This preliminary investigation evaluates the influence of ion implantation on tissue adhesion by measuring the tendency of fibroblasts to attach to the surface of ion implanted Ti. For this work, polished specimens of commercially pure Ti were implanted with ions of Ti, Ca, C, or N to produce a surface concentration of the implanted element up to about 25 at. %. Unimplanted and ASTM treated Ti, and tissue culture plate specimens were prepared as controls. Specimens were sterilized, then exposed for 15 min. to a culture medium containing about 100,000 fibroblasts. The solution and loose fibroblasts were rinsed away and the fibroblasts counted to determine those left attached. The influence of the different implantation protocols on fibroblast adhesion to Ti will be described. Analysis of the structure and composition of the ion implanted surfaces was obtained by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic backscattering spectrometry of energetic He ions.