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The level scheme and electromagnetic properties of 148Pm have been studied using 149Sm(d, 3He) and 148Nd(p, nγ) reactions. Combining these measurements with estimates for E2/M1 decay branching ratios leads to the tentative conclusion that 148Pmg,m are in thermal equilibrium during the s-process. The branch at 148Pm then leads to an inferred s-process neutron density of 3 × 108 cm−3.
Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress.
We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3–5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2). The mothers completed the Conners’ Hyperactivity Scale, Early Symptomatic Syndrome Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examination Questionnaire (ESSENCE-Q), Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess child neuropsychiatric symptoms. Covariates included child's sex, age, birthweight, gestational age, socioeconomic deprivation levels, maternal age, parity, smoking status during pregnancy, gestational diabetes and maternal concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using State Anxiety of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), respectively.
Children exposed to prenatal maternal very severe obesity had significantly higher scores in the Conners’ Hyperactivity Scale; ESSENCE-Q; total sleep problems in CSHQ; hyperactivity, conduct problems and total difficulties scales of the SDQ; higher externalizing and total problems, anxious/depressed, aggressive behaviour and other problem syndrome scores and higher DSM-oriented affective, anxiety and ADHD problems in CBCL. Prenatal maternal very severe obesity remained a significant predictor of child neuropsychiatric problems across multiple scales independent of demographic factors, prenatal factors and maternal concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Prenatal maternal very severe obesity is a strong predictor of increased neuropsychiatric problems in early childhood.
The user-managed inventory (UMI) is an emerging idea for enhancing the current distribution and maintenance system for emergency medical countermeasures (MCMs). It increases current capabilities for the dispensing and distribution of MCMs and enhances local/regional preparedness and resilience. In the UMI, critical MCMs, especially those in routine medical use (“dual utility”) and those that must be administered soon after an incident before outside supplies can arrive, are stored at multiple medical facilities (including medical supply or distribution networks) across the United States. The medical facilities store a sufficient cache to meet part of the surge needs but not so much that the resources expire before they would be used in the normal course of business. In an emergency, these extra supplies can be used locally to treat casualties, including evacuees from incidents in other localities. This system, which is at the interface of local/regional and federal response, provides response capacity before the arrival of supplies from the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) and thus enhances the local/regional medical responders' ability to provide life-saving MCMs that otherwise would be delayed. The UMI can be more cost-effective than stockpiling by avoiding costs due to drug expiration, disposal of expired stockpiled supplies, and repurchase for replacement.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:408-414)
This paper derives the limiting distributions of alternative jackknife instrumental variables (JIV) estimators and gives formulas for accompanying consistent standard errors in the presence of heteroskedasticity and many instruments. The asymptotic framework includes the many instrument sequence of Bekker (1994, Econometrica 62, 657–681) and the many weak instrument sequence of Chao and Swanson (2005, Econometrica 73, 1673–1691). We show that JIV estimators are asymptotically normal and that standard errors are consistent provided that as n→∞, where Kn and rn denote, respectively, the number of instruments and the concentration parameter. This is in contrast to the asymptotic behavior of such classical instrumental variables estimators as limited information maximum likelihood, bias-corrected two-stage least squares, and two-stage least squares, all of which are inconsistent in the presence of heteroskedasticity, unless Kn/rn→0. We also show that the rate of convergence and the form of the asymptotic covariance matrix of the JIV estimators will in general depend on the strength of the instruments as measured by the relative orders of magnitude of rn and Kn.
Modern time-domain surveys have demonstrated that finding variable objects is relatively straightforward. The problem now is one of selecting and following up discoveries. With even larger-scale surveys on the horizon, the magnitude of the problem will inevitably increase. One way to prepare for the coming deluge is to have realistic estimates of the numbers of potential detections so that resources can be developed to meet that need. To that end, astronomers at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have begun a project to characterize the variable sky in terms of type of objects, distribution on the sky and range of variation.
Typical commercial and experimental oxide glass fibers are made from silicate melts, which have viscosities of log 2.5 to log 3.0 poise at the forming temperatures. But, strong fibers were recently also made from melts having viscosities of 0.5 to 2.0 poise, and a sharp melting point rather than a viscosity that gradually changes with temperature. This paper analyzes the various mechanisms of fiber formation, and proposes an answer to the apparent inconsistencies. In this context, the present paper bridges recent advances in the disciplines of advanced inorganic fibers , composite reinforcing fibers [2, 3, 4], and fiber glass reinforcements .
This work describes the study of the surface reduction of ceria zirconia mixed oxides (CeZrO) as either thin films or powders, both with and without Pt present. XPS was used to measure the composition of the surface and the oxidation states of all metals contained within the material. The thin films of CeZrO showed little reactivity towards the reducing conditions used. Grazing incidence angle XRD showed the presence of Ce0.75Zr0.25O2. The thin films prepared with Pt showed that surface reduction of Ce4+ occurred under reducing conditions. The size of the Pt clusters was also determined from the data. The Pt was found to always exist in the metallic state. The Zr4+ was not seen to change during all treatments. For the powder samples the Ce4+ was readily reduced to approximately 60%. Pt was found to be initially oxidised with the % of metallic Pt increasing with reduction temperature. Again no change in the Zr was observed.
The present capability of obtaining ohmic contacts to GaAs over a range of doping levels is reviewed. Possible models of transport across the metalsemiconductor interface are discussed and contact techniques are described. The widely used Au—Ge alloyed contact is seen to have a spatially inhomogeneous interface which appears to control its contact resistance. The most satisfactory process at this time is to alloy into a previously fabricated heavily doped layer.
The influence of growth sequence on optical and structural properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD) grown by atomic layer epitaxy was investigated systematically. It is found that growth interruption (GI) after In is more effective than non-GI after In in reducing the density of coalescent dots, and reducing the dot width distribution of the QDs. Meanwhile, dot densities are approximately doubled by non-GI after In. GI after As reduces dot height distribution compared with non-GI after As. Generally, GI after In plays a more critical role than GI after As does in formation of the QDs. The sample grown with In/GI/As/GI sequence shows the lowest 300 K-photoluminescence (PL) linewidth (∼30 meV), high PL peak separation between ground and 1st excited level (∼80 meV). From the result, it is known that In/GI/As/GI is the favorable growth sequence among the sample sets. Temperature dependence of PL linewidth shows that the In/GI/As/GI sample is insensitive to cryostat temperature and it is attributed to weak wetting effect. Thinner wetting layers shown in a cross-sectional TEM image supports this.
We studied electron resonant tunneling and Coulomb blockade in nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) with double SiO2 barriers, which is fabricated in-situ in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. In capacitance-voltage measurements, discrete capacitance peaks due to electron resonant tunneling into energy levels of nc-Si dots and Coulomb blockade charging in nc-Si dots have been observed at room temperature. For smaller dots, capacitance peaks are more distinct due to the stronger Coulomb blockade effect. Meanwhile, conductance plateau in the region of capacitance peaks are also observed due to the charging effect in nc-Si dots. Experimental results are in agreement with theoretical evaluation based on the model of Coulomb blockade.
We have fabricated highly resistive materials PrBa2 (Cu1-xMx) 3O7 (M=Al, Ga, x = 0.20) by doping metals Ga and Al on PrBa2Cu3O7(PBCO). X-ray data indicated no significant second phases in substituting Cu by Al or Ga up to 20%.The electrical resistivity of these materials were three to four orders in magnitude higher than PBCO at 200K, which may give an effective potential barrier to YBCO in high Tc S-I-S Josephson junction. Epitaxial thin films of these materials were grown using KrF excimer laser on LAO (110) single crystal substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were deployed to study the crystal orientation, epitaxy and roughness of the single crystal thin films. Micro Raman spectroscopy was carried out to investigate the dopant site in PBCO.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can cause serious disease in human beings. Ruminants are considered to be the main reservoir of human STEC infections. However, STEC have also been isolated from other domestic animals, wild mammals and birds. We describe a cross-sectional study of wild birds in northern England to determine the prevalence of E. coli-containing genes that encode Shiga toxins (stx1 and stx2) and intimin (eae), important virulence determinants of STEC associated with human disease. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified unique risk factors for the occurrence of each virulence gene in wild bird populations. The results of our study indicate that while wild birds are unlikely to be direct sources of STEC infections, they do represent a potential reservoir of virulence genes. This, coupled with their ability to act as long-distance vectors of STEC, means that wild birds have the potential to influence the spread and evolution of STEC.