To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Introduction: Ultrasonography (US), performed in the Emergency Department (ED) by Emergency Physicians, is well established. Educational studies have shown some promise in training paramedics in US use. We have developed and piloted a novel curriculum for paramedic US education. Methods: Based on an informal needs assessment, an US curriculum for paramedics was developed to include: Basic principles, Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST), cardiac, and vascular access. Participants included ED-based and pre-hospital paramedics including all paramedics with critical care training who routinely perform vascular access and procedural sedation within our ED. Comparisons were made using paired non-parametric tests (GraphPad). Results: Participants (N=9) were provided pre- reading materials prior to completing a 6-hour course, consisting of a mix of didactic and practical sessions with live models and vascular access phantoms. Each module was introduced with a 30 minute didactic session, led by an Emergency Physician trained in US, followed immediately by a 1 hour hands-on session lead by either an Emergency Physician or an Emergency Medicine Resident at a learner to instructor ratio of 3:1. At the end of the course, participants were asked to complete a short 10 minute survey that included (1) an assessment of the course quality with regard to preparatory material and course content/delivery (4 point Likert scale; excellent, good, fair, poor); (2) self reported US knowledge pre and post course on a scale of 1-10 (10 high, 1 low); (3) general yes/no questions related to the future of ECCU paramedical and (4) a subjective written section for additional comments. All participants rated the content favourably: 97% scoring it as excellent, and 3% as good. The participants median self-reported US knowledge score increased from 2/10 (IQR 2-3) to 8/10 (IQR 7.25-8; p=0.009) post- course. All comments from the text field were positive in nature. Conclusion: We report a paramedic US course curriculum, which when piloted resulted in high learner satisfaction and a high rate of self reported improvement in US knowledge. Further study will include an assessment of knowledge acquisition and practical performance. Future modifications in our curriculum will be based on needs assessment and may include additional modules.
Background: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are noninvasive and reliable tools for mapping eloquent cortex and white matter tracks prior to brain surgery. In this case, fMRI and DTI were used to inform the surgical approach in the resection of a deep cavernous malformation near the right lentiform nucleus. Post-surgery, the patient developed a fluid collection in the frontal cortex that applied pressure to M1, which led to reorganization of the motor cortex. Methods: The tasks included finger tapping, arm rubbing, and lip licking. All fMRI analyses were performed using BrainVoyager. Tensors were tracked from 20-direction diffusion MR images using DSIStudio. Results: An fMRI scan one-month pre-surgery revealed activation in M1 for the three tasks. A six-month follow-up scan revealed motor activation had been displaced by the fluid collection. A ten-month follow-up scan revealed that activation had shifted from its original location to more lateral and anterior regions. DTI revealed atrophy in the tracts through the insula, but increase in tracts through the lentiform nucleus. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that components of motor processing subserved by M1 can be taken over by adjacent regions, and that the rapid onset of pressure can lead to reorganization in a relatively short time period.
Severe mortality (93%) of overwintering larvae of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was recorded in March 2016 from green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (Oleaceae), in Syracuse, New York, United States of America. In contrast, larvae collected from the same area in January exhibited <1% mortality. A strong cold front moved across New York from 13 to 15 February 2016 with temperatures plunging to nearly −40 °C in some areas. In many regions of New York where A. planipennis is established, temperatures dropped well below the reported supercooling point of overwintering larvae. To evaluate whether the extreme cold was linked to extensive mortality of larvae, trees were sampled from four areas that experienced a gradient of minimum temperatures on 14 February 2016. Overwintering mortality varied from ⩽5% to 93% among regions, with lowest survival in the coldest regions. When excised from their galleries, dead larvae were discoloured with brown spots or had black necrotic tissue in the spiracles or foregut. This is the first report of extensive cold-related mortality for this species in North America and highlights the stochastic nature of climatic extremes on invasive species populations.
Whole apples have not been previously implicated in outbreaks of foodborne bacterial illness. We investigated a nationwide listeriosis outbreak associated with caramel apples. We defined an outbreak-associated case as an infection with one or both of two outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes highly related by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) from 1 October 2014 to 1 February 2015. Single-interviewer open-ended interviews identified the source. Outbreak-associated cases were compared with non-outbreak-associated cases and traceback and environmental investigations were performed. We identified 35 outbreak-associated cases in 12 states; 34 (97%) were hospitalized and seven (20%) died. Outbreak-associated ill persons were more likely to have eaten commercially produced, prepackaged caramel apples (odds ratio 326·7, 95% confidence interval 32·2–3314). Environmental samples from the grower's packing facility and distribution-chain whole apples yielded isolates highly related to outbreak isolates by wgMLST. This outbreak highlights the importance of minimizing produce contamination with L. monocytogenes. Investigators should perform single-interviewer open-ended interviews when a food is not readily identified.
We review the current status and future prospects of the PLANET collaboration, an international team of astronomers performing high-precision photometric monitoring of microlensing events. Our photometric precision and sampling is characterised and the suitability of the database for variable star studies is discussed. Preliminary results on K-giant stability are presented.
Psychiatric disorders commonly emerge during the first year following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is not clear whether these disorders soon remit or persist for long periods post-injury. This study aimed to examine, prospectively: (1) the frequency, (2) patterns of co-morbidity, (3) trajectory, and (4) risk factors for psychiatric disorders during the first 5 years following TBI.
Participants were 161 individuals (78.3% male) with moderate (31.2%) or severe (68.8%) TBI. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, administered soon after injury and 3, 6 and 12 months, and 2, 3, 4 and 5 years post-injury. Disorder frequencies and generalized estimating equations were used to identify temporal relationships and risk factors.
In the first 5 years post-injury, 75.2% received a psychiatric diagnosis, commonly emerging within the first year (77.7%). Anxiety, mood and substance-use disorders were the most common diagnostic classes, often presenting co-morbidly. Many (56.5%) experienced a novel diagnostic class not present prior to injury. Disorder frequency ranged between 61.8 and 35.6% over time, decreasing by 27% [odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65–0.83] with each year post-injury. Anxiety disorders declined significantly over time (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84), whilst mood and substance-use disorder rates remained stable. The strongest predictors of post-injury disorder were pre-injury disorder (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.41–4.25) and accident-related limb injury (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.03–3.07).
Findings suggest the first year post-injury is a critical period for the emergence of psychiatric disorders. Disorder frequency declines thereafter, with anxiety disorders showing greater resolution than mood and substance-use disorders.
Piglets reared in swine production in the USA undergo painful procedures that include castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and identification with ear notching or tagging. These procedures are usually performed without pain mitigation. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in 1- to 28-day-old piglets undergoing these procedures. The National Pork Board funded project to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in piglets. Recommendation development followed a defined multi-step process that included an evidence summary and estimates of the efficacies of interventions. The results of a systematic review of the interventions were reported in a companion paper. This manuscript describes the recommendation development process and the final recommendations. Recommendations were developed for three interventions (CO2/O2 general anesthesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and lidocaine) for use during castration. The ability to make strong recommendations was limited by low-quality evidence and strong certainty about variation in stakeholder values and preferences. The panel strongly recommended against the use of a CO2/O2 general anesthesia mixture, weakly recommended for the use of NSAIDs and weakly recommended against the use of lidocaine for pain mitigation during castration of 1- to 28-day-old piglets.
US public health laboratories began reporting Escherichia coli O157 isolates to CDC in 1996. We describe temporal and geographical patterns of isolates reported from 1996 to 2011 and demographics of persons whose specimens yielded isolates. We calculated annual E. coli O157 isolation rates/100 000 persons by patient's state of residence, county of residence, age, and sex using census data. The average annual isolation rate was 0·84. The average isolation rate in northern states (1·52) was higher than in southern states (0·43). Counties with ⩾76% rural population had a lower isolation rate (0·67) than counties with ⩽25%, 26–50%, and 51–75% rural populations (0·81, 0·92, and 0·81, respectively). The highest isolation rate (3·19) was in children aged 1–4 years. Infections were seasonal with 49% of isolates collected during July to September. Research into reasons for higher incidence in northern states and for seasonality could guide strategies to prevent illnesses.
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are increasingly detected, but sources are not well established. We summarize outbreaks to 2010 in the USA. Single-aetiology outbreaks were defined as ⩾2 epidemiologically linked culture-confirmed non-O157 STEC infections; multiple-aetiology outbreaks also had laboratory evidence of ⩾2 infections caused by another enteric pathogen. Twenty-six states reported 46 outbreaks with 1727 illnesses and 144 hospitalizations. Of 38 single-aetiology outbreaks, 66% were caused by STEC O111 (n = 14) or O26 (n = 11), and 84% were transmitted through food (n = 17) or person-to-person spread (n = 15); food vehicles included dairy products, produce, and meats; childcare centres were the most common setting for person-to-person spread. Of single-aetiology outbreaks, a greater percentage of persons infected by Shiga toxin 2-positive strains had haemolytic uraemic syndrome compared with persons infected by Shiga toxin 1-only positive strains (7% vs. 0·8%). Compared with single-aetiology outbreaks, multiple-aetiology outbreaks were more frequently transmitted through water or animal contact.
To evaluate national data on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), device utilization, and antimicrobial resistance in long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs).
Design and Setting.
Comparison of data from LTACHs and from medical and medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in short-stay acute care hospitals reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) during 2010.
Rates of central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) as well as device utilization ratios were calculated. For each HAI, pathogen profiles and antimicrobial resistance prevalence were evaluated. Comparisons were made using Poisson regression and the Mood median and x2 tests.
In 2010, 104 LTACHs reported CLABSIs and 57 reported CAUTIs and VAP to the NHSN. Median CLABSI rates in LTACHs (1.25 events per 1,000 device-days reported; range, 0.0-5.96) were comparable to rates in major teaching ICUs and were higher than those in other ICUs. CAUTI rates in LTACHs (median, 2.61; range, 0.0-9.92) were higher and VAP rates (median, 0.0; range, 0.0-3.29) were generally lower than those in ICUs. Central line utilization in LTACHs was higher than that in ICUs, whereas urinary catheter and ventilator utilization was lower. Methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus CLABSIs (83%) and vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus faecalis CAUTIs (44%) were higher in LTACHs than in ICUs. Multidrug resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa CAUTIs (25%) was higher in LTACHs than in most ICUs.
CLABSIs and CAUTIs associated with multidrug-resistant organisms present a challenge in LTACHs. Continued HAI surveillance with pathogen-level data can guide prevention efforts in LTACHs.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33(10):993-1000
Though our knowledge of the circulation in this complex region is still incomplete, recent direct current measurements have identified four separate elements of the circulation which appear to undergo a seasonal variation of some sort. These are: (i) a summer-autumn maximum in the deep overflow of Norwegian Sea Deep Water across the Wyville-Thomson Ridge; (ii) an autumn minimum in the upper-ocean circulation around Rockall Bank, ascribed to Taylor Column processes; (iii) an autumn-winter maximum in the strength and breadth of the slope current along the European continental margin; (iv) a winter-spring maximum in eddy kinetic energy in the open waters of the Rockall Channel, and over the full depth range, as a function of windstress and stratification. The first three of these elements are of localised occurrence along the northern, western and eastern margins of the Channel and are described only briefly. The fourth process, encountered at a range of sites in the northeast Atlantic, is described in detail using a total data set of 68 instrument-years of direct current measurements recovered from the Rockall Channel in 1977–84. In the seasonally-varying 3–27 day (d) band of periods, eddy kinetic energies (kE) are shown to be depth-dependent in amplitude, but with little evidence of any significant phase-lag with either depth or location between the individual timeseries of kE estimates. These time-series demonstrate clearly and for the first time that the winterspring peaks in eddy kinetic energy lag the winter peaks in windstress by between 1 and 3 months. This phase-lag is explained as the cumulative result of wind forcing and eddy dissipation.
To estimate the proportion of patients who acquire methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) while in hospital and to identify risk factors associated with acquisition of MRSA.
Retrospective cohort study.
Adult patients discharged from 36 general specialty wards of 2 Scottish hospitals that had implemented universal screening for MRSA on admission.
Patients were screened for MRSA on discharge from hospital by using multisite body swabs that were tested by culture. Discharge screening results were linked to admission screening results. Genotyping was undertaken to identify newly acquired MRSA in MRSA-positive patients on admission.
Of the 5,155 patients screened for MRSA on discharge, 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.43–3.34) were found to be positive. In the subcohort screened on both admission and discharge (n = 2,724), 1.3% of all patients acquired MRSA while in hospital (incidence rate, 2.1/1,000 hospital bed-days in this cohort [95% CI, 1.5–2.9]), while 1.3% remained MRSA positive throughout hospital stay. Three risk factors for acquisition of MRSA were identified: age above 64 years, self-reported renal failure, and self-reported presence of open wounds. On a population level, the prevalence of MRSA colonization did not differ between admission and discharge.
Cross-transmission of MRSA takes place in Scottish hospitals that have implemented universal screening for MRSA. This study reinforces the importance of infection prevention and control measures to prevent MRSA cross-transmission in hospitals; universal screening for MRSA on admission will in itself not be sufficient to reduce the number of MRSA colonizations and subsequent MRSA infections.
Over the past 2 decades, multiple interventions have been developed to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). The CAUTI prevention guidelines of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee were recently revised.
To examine changes in rates of CAUTI events in adult intensive care units (ICUs) in the United States from 1990 through 2007.
Data were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System from 1990 through 2004 and the National Healthcare Safety Network from 2006 through 2007. Infection preventionists in participating hospitals used standard methods to identify all CAUTI events (categorized as symptomatic urinary tract infection [SUTI] or asymptomatic bacteriuria [ASB]) and urinary catheter–days (UC-days) in months selected for surveillance. Data from all facilities were aggregated to calculate pooled mean annual SUTI and ASB rates (in events per 1,000 UC-days) by ICU type. Poisson regression was used to estimate percent changes in rates over time.
Overall, 36,282 SUTIs and 22,973 ASB episodes were reported from 367 facilities representing 1,223 adult ICUs, including combined medical/surgical (505), medical (212), surgical (224), coronary (173), and cardiothoracic (109) ICUs. All ICU types experienced significant declines of 19%–67% in SUTI rates and 29%–72% in ASB rates from 1990 through 2007. Between 2000 and 2007, significant reductions in SUTI rates occurred in all ICU types except cardiothoracic ICUs.
Since 1990, CAUTI rates have declined significantly in all major adult ICU types in facilities reporting to the CDC. Further efforts are needed to assess prevention strategies that might have led to these decreases and to implement new CAUTI prevention guidelines.
Psychiatric disorders are common following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, few studies have examined the course of disorder development and the influence of pre-injury psychiatric history. The present study aimed to examine the frequency of, and association between, psychiatric disorders occurring pre- and post-injury, and to examine the post-injury course of disorders.
Participants were 102 adults (75.5% male) with predominantly moderate-severe TBI. Participants were initially assessed for pre-injury and current disorders, and reassessed at 3, 6 and 12 months post-injury using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID).
Over half of the participants had a pre-injury psychiatric disorder; predominantly substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders. In the first year post-injury, 60.8% of participants had a psychiatric disorder, commonly anxiety and mood disorders. Post-injury disorders were associated with the presence of a pre-injury history (p<0.01), with 74.5% of participants with a pre-injury psychiatric history experiencing a post-injury disorder, which commonly presented at initial assessment or in the first 6 months. However, 45.8% of participants without a pre-injury history developed a novel post-injury disorder, which was less likely to emerge at the initial assessment and generally developed later in the year.
Despite evidence that most post-injury psychiatric disorders represent the continuation of pre-existing disorders, a significant number of participants developed novel psychiatric disorders. This study demonstrates that the timing of onset may differ according to pre-injury history. There seem to be different trajectories for anxiety and depressive disorders. This research has important implications for identifying the time individuals are most at risk of psychiatric disorders post-injury.