To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To assess the clinical effectiveness of a universal screening program compared with a risk factor–based program in reducing the rates of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among admitted patients at the Ottawa Hospital.
Ottawa Hospital, a multicenter tertiary care facility with 3 main campuses, approximately 47,000 admissions per year, and 1,200 beds.
From January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2007 (24 months), admitted patients underwent risk factor–based MRSA screening. From January 1, 2008 through August 31, 2009 (20 months), all patients admitted underwent universal MRSA screening. To measure the effectiveness of this intervention, segmented regression modeling was used to examine monthly nosocomial MRSA incidence rates per 100,000 patient-days before and during the intervention period. To assess secular trends, nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection, mupirocin prescriptions, and regional MRSA rates were investigated as controls.
The nosocomial MRSA incidence rate was 46.79 cases per 100,000 patient-days, with no significant differences before and after intervention. The MRSA detection rate per 1,000 admissions increased from 9.8 during risk factor–based screening to 26.2 during universal screening. A total of 644 new nosocomial MRSA cases were observed in 1,448,488 patient-days, 323 during risk factor–based screening and 321 during universal screening. Secular trends in C. difficile infection rates and mupirocin prescriptions remained stable after the intervention whereas population-level MRSA rates decreased.
At Ottawa Hospital, the introduction of universal MRSA admission screening did not significantly affect the rates of nosocomial MRSA compared with risk factor–based screening.
We present two cases of dental implant migration into the maxillary sinus, with subsequent removal via image-guided, transnasal endoscopy.
Presentation of clinical cases, together with a literature review of alternative surgical techniques, the theories behind implant migration, and the benefits of an image-guided, endoscopic approach.
One patient was asymptomatic, and the other had begun to experience sinogenic symptoms after implant displacement. Both patients presented to the ENT clinic, and both underwent the BrainLab protocol to generate computed tomography images for navigational reconstruction. Transnasal endoscopy was carried out with this guidance, and the implants were removed successfully in both cases. Previously used surgical techniques such as the Caldwell-Luc procedure or extraction through the tooth socket have higher rates of conversion to open procedures, more damage to the nasal sinuses and higher post-operative complication rates compared with the transnasal endoscopic approach.
Both patients underwent successful removal of their migrated dental implants with no complications, and neither required any follow-up intervention.
To assess the impact of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on nosocomial transmission and costs.
Monthly MRSA detection rates were measured from April 1, 2000, through December 31, 2005. Time series analysis was used to identify changes in MRSA detection rates, and decision analysis was used to compare the costs of detection by PCR and by culture.
A 1,200-bed, tertiary care hospital in Canada.
Admitted patients at high risk for MRSA colonization. MRSA detection using culture-based screening was compared with a commercial PCR assay.
The mean monthly incidence of nosocomial MRSA colonization or infection was 0.37 cases per 1,000 patient-days. The time-series model indicated an insignificant decrease of 0.14 cases per 1,000 patient-days per month (95% confidence interval, —0.18 to 0.46) after the introduction of PCR detection (P = .39). The mean interval from a reported positive result until contact precautions were initiated decreased from 3.8 to 1.6 days (P<.001). However, the cost of MRSA control increased from Can$605,034 to Can$771,609. Of 290 PCR-positive patients, 120 (41.4%) were placed under contact precautions unnecessarily because of low specificity of the PCR assay used in the study; these patients contributed 37% of the increased cost. The modeling study predicted that the cost per patient would be higher with detection by PCR (Can$96) than by culture (Can$67).
Detection of MRSA by the PCR assay evaluated in this study was more costly than detection by culture for reducing MRSA transmission in our hospital. The cost benefit of screening by PCR varies according to incidences of MRSA colonization and infection, the predictive values of the assay used, and rates of compliance with infection control measures.
To review experience with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in tertiary acute-care teaching hospitals on the Canadian prairies.
Retrospective review for a 36-month period, 1990 through 1992.
Five tertiary acute-care teaching hospitals in three Canadian prairie provinces.
MRSA isolates and susceptibility were identified through the clinical microbiology laboratory at each institution. For each patient, data collected included duration of institutional residence prior to isolation, patient ethnic background, age, sex, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Epidemiologic typing of strains used restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Two hundred fifty-nine MRSA isolates were identified in 135 patients during the 36 months, with substantial institutional variation in number of isolates. No consistent increase in yearly numbers of isolates was apparent. Patients usually had MRSA identified at admission (62%); only one of five centers had the majority of isolates acquired nosocomially. Patients with MRSA present at admission were more frequently of aboriginal (First Nations) ethnicity (62% compared with 14% of nosocomial; P<0.001). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 167 isolates from 135 patients revealed 46 different strains with little interprovincial or inter-institutional identity of strains.
MRSA isolated in patients in tertiary care institutions in these three Canadian provinces usually is acquired prior to admission. A disproportionate number of isolates are identified in aboriginal Canadians. Epidemiologic typing was consistent with a polyclonal origin of MRSA in this geographic area.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.