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Trait-specific characterization of rice landraces has significant potential for germplasm management, varietal identification and mining of novel gene/allele for various traits. In the current study, we have characterized 98 unique rice landraces collected from coastal regions of India, affected by submergence and salinity, based on Sub1 and Saltol quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked microsatellite markers. Among these genotypes, four genotypes (IC536558, IC536559, IC536604 and IC536604-1) collected from Kerala and two genotypes (AC34902 and IC324589) collected from West Bengal were identified with tolerance to submergence and salinity stress. A high level of genetic diversity of He = 0.349 and 0.529 at Sub1 and Saltol QTL region was detected by QTL-linked microsatellite markers, respectively. At Sub1 region one genotype, AC34902, was detected with maximum allelic similarity with FR13A, a known submergence tolerant variety. Besides, five genotypes (IC211188-1, IC536604-1, IC536604, IC536558 and IC536559) showed comparatively close genetic relationship with the salt tolerant variety FL478 for Saltol QTL and were clustered together in the neighbour joining dendrogram. Considering the haplotype structure, five genotypes (IC203801, IC203778, IC324584, IC413608 and IC413638) were identified which did not contain any common allele similar to FR13A but were still tolerant to submergence. These individuals need further characterization for identification of new alleles responsible for their tolerance.
Background: Post-craniotomy pain can be severe and undermanaged. While opioids are the mainstay treatment, they have the potential to interfere with neurological monitoring. The objectives of this review are: 1) to identify measures to provide opioid-free analgesia 2) to compare the effectiveness of non-opioid to opioid analgesia in post-craniotomy pain. Methods: A comprehensive search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases was conducted for RCTs evaluating the effect of opioid vs non-opioid pain control strategies in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy. Results: The literature search yielded 462 citations, 5 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria for a total of 250 patients. Scalp infiltration/block was found to provide equivalent analgesia to morphine1 and fentanyl.2 Morphine was associated with slightly higher postoperative nausea and vomiting. Paracetamol was less likely to induce nausea and vomiting,3,4 but provided inadequate pain relief compared to nalbuphine,3 tramadol,3 morphine4 and sufentanil.4 Dexmedetomidine5 provided similar analgesia to remifentanil but did delay the time to first dose of rescue analgesia with similar side effects. Conclusions: Based on the limited number of RCTs comparing opioid to non-opioid techniques, no definite recommendations can be made with regards to the optimal management of post-craniotomy pain. Considerations should be made for use of multimodal analgesia-including adjuvant analgesics.
The meteoroid ablation is an important source of upper atmosphere metal atoms. Many meteoroids ablate between 70 - 110 km and form an ionized plasma trail which is detected by radar technique. It is also known that the ablation heights of the meteors depend on various factors such as velocity, mass, and its composition, etc. The meteor ablation height provides new opportunities to gather information on the neutral atmosphere in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. In this study, we analysed the 11 years of meteor radar data (2005 - 2015), i.e., descending phase of solar cycle 23, and ascending phase of solar cycle 24, detected by all sky meteor radar at Thumba. We found that the solar activity influences the meteor ablation height, here, during the solar maxima meteor peak detection height rise to few hundred meters higher altitudes. We also examined the long term pattern of the meteor count rate which shows a decreasing trend and has good agreement with the sunspot number (SSN).
In the present paper, we analyzed the effects of magnetic field on the three dimensional flow of a nanofluid having the suspension of ferrous nano-particles within the framework of a non-uniformly thicked sheet in a slip flow regime. The sheet of variable thickness is assumed to be stretched in horizontal and transverse directions. The effects of thermophoretic forces and Brownian motion have also been incorporated into the governing equations. The RK-Fehlberg-integration scheme with shooting technique is employed to resolve the altered governing non-linear differential equations. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented and discussed for two cases namely uniform thickness stretching sheet UTSS (n = 1) and variable thickness stretching sheet VTSS (n ≠ 1), and skin friction coefficient, reduced Nusselt number and Sherwood number are computed and analyzed through tables. The results reveal that heat and mass transfer processes over slendering sheet matches with those over a flat sheet in the presence of slip flow regime.
Difficult terrain and inclement weather limit our knowledge of large predators, such as the tiger Panthera tigris, in the Himalayas. A lack of empirical data on large carnivores can lead to mismanagement of protected areas and population declines. We used non-invasive genetic and remote sensing data to inform the management of such high-altitude protected areas. We used the tiger as a focal species to investigate prey preference and habitat suitability in India's Buxa Tiger Reserve, which encompasses several eco-geographical regions in the Himalayan and subtropical zones. During 2010–2013, 909 faecal samples were collected, of which 372 were confirmed, using genetic analysis, to be of tiger origin. Fourteen prey species/groups were identified in 240 tiger faecal samples, largely dominated by goats Capra spp. (26.59%), rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta (22.22%) and cattle Bos spp. (20.63%). Considering only the wild prey species for which survey data are available, however, and frequency of occurrence of prey in faecal samples, hog deer Axis porcinus, sambar deer Rusa unicolor and spotted deer Axis axis were the most preferred prey species. Using faecal sample locations to examine the relationship between tiger presence and environmental features indicated that the niche for tigers is narrower than the available protected area: c. 62% of core protected area is suitable, of which only 17% is highly suitable for tigers. Tigers prefer dense vegetation, open forests, riverine vegetation and areas close to water sources. Faecal sample-based studies have the potential to generate data that can help us understand the ecology of elusive carnivore species inhabiting high-altitude landscapes.
Background: Iatrogenic dural tear a complication of spinal surgery with significant morbidity and cost to the healthcare system. The optimal management is unclear, and therefore we aimed to survey current practices among Canadian practitioners. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to members of the Canadian Neurological Surgeon’s Society designed to explore methods of closure of iatrogenic durotomy. Results: Spinal surgeons were surveyed with a 55% response rate (n=91). For pinhole sized tears there is a trend toward sealant fixation(36.7%). Medium and large sized tears are predominantly closed with sutures and sealant(67% and 80%, respectively). Anterior tears are managed using sealant alone(48%). Posterior tears are treated with a combination of sutures and sealant(73.8%). Nerve root tears are treated with either sealant alone(50%). Most respondents recommended bed rest for at least 24 hours in the setting of medium(73.2%) and large(89.1%) dural tears. Conclusions: This study elucidates the areas of uncertainty with regard to iatrogenic dural tear management. There is disagreement regarding management of anterior and nerve root tears, pin-hole sized tears in any location of the spine, and whether patients should be admitted to hospital or on bed-rest following a pin-hole sized dural tear. There is a need for a robust comparative research study of dural repair strategies.
Background: Surgery to remove dumbbell nerve sheath tumors (NST) is complex, and is accompanied by significant operative and perioperative challenges. Historically, resection of dumbbell NST required large operations involving opening the chest and laminectomy, often accompanied by instrumentation. We describe a case series of 5 patients who underwent single stage thorascopic-guided resection of dumbbell schwannoma at our institution. Methods: 5 cases presented consisted of moderate to large NST, which contained intraforaminal components. Tumor location ranged from T3-T9, with most tumors spanning 2-3 vertebral bodies. Presentation ranged from discomfort/pain (most common) to one presentation of neurologic deficit with difficulty with ambulation. Results: Thorascopic assisted resection accomplished gross total resection in 4 of the 5 cases. In all cases there was no significant neurologic deficit, although one patient reported transient numbness following the operation and all patients made significant improvement post operatively. The length of stay for these cases ranged from 1-6 days. Conclusions: Thorascopic assisted resection of dumbbell NST can be performed safely and with good outcomes by using the corridor the tumor produces. This approach reduces the need for instrumentation, length of stay and post operative complication rates relative to traditional approaches. To perform this approach effectively, good co-operation between the neurosurgeon and thoracic surgeon needs to be present.
Pharmacogenetic studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) primarily focussing on serotonergic and dopaminergic polymorphisms, provided inconsistent findings. There is recent evidence for glutamatergic abnormalities in OCD.
Examine the association glutamatergic genes with serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) response in OCD.
To study pharmacogenetic association between SLC1A1 and GRIN2B polymorphisms with SRI response in OCD.
DSM-IV OCD patients were recruited from a specialty OCD clinic and evaluated using the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (YBOCS), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) plus, Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI). They were subsequently reassessed with YBOCS and CGI. To study extreme phenotypes, we included only full responders (> 35% YBOCS improvement and CGI-I score of 1 or 2) to any SRI (n = 191) and non-responders (< 25% YBOCS improvement and CGI-I score ≥ 4) to adequate trial of at least two SRIs (n = 84). Partial responders were excluded. Genotyping was performed using an ABI9700 PCR machine.
Genotype frequencies did not deviate significantly from the values predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equation. Case-control association analyses revealed no significant association between genotype/allele frequencies with SRI response.
Our data does not show any association between polymorphisms in glutamatergic genes and SRI response in OCD though such associations have been found in other studies. More SNP's in the same gene could be responsible for the pharmacogenetic associations. More homogenous sample considering symptom dimensions and other phenotypic variables may be needed. It may be critical to go beyond “usual suspect” candidate gene research. In this regard, a novel approach to identify SRI response biomarkers is the use of cellular models.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Contemporary treatment guidelines recommend use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) either as mono therapy or in combination with mood stabilizers as first-line treatment. While these drugs have been established to have superior efficacy compared to placebo, there is very less data comparing these antipsychotics with one another. We sought to study differences in the five-year outcome of first episode of mania (FEM) treated with olanzapine or risperidone, either alone or in combination with mood stabilizer.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with FEM (ICD-10) in the year 2008 (n = 88) at our centre. We selected the data of patients prescribed either olanzapine or risperidone for the purpose of this analysis. We extracted data about time to recovery and recurrence after FEM, total episodes, drug compliance and response, and number of follow-up visits from 2008 to 2013. The study was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee.
A total of 88 patients received diagnosis of FEM in the year 2008, of which 50 (56.8%) received risperidone and 35 (39.8%) received olanzapine. The two groups were comparable in socio-demographic and clinical symptomatology of FEM (all P > 0.08). Complete recovery was significantly more in the olanzapine group than the risperidone group (χ2 = 4.84, P < 0.05).
Our study indicates that risperidone and olanzapine, either alone or in combination with mood stabilizers have a similar impact on the five-year course of BD following a first manic episode. However, olanzapine is associated with more complete recovery from FEM than risperidone.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To compare the image-based three-dimensional treatment planning using AcurosTM BV and AAPM TG-43 algorithm for intracavitary brachytherapy of carcinoma cervix.
Materials and methods
Twenty-seven patients with cancer cervix, stage IIB or IIIB with vaginal involvement limited to the upper third of the vagina was included into the study. Intracavitary treatments with the patient in this study done with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging compatible ring applicator. Groupe European de Curietherapie and European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology recommended doses to target volumes and organs at risk compared using dose volume histogram.
The mean value of Point ‘A’ dose was compared between AcurosTM BV and TG-43, which indicates 0·13% difference. The differences in the mean dose to gross tumour volume for various volumes are V100% 0·28%, V150% 1·22% and V200% 1·03%; all volumes showed small difference but statistical significant (p<0·05). The mean dose of high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) D90 using AcurosTM BV was 8·47 Gy, which was 1·63% less compared with TG-43. The mean point A dose using AcurosTM BV is 1·04 times the dose to D90 of mean HRCTV. The same difference was observed in comparison with TG43. D2cc and D0·1cc of the bladder, rectum and sigmoid showed a statistically significant difference (p<0·05) in comparison with TG-43.
The differences in dosimetric parameters between the AcurosTM BV and TG-43 proved to be statistically significant. The difference is very small, and they are clinically insignificant.
Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.
To assess trends in nutrient intakes and nutritional status of rural adult women (≥18–60 years) and the association of sociodemographic characteristics with overweight/obesity.
Community-based cross-sectional studies carried out during 1975–79 to 2011–12 by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) were used. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist circumference, carried out during the surveys, were used. Association and logistic regression analyses between sociodemographic characteristics and overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were conducted using a complex samples procedure.
Ten NNMB states of India.
Non-pregnant and non-lactating rural women aged ≥18–60 years covered during the above periods from ten states in India.
The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined from 52 % during 1975–79 to 34 % during 2011–12, while that of overweight/obesity has increased from 7 % to 24 % during the same period. Median intakes of most of the nutrients have increased over the same period, although they were below recommended levels. The chance of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was significantly (P<0·01) higher among women aged 40–60 years, those belonging to Christian religion and other backward communities, women living in pucca houses, literate women, women engaged in service and business, and those having higher per capita income.
Prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined significantly; however, overweight/obesity has increased during the same period. This increase in overweight/obesity may be attributed to increased consumption of fatty foods, sedentary lifestyle and improved socio-economic status. There is a need to educate the community about regular physical exercise, low intakes of fats and oils, and a balanced diet.
To evaluate the inter-fraction variation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. To assess the positional displacement of catheters during the fractions and the resultant impact on dosimetry.
Although brachytherapy continues to be a key cornerstone of cancer care, it is clear that treatment innovations are needed to build on this success and ensure that brachytherapy continues to provide quality care for patients. The dosimetric advantages offered by HDR brachytherapy to the tumour volume rely on catheter positions being accurately reproduced for all fractions of treatment.
Materials and methods
A total of 66 patients treated over a period of 22 months were considered for this study. All the patients underwent computer tomography (CT) scan and three-dimensional treatment planning was carried out. Brachytherapy treatment was delivered by the HDR afterloading system. On completing the last fraction, CT scan was repeated and treatment re-planning was done. The variation in position of the implanted applicators and their impact on dosimetric parameters were analysed using both the plans.
For all breast-implant patients, the catheter displacement and D90 dose to clinical target volume were <3 mm and 3%, respectively. The displacement for carcinoma of the tongue, carcinoma of the buccal mucosa, carcinoma of the floor of mouth, carcinoma of the cervix, soft-tissue sarcoma and carcinoma of the lip were comparatively high.
Inter-fraction errors occur frequently in interstitial HDR brachytherapy. If no action is taken, it will result in a significant risk of geometrical miss and overdose to the organs at risk. It is not recommended to use a single plan to deliver all the fractions. Imaging is recommended before each fraction and decision on re-planning must be taken.
Using a fluid theory approach, this article provides a comparative study on the evolution of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas, as well as other plasma environments, viz electron-ion, and electron-positron plasmas. Where applicable, relevance to satellite measurements is pointed out. A range of nonlinear waves from low frequency (ion acoustic and ion cyclotron waves), high frequency (electron acoustic and electron cyclotron waves) in electron-ion plasmas, ultra-low frequency (dust acoustic and dust cyclotron waves) in dusty plasmas and in electron-positron plasmas are discussed. Depending upon the plasma parameters, saw-tooth and bipolar structures are shown to evolve.
Crop biofortification is increasingly being recognized as a cost-effective and sustainable approach to address the widespread micronutrient malnutrition arising from Fe and Zn deficiencies. Pearl millet as a cereal crop species has higher Fe density than all other major cereals. Earlier studies in pearl millet have shown that breeding lines, hybrid parents, improved populations and composites having high Fe and Zn densities were often based largely or entirely on iniadi pearl millet germplasm. In an attempt to identify additional sources of high Fe density in this group of germplasm, 297 accessions were screened using Perl's Prussian Blue staining, of which 191 accessions (118 from Togo, 62 from Ghana and 11 from Burkina Faso) were re-evaluated during the 2010 rainy and 2012 summer seasons using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy method. On the basis of the mean performance over the two seasons (environments), large variability was observed for both Fe (51–121 mg/kg) and Zn (46–87 mg/kg) densities. There was a highly significant and positive correlation between the two micronutrients (r= 0.77, P< 0.01). Of these re-evaluated accessions, 49% had higher Fe density than the high-Fe control commercial cultivar ICTP 8203 (81 mg/kg), and most of these accessions also had Zn density ≥ 61 mg/kg (59 mg/kg for ICTP 8203). A total of 27 accessions (20 from Togo and seven from Ghana) having a Fe density of 95–121 mg/kg (1 standard error of difference above that for ICTP 8203) and a Zn density of 59–87 mg/kg were selected as a valuable germplasm resource for genetic improvement of these two micronutrients in pearl millet.
In view of the mandate from the World Health Organization (WHO) for developing novel drug candidates against human lymphatic filariasis, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors are explored as potential antifilarial agents. The in vitro biological evaluation of an in-house library of 12 diverse antifolate compounds with 2,4-diaminopyrimidine and 2,4-diamino-s-triazine structural features against Brugia malayi is reported. To confirm the DHFR inhibitory potential of these compounds, reversal studies using folic acid and folinic acid were undertaken. Inhibition of DHFR can induce apoptosis; in this light, preliminary evidence of apoptosis by test compounds was detected using ethidium bromide–acridine orange staining and the poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition assay. Among the evaluated compounds, 3 showed significant activity against both microfilariae and adult worms. The effects of 2 of these compounds were mostly reversed by folic acid, validating DHFR inhibitory activity. Partial reversal of the effect of 2 compounds by folinic acid and non-reversal of the effect of the third compound both by folic and folinic acids are discussed. This study opens new avenues for the discovery of lead molecules by exploiting the folate pathway against one of the major neglected tropical diseases, filariasis.
Long-term tillage and fertilizer experiments were conducted in rice in kharif followed by lentil in dry subhumid Inceptisols at Varanasi and Faizabad; horse gram at Phulbani and linseed at Ranchi in moist subhumid Alfisols in rabi during 2001 to 2010. The study was conducted to assess the effect of conventional tillage (CT), low tillage + interculture (LT1) and low tillage + herbicide (LT2) together with 100% N (organic) (F1), 50% N (organic) + 50% N (inorganic) (F2) and 100% N (inorganic) (F3) on productivity, profitability, rainwater and energy use efficiencies. The results at Varanasi revealed that CT was superior with mean yield of 2389 kg ha−1, while F1 was superior with 2378 kg ha−1 in rice. At Faizabad, CT was superior with mean rice yield of 1851 kg ha−1 and lentil yield of 977 kg ha−1, while F1 was superior with 1704 and 993 kg ha−1 of rice and lentil, respectively. At Phulbani, F2 was superior with rice yield of 1170 kg ha−1. At Ranchi, F2 with rice yield of 986 kg ha−1 and F3 with linseed yield of 224 kg ha−1 were superior. The regression model of crop seasonal rainfall and yield deviations indicated an increasing trend in rice yield over mean (positive deviation) with increase in rainfall at all locations; while a decreasing trend (negative deviation) was found for lentil at Faizabad, horse gram at Phulbani and linseed at Ranchi. Based on economic analysis, CTF1 at Varanasi and Faizabad, CTF2 at Phulbani and LT2F2 at Ranchi were superior.
A retrospective case–case control study was conducted, including 60 cases with daptomycin-nonsusceptible vancomycin-resistant enterococci (DNS-VRE) matched to cases with daptomycin-susceptible VRE and to uninfected controls (1:1:3 ratio). Immunosuppression, presence of comorbid conditions, and prior exposure to antimicrobials were independent predictors of DNS-VRE, although prior daptomycin exposure occurred rarely. In summary, a case–case control study identified independent risk factors for the isolation of DNS-VRE: immunosuppression, multiple comorbid conditions, and prior exposures to cephalosporines and metronidazole.
Synthesis of FeC2O42H2O nano particles was carried out by thermal double decomposition of solutions of oxalic acid dihydrate (C2H2O4 2H2O) and FeSO4 7H2O employing CATA -2R microwave reactor. Structural elucidation was carried out by employing X-ray diffraction, particle size and shape were studied by transmission electron microscopy and nature of bonding was investigated by Optical absorption and near-infrared spectral studies. The powder resulting from this method is possesses distorted rhombic octahedral structure. The particle grain size is about 50 nm. Details of optical transitions are mentioned in terms of energy states.