PCE and 84 % of their maximum open-circuit voltage.
Typical electron transport (2,2′,2″-(1,3,5-benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole) (TPBi)) and injection (Cs2CO3) materials are successfully replaced by zirconium tetrakis(8-hydroxyquinolinolate) (Zrq4) and lithium 2-((o-tolylimino)methyl)-phenolate (EI-111) in simplified OLED (organic light-emitting diodes) processed by organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD). The performance of combining Zrq4 and EI-111 is analyzed in unipolar devices and compared to devices with configurations of Zrq4/Cs2CO3, TPBi/EI-111 and TPBi/Cs2CO3. Current density-voltage (J-V) measurements are performed and correlated to different carrier injection and transport properties. The investigated material combinations are implemented in the simplified OLED structures and compared to each other. To account for the high HOMO level of Zrq4, 5 nm of TPBi are added to confine holes and excitons in the emissive layer (EML) and to improve device performance. After tailoring the organic stack for OLED with Zrq4, a remarkable boost in device efficiency is observed. The luminous efficacy increased from 3.0 to 21.9 lm/W and the EQE from 2.1 to 11.0 % for a device with Zrq4/EI-111. Furthermore, OLED having Zrq4/Cs2CO3 show an even greater enhancement to 26.3 lm/W and 11.7 %.
Although Pb-based perovskite solar cells already achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCE) beyond 20 %, the use of toxic Pb is causing considerable environmental concern. As a consequence, a variety of alternative cations have been investigated to replace Pb2+ in the perovskite structure. Methylammonium bismuth iodide (MA3Bi2I9, MBI) has shown promising results for environmentally benign and chemically stable devices. While the PCE of MBI-based solar cells are still comparably low, structural improvements have been made by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). CVD allows for the well-controlled formation of coherent and dense MBI layers in contrast to solution-processing. In this work, CVD as a possible MBI fabrication method for efficient and size-scalable solar cells is discussed. The precursors MA iodide (MAI) and Bi iodide (BiI3) are deposited in an alternating deposition process forming the desired MBI perovskite on the heated substrate. Substrate temperatures as well as deposition times of each precursor are varied with the aim of forming coherent and dense MBI layers. Optimized films are further processed to solar cell prototypes and compared with solution-processed reference devices. The results reveal that CVD possesses great potential to enable the manufacture of MBI photovoltaic (PV) devices processed in a solvent-free environment.
New paediatric cardiology trainees are required to rapidly assimilate knowledge and gain clinical skills to which they have limited or no exposure during residency. The Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp (PCBC) at Boston Children’s Hospital was designed to provide incoming fellows with an intensive exposure to congenital cardiac pathology and a broad overview of major areas of paediatric cardiology practice.
The PCBC curriculum was designed by core faculty in cardiac pathology, echocardiography, electrophysiology, interventional cardiology, exercise physiology, and cardiac intensive care. Individual faculty contributed learning objectives, which were refined by fellowship directors and used to build a programme of didactics, hands-on/simulation-based activities, and self-guided learning opportunities.
A total of 16 incoming fellows participated in the 4-week boot camp, with no concurrent clinical responsibilities, over 2 years. On the basis of pre- and post-PCBC surveys, 80% of trainees strongly agreed that they felt more prepared for clinical responsibilities, and a similar percentage felt that PCBC should be offered to future incoming fellows. Fellows showed significant increase in their confidence in all specific knowledge and skills related to the learning objectives. Fellows rated hands-on learning experiences and simulation-based exercises most highly.
We describe a novel 4-week-long boot camp designed to expose incoming paediatric cardiology fellows to the broad spectrum of knowledge and skills required for the practice of paediatric cardiology. The experience increased trainee confidence and sense of preparedness to begin fellowship-related responsibilities. Given that highly interactive activities were rated most highly, boot camps in paediatric cardiology should strongly emphasise these elements.
Findings from family and twin studies support a genetic contribution to the development of sexual orientation in men. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting evidence for linkage to chromosome Xq28.
We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan on 409 independent pairs of homosexual brothers (908 analyzed individuals in 384 families), by far the largest study of its kind to date.
We identified two regions of linkage: the pericentromeric region on chromosome 8 (maximum two-point LOD = 4.08, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.59), which overlaps with the second strongest region from a previous separate linkage scan of 155 brother pairs; and Xq28 (maximum two-point LOD = 2.99, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.76), which was also implicated in prior research.
Results, especially in the context of past studies, support the existence of genes on pericentromeric chromosome 8 and chromosome Xq28 influencing development of male sexual orientation.