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In response to perceived, but unknown variation among the size selection of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) by artisanal gillnetters off Iran, and the need for such data to control exploitation as a precursor to balanced harvesting, the effects of two common mesh sizes (130 and 140 mm stretched mesh opening made from multifilament twine) on catches were investigated over one fishing year (nine months encompassing autumn to spring). Both mesh sizes mostly caught S. commerson at fork lengths (FL) larger than mean sizes at maturity (>67 cm), with the mean size selection incrementally increasing in the 130-mm mesh gillnet from autumn, and especially during spring. The greater selection occurred concurrent with an increasing condition factor (CF) among S. commerson, which typically spawn in late spring/early summer. Conversely, the relative size-selection of the 140-mm mesh gillnet decreased in spring, attributed to increasing CF precluding the capture of larger fish. Such seasonal variation in size selection might be countered by increasing mesh size to ~145 or 150 mm in spring. However, the existing 140-mm mesh might positively affect stock biomass by allowing larger, more fecund fish to avoid capture during spawning. The data support the strong influence of biological and environmental factors on gillnet size selection, which might also extend to other migratory, pelagic species.
With human influences driving populations of apex predators into decline, more information is required on how factors affect species at national and global scales. However, camera-trap studies are seldom executed at a broad spatial scale. We demonstrate how uniting fine-scale studies and utilizing camera-trap data of non-target species is an effective approach for broadscale assessments through a case study of the brown hyaena Parahyaena brunnea. We collated camera-trap data from 25 protected and unprotected sites across South Africa into the largest detection/non-detection dataset collected on the brown hyaena, and investigated the influence of biological and anthropogenic factors on brown hyaena occupancy. Spatial autocorrelation had a significant effect on the data, and was corrected using a Bayesian Gibbs sampler. We show that brown hyaena occupancy is driven by specific co-occurring apex predator species and human disturbance. The relative abundance of spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta and people on foot had a negative effect on brown hyaena occupancy, whereas the relative abundance of leopards Panthera pardus and vehicles had a positive influence. We estimated that brown hyaenas occur across 66% of the surveyed camera-trap station sites. Occupancy varied geographically, with lower estimates in eastern and southern South Africa. Our findings suggest that brown hyaena conservation is dependent upon a multi-species approach focussed on implementing conservation policies that better facilitate coexistence between people and hyaenas. We also validate the conservation value of pooling fine-scale datasets and utilizing bycatch data to examine species trends at broad spatial scales.
Clinical trial participation among US Hispanics remains low, despite a significant effort by research institutions nationwide. ResearchMatch, a national online platform, has matched 113,372 individuals interested in participating in research with studies conducted by 8778 researchers. To increase accessibility to Spanish speakers, we translated the ResearchMatch platform into Spanish by implementing tenets of health literacy and respecting linguistic and cultural diversity across the US Hispanic population. We describe this multiphase process, preliminary results, and lessons learned.
Translation of the ResearchMatch site consisted of several activities including: (1) improving the English language site’s reading level, removing jargon, and using plain language; (2) obtaining a professional Spanish translation of the site and incorporating iterative revisions by a panel of bilingual community members from diverse Hispanic backgrounds; (3) technical development and launch; and (4) initial promotion.
The Spanish language version was launched in August 2018, after 11 months of development. Community input improved the initial translation, and early registration and use by researchers demonstrate the utility of Spanish ResearchMatch in engaging Hispanics. Over 12,500 volunteers in ResearchMatch self-identify as Hispanic (8.5%). From August 2018 to March 2020, 162 volunteers registered through the Spanish language version of ResearchMatch, and over 500 new and existing volunteers have registered a preference to receive messages about studies in Spanish.
By applying the principles of health literacy and cultural competence, we developed a Spanish language translation of ResearchMatch. Our multiphase approach to translation included key principles of community engagement that should prove informative to other multilingual web-based platforms.
In traumatically injured patients, excessive blood loss necessitating the transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) units is common. Indicators of early RBC transfusion in the pre-hospital setting are needed. This study aims to evaluate the association between hypothermia (<36°C) and transfusion risk within the first 24 hours after arrival to hospital for a traumatic injury.
We completed an audit of all traumatically injured patients who had emergent surgery at a single tertiary care center between 2010 and 2014. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we evaluated the association between pre-hospital hypothermia and transfusion of ≥1 unit of RBC within 24 hours of arrival to the trauma bay.
Of the 703 patients included to evaluate the association between hypothermia and RBC transfusion, 203 patients (29%) required a transfusion within 24 hours. After controlling for important confounding variables, including age, sex, coagulopathy (platelets and INR), hemoglobin, and vital signs (blood pressure and heart rate), hypothermia was associated with a 68% increased odds of transfusion in multivariable analysis (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.11-2.56).
Hypothermia is strongly associated with RBC transfusion in a cohort of trauma patients requiring emergent surgery. This finding highlights the importance of early measures of temperature after traumatic injury and the need for intervention trials to determine if strategies to mitigate the risk of hypothermia will decrease the risk of transfusion and other morbidities.
This article considers whether candidates strategically use emotional rhetoric in social media messages similar to the way that fear appeals are used strategically in televised campaign advertisements. We use a dataset of tweets issued by the campaign accounts of candidates for the US House of Representatives during the last two months of the 2018 midterm elections to determine whether candidate vulnerability predicts the presence of certain emotions in social media messages. Contrary to theoretical expectations, we find that vulnerability does not appear to inspire candidates to use more anxious language in their tweets. However, we do find evidence of a surprising relationship between sad rhetoric and vulnerability and that campaign context influences the use of other forms of negative rhetoric in tweets.
In this chapter, we review the literature on leadership and emotion. Progress in understanding the junction of these two ideas has been steady but slow. To address this concern, at the conclusion of this chapter, we briefly discuss two theoretical obstacles that, in our view, have slowed progress. However, we begin with the larger substance of our chapter, which focuses on leaders’ affect at three levels of analysis – the overall climate, the work team, and, finally, the leader himself or herself. We show that leader emotion can be important at all three levels of analysis. At the highest level of analysis, leaders create emotional climate through personnel practices, by rewarding (or punishing) culturally appropriate emotion displays, and by their treatment of individual employees. Moving to teams and dyads, we will see that emotions can influence followers through contagion or emotional correspondence. Finally, looking within the leader, our review underscores how emotional intelligence is crucial for effective leadership.
With the growing number of adults requiring operations for CHD, prolonged length of stay adds an additional burden on healthcare systems, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to identify factors associated with prolonged length of stay in adult patients undergoing operations for CHD.
This retrospective study included all adult patients (≥18 years) who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass for their CHD from 2011 to 2016 at a tertiary-care private hospital in Pakistan. Prolonged length of stay was defined as hospital stay >75th percentile of the overall cohort (>8 days).
This study included 166 patients (53.6% males) with a mean age of 32.05 ± 12.11 years. Comorbid disease was present in 59.0% of patients. Most patients underwent atrial septal defect repair (42.2%). A total of 38 (22.9%) patients had a prolonged length of stay. Post-operative complications occurred in 38.6% of patients. Multivariable analysis showed that pre-operative body mass index (odds ratio: 0.779; 95% confidence interval: 0.620–0.980), intraoperative aortic cross-clamp time (odds ratio: 1.035; 95% confidence interval: 1.009–1.062), and post-operative acute kidney injury (odds ratio: 7.392; 95% confidence interval: 1.036–52.755) were associated with prolonged length of stay.
Predictors of prolonged length of stay include lower body mass index, longer aortic cross-clamp time, and development of post-operative acute kidney injury. Shorter operations, improved pre-operative nutritional optimisation, and timely management of post-operative complications could help prevent prolonged length of stay in patients undergoing operations for adult CHD.
The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) is a screening test of global cognitive function used in research and clinical settings. However, the CASI was developed using face validity and has not been investigated via empirical tests such as factor analyses. Thus, we aimed to develop and test a parsimonious conceptualization of the CASI rooted in cognitive aging literature reflective of crystallized and fluid abilities.
Secondary data analysis implementing confirmatory factor analyses where we tested the proposed two-factor solution, an alternate one-factor solution, and conducted a χ2 difference test to determine which model had a significantly better fit.
Data came from 3,491 men from the Kuakini Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument.
Findings demonstrated that both models fit the data; however, the two-factor model had a significantly better fit than the one-factor model. Criterion validity tests indicated that participant age was negatively associated with both factors and that education was positively associated with both factors. Further tests demonstrated that fluid abilities were significantly and negatively associated with a later-life dementia diagnosis.
We encourage investigators to use the two-factor model of the CASI as it could shed light on underlying cognitive processes, which may be more informative than using a global measure of cognition.
The incidence of mental health problems in people with intellectual disability (ID) varies but is higher than the general population. Often individuals with ID and comorbid mental health issues are admitted to General Adult Psychiatric beds highlighting difficulties with communication, the deficit in skills and lack of confidence of mainstream staff. This lead to the development of the Mental Health Outreach Service in 2008 as a pilot to address the needs of the increasing number of adults with intellectual disability and mental health problems being admitted to mainstream psychiatric wards within Lothian.
Present evidence of an Outreach Service for individuals with ID and mental health issues, the functioning of the team and the impact on preventing admissions.
To describe the functioning of the MHIST Team and present the demographic profile of the clients on the caseload.
Data was reviewed from the referral and discharge information for the MHIST Team over the period of 2011-2013.
During the review period the MHIST Team had an average caseload of 51 patients per year, mixed between community and hospital. The length of involvement ranged from 3 days to 1379 days depending on the reason for referral, diagnosis and time for transfer to specialist ID bed.
It is beneficial to have a dedicated Outreach Team within an ID Service to reduce or prevent admissions through intensive support and in certain cases support hospital admissions into General Psychiatry by aiding communication, skills and education and support of the mainstream nurses.
It was once thought that the endemic carnivorous mammals of South America, the metatherian sparassodonts, were driven extinct by North American carnivorans through competitive exclusion. However, sparassodonts went extinct before most groups of carnivorans entered South America; only the endemic Cyonasua-group procyonids (Cyonasua and Chapalmalania), which immigrated to South America nearly 4 million years earlier than other carnivorans, significantly overlapped with sparassodonts in time. In this study, we examine the functional morphology of the dentition of Cyonasua and Chapalmalania through quantitative analysis to determine the dietary habits of these taxa and the degree to which they may have ecologically overlapped sparassodonts and large predatory Neogene didelphimorphians. We find Cyonasua and Chapalmalania to be more carnivorous than extant procyonids, other than Bassariscus, in agreement with previous studies, but more omnivorous than most other carnivorans and all meat-eating South American metatherians, including sparassodonts. The extreme ecological dissimilarity between Cyonasua-group procyonids and members of the endemic South American predator guild may explain why procyonids were able to successfully establish themselves in South America several million years earlier than most other northern mammals (including all other carnivorans): they moved into a previously unoccupied ecological niche (large omnivore) and avoided direct competition with incumbent native species, a situation similar to that documented in historical cases of biological invasion. The omnivorous diets and climbing/swimming abilities of procyonids may have increased their chances for a successful over-water dispersal relative to other carnivorans, further favoring their successful establishment in South America.
The sunspot cycle is quite variable in duration and amplitude, yet in the long term, it seems to return to solar minimum on schedule, as if guided by a clock with an average period of close to 11.05 years for the sunspot number cycle and 22.1 years for the magnetic cycle. This paper provides a brief review of the sunspot number cycle since 1750, discusses some of the processes controlling the solar dynamo, and provides clues that may add to our understanding of what controls the cadence of the solar clock.
To determine the best nursing home facility characteristics for aggregating antibiotic susceptibility testing results across nursing homes to produce a useful annual antibiogram that nursing homes can use in their antimicrobial stewardship programs.
Derivation cohort study.
Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) certified skilled nursing facilities in Georgia (N = 231).
All residents of eligible facilities submitting urine culture specimens for microbiologic testing at a regional referral laboratory.
Crude and adjusted metrics of antibiotic resistance prevalence (percent of isolates testing susceptible) for 5 bacterial species commonly recovered from urine specimens were calculated using mixed linear models to determine which facility characteristics were predictive of testing antibiotic susceptibility.
In a single year, most facilities had an insufficient number of isolates tested to create facility-specific antibiograms: 49% of facilities had sufficient Escherichia coli isolates tested, but only about 1 in 10 had sufficient isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After accounting for antibiotic tested and age of the patient, facility characteristics predictive of susceptibility were: E. coli, region, year, average length of stay; K. pneumoniae, region, bed size; P. mirabilis, region; and for E. faecalis or P. aerginosa no facility parameter remained in the model.
Nursing homes often have insufficient data to create facility-specific antibiograms; aggregating data across nursing homes in a region is a statistically sound approach to overcoming data shortages in nursing home stewardship programs.
Introduction: Capitalizing on the success of Simulation-Based Education (SBE) in residency-training programs, simulation has been gradually integrated into Continued Professional Development (CPD) programs for Emergency Physicians (EPs) in Canada. This study sought to characterize how Canadian academic emergency medicine (EM) departments have implemented SBE for CPD. Methods: We conducted two national surveys: 1) the National Faculty Simulation Status Assessment Survey, administered by telephone to the simulation directors (or equivalent) at 20 Canadian academic EM sites and 2) the Faculty Simulation Needs Assessment Survey administered online to all full-time EPs across 9 Canadian academic EM sites. Results: The response rates for the National Status and Needs Assessment Surveys were 100% (20/20), and 40% (252/635), respectively. The majority (60%) of Canadian academic EM sites reported utilizing SBE for CPD, though only 30% reported dedicated funding support. EPs reported participating in a median of 3 hours per year of SBE (IQR 1-6 hours). Reported incentivization offered in the form of continued medical education credits varied between simulation directors (67%) and EPs (44%). Simulation directors identified several significant barriers to SBE including a lack of faculty time, fear of peer judgment, and faculty inexperience. In contrast, EP-identified barriers included time commitments outside of shift, lack of opportunities, and lack of departmental. The three most common topics of interest for SBE by EPs were performance of rare procedures, pediatric resuscitation, and neonatal resuscitation. Interprofessional involvement in SBE CPD was valued by both simulation directors and EPs, with most EPs (79%) indicating it is useful. Conclusion: Most Canadian EPs and simulation directors recognize the value of SBE for CPD, yet it is only utilized, infrequently, by 67% of Canadian academic EM departments for this purpose. This may be explained, in part, by poor incentivization for participation. Simulation directors and EPs noted different barriers to SBE implementation for CPD suggesting the need for dialogue to improve utilization. As SBE for CPD is incorporated more frequently, and at more sites, content should be guided by local needs assessments with an emphasis on interprofessional participation.
To describe the epidemiology of surgical site infections (SSIs) after pediatric ambulatory surgery.
Observational cohort study with 60 days follow-up after surgery.
The study took place in 3 ambulatory surgical facilities (ASFs) and 1 hospital-based facility in a single pediatric healthcare network.
Children <18 years undergoing ambulatory surgery were included in the study. Of 19,777 eligible surgical encounters, 8,502 patients were enrolled.
Data were collected through parental interviews and from chart reviews. We assessed 2 outcomes: (1) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN)–defined SSI and (2) evidence of possible infection using a definition developed for this study.
We identified 21 NSHN SSIs for a rate of 2.5 SSIs per 1,000 surgical encounters: 2.9 per 1,000 at the hospital-based facility and 1.6 per 1,000 at the ASFs. After restricting the search to procedures completed at both facilities and adjustment for patient demographics, there was no difference in the risk of NHSN SSI between the 2 types of facilities (odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–2.3). Within 60 days after surgery, 404 surgical patients had some or strong evidence of possible infection obtained from parental interview and/or chart review (rate, 48 SSIs per 1,000 surgical encounters). Of 306 cases identified through parental interviews, 176 cases (57%) did not have chart documentation. In our multivariable analysis, older age and black race were associated with a reduced risk of possible infection.
The rate of NHSN-defined SSI after pediatric ambulatory surgery was low, although a substantial additional burden of infectious morbidity related to surgery might not have been captured by standard surveillance strategies and definitions.
In Cameroon, there is a national programme engaged in the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. In certain locations, the programme is transitioning from morbidity control towards local interruption of parasite transmission. The volcanic crater lake villages of Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto are well-known transmission foci and are excellent context-specific locations to assess appropriate disease control interventions. Most recently they have served as exemplars of expanded access to deworming medications and increased environmental surveillance. In this paper, we review infection dynamics through time, beginning with data from 1953, and comment on the short- and long-term success of disease control. We show how intensification of local control is needed to push towards elimination and that further environmental surveillance, with targeted snail control, is needed to consolidate gains in preventive chemotherapy as well as empower local communities to take ownership of interventions.
The current emphasis of schistosomiasis control is placed on preventive chemotherapy using praziquantel. However, reinfection may occur rapidly in the absence of complementary interventions. Recent studies from Senegal suggest that predatory prawns might feed on intermediate host snails and thus impact on schistosomiasis transmission. We designed a study with four repeated cross-sectional surveys pertaining to prawns and snails, coupled with a single cross-sectional parasitological survey among humans. We assessed for potential associations between the presence/density of prawns and snails and correlation with Schistosoma infection in a composite sample of school-aged children and adults. The study was carried out between October 2015 and December 2016 in 24 villages located near the Agnéby and Mé coastal river systems in south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire. At each site, snails and prawns were collected, and in each village, 150 individuals were subjected to stool and urine examination for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. We found peaks of relative abundance of intermediate host snails in the villages of the Agnéby River system, while predatory prawns were predominantly recorded in the Mé River system. A negative association was observed between intermediate host snail densities and riverine prawns; however, no pattern was found between this trend in the predator–prey relationship and the prevalence of human schistosomiasis.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
Numerous studies have characterized the pain reported by patients with advanced illness in terms of descriptors such as severity, but few have measured pain-related distress. Distress may be important in the clinical approach to pain. To evaluate pain-related distress among adult patients with advanced illness and pain following enrollment in an urban, specialist-level, community-based palliative care program.
In a retrospective cross-sectional analysis, data were extracted from the electronic health records of all patients who were able to complete the pain item from the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale at the start of care. Bivariate and multivariate analyses evaluated the associations between distress and both sociodemographics and disease-related information.
The 506 patients completing the pain item had a mean (SD) age of 70.7 years (13.8); 64.2% were women, 32.1% were Hispanic, 32.6% were white, and 27.7% were black. Of the 503 patients who indicated some level of distress on a 0–4 scale, 221 (43.7%) had high distress, defined as a score ≥3 (“quite a bit” or “very much”). Cancer diagnosis and poor performance status (unable to care for self) were predictors of high pain-related distress (both p < 0.05).
Significance of results
Among patients with advanced illness who reported pain at the start of care by a specialist palliative care program, high pain-related distress was common, particularly among those with cancer or poor physical function. Further studies are needed to explore the extent to which pain-related distress should inform the assessment and management of pain.