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The current study describes the results obtained from clinical examination of over 4700 suckling piglets from 19 individual herds in Germany. In this cohort the prevalence of inflammation and necrosis in the tails, ears, claw coronary bands, heels and teats was determined using a pre-defined scoring system. Results show that already in the 1st days of life, piglets were affected by inflammation and necrosis of the heels (80%), claw coronary bands (50%) and tail base (20%). The praevalences of these alterations in piglets were influenced by genetics (P <0.001) and age, decreasing gradually in the 2nd week of life (P <0.001). Moreover, a correlation between tail length after tail docking and the prevalence of tail necrosis (P⩽0.04) was found. Tail and ear biting as a behavioural trait was not detected during this study. The early onset, appearance and multiple locations of clinical signs of inflammation and the positive correlation with the genetic background of the piglets may suggest an impairment of the innate immune system by infectious and non-infectious agents. This is in contrast to previously described behavioural abnormalities seen in fattening pigs. Considering the obvious reduction of animal welfare due to the described lesions, there is a need to create awareness among pig farmers and to understand the multifactorial causality involved in this inflammation and necrosis syndrome in piglets.
The chemical enrichment of the Universe is considerably affected by the contribution of cool evolved stars. We studied the O-rich star R Peg and the C-rich star V Oph, using respectively the VLTI/GRAVITY and VLTI/MIDI instruments. We interpret the data using grids of 1-D and 3-D dynamic model atmospheres.
We compare in a systematic way spectrometric, photometric and mid-infrared (VLTI/MIDI) interferometric measurements with different types of model atmospheres. Self-consistent dynamic model atmospheres in particular were used to interpret in a consistent way the dynamic behavior of gas and dust. The results underline how the joint use of different kind of observations, as photometry, spectroscopy and interferometry, is essential to understand the atmospheres of pulsating C-rich AGB stars. The sample of C-rich stars discussed in this work provides crucial constraints for the atmospheric structure.
We describe the current, 9-spacecraft Interplanetary Network (IPN). The IPN detects about
325 gamma-ray bursts per year, of which about 100 are not localized by any other missions.
We give some examples of how the data, which are public, can be utilized.
The CRESST-II direct Dark Matter search is located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratories, Italy. CaWO4 crystals are used as scintillating targets for WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) interactions. They are operated as cryogenic calorimeters in combination with a second cryogenic detector used to measure the scintillation light produced in the target crystal. For each particle interaction, the combination of phonon and light signals provides an event by event discrimination which allows to distinguish known particles (alphas, betas, gammas, neutrons) from the expected signal of WIMPs. A major upgrade of the setup comprises modifications of the shielding, installation of a muon-veto, and new read out electronics, as well as a new detector-support structure to accommodate up to 33 detector modules, i.e. 10 kg of target mass. The experiment was thereafter successfully commissioned in 2007. Data obtained during this commissioning phase from 2 detector modules are presented here. Combining the data collected with these two detector modules with data from one single module obtained during the CRESST-I phase, the experiment could already place a limit of ~6 × 10-7 pb for the spin independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section at a WIMP mass of ~60 GeV/c2.
CRESST is an experiment for the direct detection of dark matter particles via nuclear recoils.
The CRESST detectors, based on CaWO4 scintillating crystals, are able to discriminate γ and β background by simultaneously measuring the light and phonon signals produced by particle interactions. The discrimination of the background is possible because of the different light output (Quenching Factor, QF) for nuclear and electron recoils.
In this article a measurement is shown, aimed at the determination of the QFs of the different nuclei (O, Ca, W) of the detector crystal at 40–60 mK using an 11 MeV neutron beam produced
at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium in Garching (MLL).
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy is associated with a decrease in seizure frequency in partial-onset seizure patients. Initial trials suggest that it may be an effective treatment, with few side-effects, for intractable depression.
An open, uncontrolled European multi-centre study (D03) of VNS therapy was conducted, in addition to stable pharmacotherapy, in 74 patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Treatment remained unchanged for the first 3 months; in the subsequent 9 months, medications and VNS dosing parameters were altered as indicated clinically.
The baseline 28-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-28) score averaged 34. After 3 months of VNS, response rates (⩾50% reduction in baseline scores) reached 37% and remission rates (HAMD-28 score <10) 17%. Response rates increased to 53% after 1 year of VNS, and remission rates reached 33%. Response was defined as sustained if no relapse occurred during the first year of VNS after response onset; 44% of patients met these criteria. Median time to response was 9 months. Most frequent side-effects were voice alteration (63% at 3 months of stimulation) and coughing (23%).
VNS therapy was effective in reducing severity of depression; efficacy increased over time. Efficacy ratings were in the same range as those previously reported from a USA study using a similar protocol; at 12 months, reduction of symptom severity was significantly higher in the European sample. This might be explained by a small but significant difference in the baseline HAMD-28 score and the lower number of treatments in the current episode in the European study.
Two-dimensional numerical device simulations investigate the influence of grain boundaries on the performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells focussing on the question whether or not grain boundaries can improve the efficiency of those devices. The results unveil the following statements: (i) The mere introduction of a grain boundary by adding localized defects into a device that has a high performance from the beginning is not beneficial. (ii) Polycrystalline solar cells can outperform monocrystalline ones, if the total number of defects is equal in both devices. I.e. a given number of recombination centers is better dealt with if these defects are concentrated at the grain boundary rather than homogeneously distributed in the bulk. (iii) A significant improvement of carrier collection via the grain boundaries is found if the bulk of the devices is assumed as relatively poor. In this situation, addition of defects that are not much recombination ac-tive but provide a large charge density at the grain boundaries can improve the device performance. (iv) Passivation of grain boundaries by an internal band offset in the valence band is effective only if the internal barrier amounts at least to 300 meV.
We compare the electroluminescence (EL) of three polycrystalline ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 heterojunction solar cells with similar bandgaps but different open circuit voltages, indicating a difference in the electronic quality of the absorber. Temperature dependent electroluminescence measurements reveal that all cells feature transitions from donor-acceptor pair recombination at lower temperatures to band to band recombination at higher temperatures. However, the less efficient cells show a longer transition range with donor-acceptor pair recombination still apparent at room temperature. The thus broadened room temperature luminescence is one effect which reduces the open circuit voltage of the devices below the Shockley-Queisser-limit. The other effect is the existence of non-radiative recombination currents, which determine the efficiency of the device as light emitting diode. To quantify the open circuit voltage losses, we use reciprocity relations between electroluminescent and photovoltaic action of solar cells, which allow us to predict the light emitting diode efficiency. Measurements support the theory and show that Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells reach external LED efficiencies approaching.
The epitaxial thickening of a thin polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) film (seed layer) is a promising approach to realize an absorber layer of a poly-Si thin-film solar cell on glass. Such cell concept combines the benefits of crystalline Si and the high potential for cost reduction of a thin-film technology. Here, we discuss the influence of post-deposition treatments on the properties of absorber layers grown by electron-cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) and the solar cell performance, respectively. After the absorber growth and prior to the emitter deposition, defect annealing was used to improve the structural quality of the absorber layers and to increase the doping efficiency. For this, we used rapid thermal annealing (RTA) processes as well as thermal annealing in a conventional quartz furnace. In order to avoid damaging of the glass, only short annealing times (up to 400 s) were applied at temperatures of up to 950 °C. Defect passivation treatments were carried out at temperatures of about 350 °C to passivate the remaining defects in the films by hydrogen. The impact of both treatments on the solar cell parameter will be discussed. Excellent VOC's of up to 361 mV were achieved without hydrogenation showing the high potential of ECRCVD-grown absorbers. Applying both treatments resulted so far in an increase of VOC of about 400 mV. Because of the fact, that both post-treatments (particularly hydrogenation) are still not yet optimized, further improvements can be expected.
The paper discusses the electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2–based heterojunction solar cells with a special focus on questions which at present are not satisfactorily understood. First, we discuss an apparent quantitative contradiction between measured concentrations of recombination centers in the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber material and the actual recombination rate in the solar cells. We propose, as a possible explanation for that observation, that the defect concentration in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 is spatially inhomogeneous with a systematic increase towards the heterojunction interface. Second, we address the issue of electronic metastabilities in ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 heterojunctions and, especially, in devices that use alternative buffer materials instead of CdS. Starting from a brief review of the experimentally observed types of metastabilities, we demonstrate by thermally stimulated capacitance measurements that a specific type of metastability that severely limits the performance of solar cells with non-CdS buffers is present also in high-efficiency standard devices though it has virtually no influence on the output parameters in the latter case. A possible explanation of this type of metastability points to a metastable defect reaction localized in the close to surface region of Cu(In,Ga)Se2. At the moment we cannot propose conclusive models for both open questions. However, we can localize the answers to both problems in the close-to-surface region of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber.
We investigate radiation-induced defects in high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS/ZnO heterojunction solar cells after 1-MeV electron and 4-MeV proton irradiation. We use electron and proton fluences of more than 1018 cm−2 and up to 1014 cm−2, respectively. The irradiation experiments performed at three independent electron irradiation facilities consistently prove the superior radiation resistance of these Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices compared to other types of solar cells. The reduction of the solar cell efficiency in all experiments is predominantly caused by a loss ΔVOC of the open circuit voltage VOC. An analytical model describes ΔVOC in terms of radiation-induced defects enhancing recombination in the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber material. From our model we extract the defect introduction rates for recombination centers in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 for the respective particles and energies. Isochronal annealing steps fully recover VOC of the irradiated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Exposure to temperatures of approx. 400 K are sufficient to restore the initial VOC within less than 5 %, even after excessive irradiation. The annealing process displays an activation energy of EA = 1.1 eV. Admittance spectroscopy directly reveals the generation and the annealing of radiation-induced defects.
A reinvestigation of the phase diagram of the Cu–In–Se system along the quasi-binary
cut In2Se3–Cu2Se reveals an existence range of the chalcopyrite
α-phase that is much narrower than commonly accepted. The presence of 0.1% of
Na or replacement of In by Ga at the at.% level widens the existence range of the
α-phase, towards In- and Ga-rich compositions. We also investigate the
interplay between phase segregation and junction formation in polycrystalline
Cu(In, Ga)Se2 films. Here, we attribute the band bending observed at bare surfaces
of the films to a positively charged surface acting as a driving force for the
formation of a Cu-poor surface defect layer via Cu-electromigration. The
electrical properties of this defect layer are different from those found for the
bulk β-phase. We suggest that Cu-depletion is self-limited at the observed
In/(In+Cu) surface composition of 0.75 because further Cu-depletion would require a
structural transformation. Capacitance measurements reveal two types of junction
metastabilities: one resulting from local defect relaxation, invoked to explain a
light-induced increase of the open-circuit voltage of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells,
and one due to Cu-electromigration.
The conditions for an almost perfect growth of smooth Cr (001) films on an iron whisker substrate have been investigated by means of reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The exchange interaction between 20 Monolayer thick Fe (001) films separated from a bulk whisker Fe (001) substrate by a variable number of Cr (001) Monolayers (ML) has been investigated by means of Brillouin light scattering experiments (BLS). These experiments show unambiguously that the exchange coupling strength between the iron film and the iron whisker can be described by a short wavelength oscillatory term superposed on a slowly varying antiferromagnetic background. The BLS data enabled one to separate the bilinear and the biquadratic contributions to the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling terms. Both the bilinear and the biquadratic coupling strengths exhibited a short period oscillatory dependence on the Cr interlayer thickness (∼2 Monolayers). Maxima in the bilinear antiferromagnetic coupling strength occur for an odd number of Cr Monolayers. This observation is not in agreement with first principles calculations. The first phase inversion has been found to occur between 4 and 5 ML of Cr.
Circular Dichroic X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (CDXPS) experiments have been performed on the 2p core level spectra of polycrystalline Fe film which was magnetized by a low excitation field. The ability to perform the CDXPS experiments in a non remanent mode at a photon energy of 2100 eV opens new and interesting possibilities for the MCD technique in the study of surface and interface Magnetism. Our work on this polycrystalline iron gives some new insights into the understanding of the MCD Mechanism. First results show a similar angular variation for the measured asymmetry, as those observed on a Fe bcc (100) single crystal remanently magnetized in the  direction. Our results make clear that the parameters governing the behaviour of the asymmetry factor (A) are not completely described by the relative direction of the Magnetization (M) with the polarization vector of the incident beam (q) and the direction of detection of the photoelectrons (z). The specific outcoming of this work is to clearly show that this behaviour of A is not connected to the crystalline structure of the film for our geometries.
Although Much has been published on giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) in co-deposited thin films [1–4], only little  has been published on the structure-property relationships limiting the effect. Here, we report the results of microstructural characterization of NiFeAg thin films that exhibit a GMR effect. The as-deposited films show a sizeable GMR effect. The Maximum GMR effect observed was 6.4% with -4k0e FWHM of the 6P/P peak. Upon annealing these films, the GMR at first increases, and then decreases. We present microstructural evidence from TEM and XRD, amongst other techniques, which shows that this is a consequence of the initial NiFeAg thin film agglomerating into NiFe grains in a predominantly Ag segregant Matrix. Upon extended annealing, excessive grain growth leads to a decrease in the GMR as predicted by the model of Berkowitz, et al. .
Spin-Polarized Metastable Atom Deexcitation (SPMDS) and Electron Capture (ECS) Spectroscopies probe the exponential tails of electronic wavefunctions extending from the surface into the vacuum, and are consequently extremely sensitive to the surface-vacuum interface. The use of SPMDS to probe the near-surface vacuum magnetization of Ni (l 10) and Fe (l 10) and the dramatic changes that result upon exposure to ambient gases is discussed, as is the use of ECS and Spin-Polarized Electron EMission Spectroscopy (SPEES) to determine the ferromagnetic and critical behavior of surfaces and ultra-thin epitaxial systems.
With spin polarized electron spectroscopies, we have investigated ordered Gd (0001) films deposited on W (110). The photoemission features of the gadolinium 5d surface state, the 4f levels, and the background exhibit considerable spin polarization along the same direction in the plane of the film, indicative of ferromagnetic coupling between the surface and the bulk. The 4f spin polarized photoemission data provides strong evidence that the surface 4f polarization differs from the bulk 4f polarization for Gd (000l). Our temperature dependent measurements with spin polarized secondary electron spectroscopy conclusively establishes that the surface of clean Gd (0001) possesses a perpendicular polarization component which persists to an enhanced surface Curie temperature. SMall amounts of contamination at the surface result in the disappearance of the perpendicular component and, therefore, a more perfect ferromagnetic coupling between the surface and the bulk.
Magnetic properties and roughness of sputter-deposited Pt/CO films strongly depend on preparation conditions such as rf input power, underlayers and their etching. Large coercivity was obtained by using suitable underlayers such as ZnO and adjusting input power higher for Co and lower for Pt. The coercivity in Pt/CO films seems to depend on the roughness of the surface and/or the layer interface as well as the perpendicular anisotropy.