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Aerobic exercise training has been shown to attenuate cognitive decline and reduce brain atrophy with advancing age. The extent to which resistance exercise training improves cognition and prevents brain atrophy is less known, and few studies include long-term follow-up cognitive and neuroimaging assessments. We report data from a randomized controlled trial of 155 older women, who engaged in 52 weeks of resistance training (either once- or twice-weekly) or balance-and-toning (twice-weekly). Executive functioning and memory were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up (i.e., immediately post-intervention), and 2-year follow-up. A subset underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at those time points. At 2-year follow-up, both frequencies of resistance training promoted executive function compared to balance-and-toning (standardized difference [d]=.31–.48). Additionally, twice-weekly resistance training promoted memory (d=.45), reduced cortical white matter atrophy (d=.45), and increased peak muscle power (d=.27) at 2-year follow-up relative to balance-and-toning. These effects were independent of one another. These findings suggest resistance training may have a long-term impact on cognition and white matter volume in older women. (JINS, 2015, 21, 745–756)
To assess trends in nutrient intakes and nutritional status of rural adult women (≥18–60 years) and the association of sociodemographic characteristics with overweight/obesity.
Community-based cross-sectional studies carried out during 1975–79 to 2011–12 by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) were used. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist circumference, carried out during the surveys, were used. Association and logistic regression analyses between sociodemographic characteristics and overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were conducted using a complex samples procedure.
Ten NNMB states of India.
Non-pregnant and non-lactating rural women aged ≥18–60 years covered during the above periods from ten states in India.
The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined from 52 % during 1975–79 to 34 % during 2011–12, while that of overweight/obesity has increased from 7 % to 24 % during the same period. Median intakes of most of the nutrients have increased over the same period, although they were below recommended levels. The chance of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was significantly (P<0·01) higher among women aged 40–60 years, those belonging to Christian religion and other backward communities, women living in pucca houses, literate women, women engaged in service and business, and those having higher per capita income.
Prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined significantly; however, overweight/obesity has increased during the same period. This increase in overweight/obesity may be attributed to increased consumption of fatty foods, sedentary lifestyle and improved socio-economic status. There is a need to educate the community about regular physical exercise, low intakes of fats and oils, and a balanced diet.
Investigation of optical absorption in ∼25μm thick, monocrystalline silicon (Si) substrates obtained from a novel exfoliation technique is done by fabricating solar cells with single heterojunction architecture (without using intrinsic amorphous silicon layer) with diffused back junction and local back contact. The ease of process flow and the rugged and flexible nature of the substrates due to thick metal backing enables use of various light-trapping and optical absorption enhancement schemes traditionally practiced in the industry for thicker (>120μm) substrates. Optical measurement of solar cells using antireflective coating, texturing on both surfaces, and back surface dielectric/metal stack as mirror to reflect the long wavelength light from the back surface show a very low front surface reflectance of 4.6% in the broadband spectrum (300nm-1200nm). The illuminated current voltage (IV) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement of such solar cell shows a high integrated current density of 34.4mA/cm2, which implies significant internal photon reflection. Our best cell with intrinsic amorphous silicon (i-a-Si) layer with only rear surface textured shows an efficiency of 14.9%. EQE data shows improved blue response and current density due to better front surface passivation. Simulations suggest that with optimized light trapping and surface passivation, such thin c-Si cells can reach efficiencies >20%.
Pigeonpea is an important legume crop of the semi-arid tropics. In India, pigeonpea is mostly grown in areas prone to waterlogging, resulting in major production losses. It is imperative to identify genotypes that show tolerance at critical crop growth stages to prevent these losses. A selection of 272 diverse pigeonpea accessions was evaluated for seed submergence tolerance for different durations (0, 120, 144, 168 and 192 h) under in vitro conditions in the laboratory. All genotypes exhibited high (0·79–0·98) survival rates for up to 120 h of submergence. After 192 h of submergence, the hybrids as a group exhibited significantly higher survival rates (0·79) than the germplasm (0·71), elite breeding lines (0·68) and commercial varieties (0·58). Ninety-six genotypes representing the phenotypic variation observed during laboratory screening were further evaluated for waterlogging tolerance at the early seedling stage using pots, and survival rates were recorded for 8 days after completion of the stress treatment. Forty-nine of these 96 genotypes, representing the phenotypic variation for waterlogging tolerance, were chosen in order to evaluate their performance under natural field conditions. The following cultivated varieties and hybrids were identified as tolerant after three levels of testing (in vitro, in pots and in the field): ICPH 2431, ICPH 2740, ICPH 2671, ICPH 4187, MAL 9, LRG 30, Maruti, ICPL 20128, ICPL 332, ICPL 20237, ICPL 20238, Asha and MAL 15. These materials can be used as sources of waterlogging tolerance in breeding programmes.
The cultivar Ajaya (IET 8585) exhibits durable broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial blight (BB) disease of rice and is widely used as a resistance donor. The present study was carried out to decipher the genetics of BB resistance in Ajaya and map the gene(s) conferring resistance. Genetic analysis in the F2 indicated a quantitative/additive nature of resistance governed by two loci with equal effects. Linked marker analysis and allelic tests revealed that one of the resistance genes is xa5. Sequence analysis of a 244 bp region of the second exon of the gene-encoding Transcription factor IIAγ (the candidate gene for xa5) confirmed the presence of xa5. Bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) revealed the putative location of the two quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes associated with resistance on chromosomes 5 and 8. Composite interval mapping located the first locus on Chr. 5S exactly in the genomic region spanned by xa5 and the second locus (qtl BBR 8.1) on Chr. 8L. Owing to its differential disease reaction with a set of seven hyper-virulent isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae, a map location on Chr. 8L, which was distinct from xa13 and data from allelism tests, the second resistance locus in Ajaya was determined to be novel and was designated as xaAj. A contig map spanning xaAj was constructed in silico and the genomic region was delimited to a 13·5 kb physical interval. In silico analysis of the genomic region spanning xaAj identified four putatively expressed candidate genes, one of which could be involved in imparting BB resistance in Ajaya along with xa5.
Knowledge of the genetic diversity of germplasm of breeding material is invaluable in crop improvement programmes. Frequently, qualitative and quantitative data are used separately to assess genetic diversity of crop genotypes. While assessing diversity based on qualitative and quantitative traits separately, there may occur a problem when the degree of correspondence between the clusters formed does not agree with each other. This study compares five different procedures of clustering based on the criterion of weighted average of observed proportion of misclassification in black gram genotypes using qualitative, quantitative traits and mixture data. The INDOMIX- and PRINQUAL-based clustering procedures, i.e. INDOMIX and PRINQUAL methods in conjunction with the k-means clustering procedure, show better performance compared with other clustering procedures, followed by clustering based on either quantitative or qualitative data alone. The use of the INDOMIX- and PRINQUAL-based procedures can help breeders in capturing the variation present in both qualitative and quantitative trait data simultaneously and solving the problem of ambiguity over the degree of correspondence between clustering based on either qualitative or quantitative traits alone.
Lithium ion conducting argyrodite-type Li6PS5X (X = Cl, Br, I) compounds were prepared using mechanical milling followed by annealing. XRD characterization reveals the formation and growth of Li6PS5X crystals in samples under varying annealing conditions. Temperature dependent XRD data showed the monotonic increase of lattice constant within the range of study. For Li6PS5Cl and Li6PS5Br an ionic conductivity of the order of 10-3 S/cm is reached at room temperature, which is close to the Li mobility in conventional liquid electrolytes and well suitable for all-solid-state safe electrochemical energy storage devices. Bond valence analysis of Li ion migration paths for the argyrodites showed the formation of low energy pathway cages around halide ion for Li6PS5Cl, around the sulfide ion for Li6PS5I. For higher activation energies these cages are interconnected to form a 3-D pathway network. In the case of Li6PS5Br cages around Cl and Br require about the same activation energy.
Dengue is an emerging arboviral disease and currently poses the greatest arboviral threat to human health. In recent decades, there has been a substantial increase in dengue outbreaks in many parts of the world including India. We performed an in-depth investigation of a major dengue outbreak in Andhra Pradesh, southern India in 2007 by serology, virus isolation, RT–PCR and genotyping. The results revealed an unusual emergence of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) along with the prevailing DENV-3. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete envelope gene of 182 globally diverse DENV-4 isolates demonstrated the involvement of a unique clade of genotype I of DENV-4 in the outbreak. This study also demonstrated a clear shift in the dominant serotype from DENV-3 to DENV-4 in India. This is the first report regarding the molecular characterization of Indian isolates of DENV-4, which has the potential to be involved in future outbreaks.
Leucaena leucocephala is cultivated at close spacings that do not permit intercropping. This has been a discouraging factor for small landholders who need regular income to establish leucaena plantations and benefit from the rapidly expanding market for wood. Therefore, on-farm experiments were conducted near Bhadrachalam, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, from August 2001 to January 2006, to study the effect of reducing tree density and modifying tree geometry on the growth of leucaena and productivity of intercrops. The inter-row spacing of 1.3 m in farmers' practice was increased up to 13 m to examine whether wide-row planting and grouping of certain rows would facilitate extended intercropping without sacrificing wood yield. Tree density treatments tried were 1.3 × 1.3 m, 3 × 0.75 m, 3 × 1 m, 5 × 0.8 m and 3 × 2 m which gives densities of 5919, 4444, 3333, 2500 and 1666 trees ha−1, respectively. Tree geometry treatments tested were 7 × 1 m paired row spacing (7 × 1 PR), 10 × 1 m triple row spacing (10 × 1 TR), and 13 × 1 m four rows (13 × 1 FR) with a constant tree population of 2500 trees ha−1. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was the intercrop. While changes in tree density affected diameter at breast height (DBH) significantly, modification of tree geometry did not affect tree height and DBH. Marketable wood and dry biomass productivity was highest with 3 × 0.75 m spacing, and reducing tree density and alteration of tree geometry reduced the biomass considerably. In 2001, 2002 and 2003 seasons, respectively, tree spacing at 3 m produced mean yields of 97, 23 and 11% of the sole crop cowpea yield whereas modified tree geometry treatments produced mean yields of 97, 61 and 20% of sole crop yield. The widest spacing (13 × 1 FR) recorded 95, 73 and 30% of the sole crop yields during 2001, 2002 and 2003, respectively. Net returns from intercropping of leucaena in 3 × 0.75 m spacing was 36% higher than that of the farmers' practice. Although wider tree geometry treatments recorded lower net returns, they provided higher intercrop yields and returns in the first two years of plantation establishment. Therefore, it can be concluded that in regions where annual rainfall is around 1000 mm, leucaena can be planted at a spacing of 3 × 0.75 m for improving intercrop performance, higher tree productivity and returns.
Lithium borophosphate glasses 0.45Li2O-(0.55-x)P2O5-xB2O3 (where 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.40) were investigated focusing on the influence of cation mobility changes due to mixed glass former effect. It was found that glass transition temperature (Tg) increases and molar volume decreases with B2O3 addition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed that besides P-O-P, B-O-B and P=O, P-O-, B-O- bond peaks, an intermediate O1s peak due to P-O-B bonds emerges in glasses with B2O3 contents x ≥ 0.15. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for the same systems have been performed with an optimized potential, fitted to match bond lengths, coordination numbers and ionic conductivity (σdc). Structural effects on ion transport as the origin of the mixed glass former effect can be quantified by applying the bond valence analysis (BV) approach to the equilibrated MD trajectories.
Search for novel multi-functional materials, especially multiferroics, which are ferromagnetic above room temperature and at the same time exhibit a ferroelectric behavior much above room temperature, is an active topic of extensive studies today. Ability to address an entity with an external field, laser beam, and also electric potential is a welcome challenge to develop multifunctional devices enabled by nanoscience. While most of the studies to date have been on various forms of Bi- and Ba based Ferrites, rare earth chromites are a new class of materials which appear to show some promise. However in the powder and bulk form these materials are at best canted antiferromagnetics with the magnetic transition temperatures much below room temperature. In this presentation we show that thin films of YbCrO3 deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition exhibit robust ferromagnetic properties above room temperature. It is indeed a welcome surprise and a challenge to understand the evolution of above room temperature ferromagnetism in such a thin film. The thin films are amorphous in contrast to the powder and bulk forms which are crystalline. The magnetic properties are those of a soft magnet with low coercivity. We present extensive investigations of the magnetic and ferroelectric properties, and spectroscopic studies using XAS techniques to understand the electronic states of the constituent atoms in this novel Chromite. While the amorphous films are ferromagnetic much above room temperature, we show that any observation of ferroelectric property in these films is an artifact of a leaky highly resistive material.