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In March 1989 a large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred simultaneously among schoolchildren and teachers at nine elementary schools in Toyota City, Japan. Illness was observed in 3236 (41·5%) of 7801 schoolchildren and 117 (39·4%) of 297 teachers. The main clinical symptoms were diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea and abdominal pain. Gastroenteritis was significantly associated with the consumption of school lunch served by one particular lunch preparation centre. One food handler at the centre suffered from gastroenteritis during the outbreak.Small round structured virus (SRSV) was detected in 4 of 8 stool specimens from sick persons. The school lunch contaminated by the infected food handler is the most probable source of this outbreak due to SRSV.
The inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the virucidal effect of chlorine was studied. The time required for 99·9% inactivation of ten enteroviruses and two adenoviruses by 0·5 mg/l free available chlorine at pH 7·0 and 25○C was prolonged approximately 4·8–28·8 times by the addition of 30 mg/l cyanuric acid. Comparative inactivation of poliovirus 1 by free available chlorine with or without cyanuric acid revealed the following. The inactivation rate by 1·5 mg/l free available chlorine with 30 mg/l cyanuric acid or by 0·5 mg/l free available chlorine with 1 mg/1 cyanuric acid was slower than by 0·5 mg/1 free available chlorine alone. Temperature and pH did not affect the inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the disinfectant action of chlorine. In the swimming-pool and tap water, cyanuric acid delayed the virucidal effect of chlorine as much as in the ‚clean’ condition of chlorine-buffered distilled water. The available chlorine value should be increased to 1·5 mg/l when cyanuric acid is used in swimming-pool water.
We studied, for two years, the prevalence of indigenous human enteric viruses in wild oysters gathered each month from the bottom of Mikawa Bay, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Viruses were detected periodically in 9 out of 54 oyster pools prepared by the acid or polyethylene glycol precipitation method although all these 9 pools met current national bacteriological safety standards. Since most of the serotypes of the enteric viruses detected in the oysters were identical with those of viruses isolated from sick children living in the area, it is suggested that contamination of enteric viruses in the oysters would depend on the prevalence of enteric viral infections in the local inhabitants.
The significant contribution of pig production in the supply of high quality protein in Nigeria is evident in the rapid increase in number of pig farms witnessed recently. However, African Swine Fever (ASF) has since ravaged pig farms and consequently resulted in loss of farmers’ investments especially in some parts of the Southwest Agro-ecological zone of Nigeria (Majiyagbe et al., 2004; Otesile et al., 2005; Olugasa and Ijagbone, 2007). Putting the growth of the enterprise back on track requires proper assessment of the socio-economic environment surrounding the spread of the disease with the aim of determining the extent of infection, the consequences in terms of mortality of animals and loss of revenue alongside identifying farm specific factors that could have contributed to the spread. This study thus investigated the incidence of ASF and its socio-economic implications on pig enterprise in the zone.
Growth of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) was observed in situ in a transmission electron microscope. Bi liquid particles were dispersed on the substrates of diamond or SiO2. Introduction of oxygen up to ∼5 × 10−4 Pa resulted in formation of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) whiskers. The growth mechanism of the whisker was discussed in terms of a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. It is suggested that the liquid droplet of Bi acts as a physical catalyst for growth of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) whiskers.
Recent progress in in situ observation of solid–liquid interfaces by means of transmission electron microscopy, carried out by the Nagoya group, was reviewed. The results obtained on pure materials are discussed based on Jackson's theory. The structure of the solid–liquid interfaces of eutectic alloys was also observed. The in situ observation technique of solid–liquid interface is applied to industrially important reactions which include liquid phases.
Retention of the enhanced properties reported for nanograined metallic systems requires that the nanostructure be insensitive to temperature and deformation. In situ transmission electron microscopy annealing experiments were employed to investigate the structural changes associated with the formation of micron-sized grains in nanograined evaporated gold thin films. This abnormal grain growth occurs randomly throughout the film. Twinning but not dislocation slip occurs in the growing grains until the grain size is in the hundreds of nanometer range. The twins appear to hinder growth and for grain growth to continue the twins must either be annihilated or be able to grow with the grain concurrently.
One of the most widely studied types of magnetic nanostructure is that used in devices based on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) or tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) phenomena. In order to understand the behaviour of these materials it is important to be able to follow their magnetisation reversal mechanism, and one of the techniques enabling micromagnetic studies at the sub-micron scale is transmission electron microscopy. Two techniques can be used: Lorentz transmission electron microscopy and off-axis electron holography, both of which allow the magnetic domain structure of a ferromagnetic material to be investigated dynamically in real-time with a resolution of a few nanometres. These techniques have been used in combination with in situ magnetizing experiments, to carry out qualitative and quantitative studies of magnetization reversal in a range of materials including spin-tunnel junctions, patterned thin film elements and magnetic antidot arrays. Quantitative analysis of the Lorentz TEM data has been carried out using the transport of intensity equation (TIE) approach.
Sera from 27 children and eight older persons, which had been collected in 1998 and 1999 and showed haemagglutination–inhibition (HI) activity against influenza A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2) strain, were characterized with a binding assay using chimeric haemagglutinin (HA) proteins between A/Aichi/2/68 (A/AI/68) and A/Sydney/5/97 (A/SD/97) strains. Sera from the young children had a tendency to recognize only the antigenic site B1 of the HA1 region. On the other hand, sera of the older individuals were fully reactive to all antigenic sites of HA1 except antigenic site D. Recent epidemic strains, A/Panama/2007/99 (A/PM/99)-like viruses have differences in amino acids in antigenic sites A, C, and B2 but not B1. However, human antisera obtained even from young children had HI activity to Panama-like viruses. The limited epidemic of A/PM/99-like viruses may have been due to the existence of antibody against B1, which had been produced in response to infection by the A/SD/97-like viruses.
In this study, the microstructural change of the surface of Si single crystal (Si(100)) after the scratching tests under very small loading forces was investigated. At first, line-scratching tests and scanning-scratching tests were carried out using an atomic force/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM). Next, cross-sectional TEM observations of the wear marks which were generated by the scratching tests were carried out. As a result of the TEM observations after the line-scratching tests, it was found that dislocations were observed in the area of less than 100nm thickness from the surface of the wear marks which were formed under the loading forces of more than 5μN. In the case of the loading forces of more than 20μN, an amorphous region was also observed just under the wear marks. As a result of the TEM observations after the scanning-scratching tests, it was found that the introduction of dislocations took place and no amorphous region appeared. It was also found that the several atomic layers at the top surface of the wear marks shifted in parallel to (100).
Behavior of fine crystalline particles of
W5Si3 on a β-Si3N4
substrate at high temperatures was observed by an in situ heating
experiment in a transmission electron microscope. Some of the
fine particles of W5Si3 moved in a to-and-fro
Microtribology of Silicon single crystals is one of the important factors for the practical use of MEMS. In this study, the effect of crystal orientation on microwear of Silicon single crystal and the wear structure were mainly investigated. Microfriction experiments using atomic force / friction force microscope (AFM / FFM) were carried out to investigate the effect of crystal orientation on the microwear depth of Silicon single crystals. In these experiments, the scanning-scratching directions of a tip of AFM / FFM were <100> and <110> on Si(100) surface and <112> on Si(111) surface. As a result, it was found that the depth of the wear marks generated on Silicon surfaces increased in the following order: <112>, <100>, <100>. Cross-sectional TEM observations of the microwear marks were carried out. As a result, it was found that the small dislocation loops were generated in the surface region at the first stage of the microwear, and the size and the number of dislocations increased with the progress of the microwear.
In 1996, three adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) strains were isolated from children with fever and
upper respiratory diseases in Japan. Restriction endonucleases (REs) analysis and PCR
amplification of the E3 7·7 kDa ORF revealed that these strains were genotype Ad7h and
closely related to an Argentine Ad7h strain, which has been reported to be highly virulent and
so far predominant only in South America. These strains showed weak cross-neutralizing
activity and specific haemagglutination-inhibition activity to Ad3 antiserum. The present
findings suggest that Ad7h in South America has spread to other parts of the world. Since the
seroprevalence to Ad7 in the current Japanese population is very low due to the absence of
Ad7 circulation in Japan for decades, Ad7 outbreak as a typical case of re-emerging infectious
diseases is a cause for serious concern.
Mode I cracks introduced in Si at the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) have been examined extensively using transmission electron microscopy. Cross-sectional as well as plane-view specimens suitable for the observation were prepared using a focused ion beam technique. Many small dislocation loops nucleate at the fracture surface of a mode I crack during the propagation at DBTT.